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The Bulletin Of 2 mae oe, RY | 
the Amateur 

World list abbreviation 
Bull. amat. Ent. Soc. 

Index to 
The Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society 
Vol. 55 (1996) 
and to 
Invertebrate Conservation News (ICN) 

Nos. 19-21 (1996) 

Edited by 
Wayne Jarvis B.Sc. 

Index compiled by Jacqueline Ruffle 
Edited by Wayne Jarvis 

Published by 
The Amateur Entomologists' Society 
P.O. Box 8774, London SW7 5ZG 
ISSN 0266-836X 


Barclay, Maxwell 

iBIGYe4.TU V0 1 OYEIS) (EG lsat Oe eR PRR tien” SAP Mee tere «ono. 404. 45-46 
Best, Graham 

BNO i) Bi ee tastes mre ants geen oer een seta La tet neers higene ee coe eaiaeens woe aInas es ee ae .... 405: 04 
xen lodingstrea cle si: Wee eies a Meese le as ie a er 406: 64 
Moo-ving CXPCrienCe Kitt Naat saree font -eaee areas cen ceanvie shane odeesdegantesecatiae=nnents- 40D: DO 
Whatis in ‘a mame? (POEM) sss x. snacheas cacao: sohien sa s¢eesatesceoes temenen tee eee nee ee eee eee eee 404. 32 
Betts, Clive 

Living; carpet tile - 2.2. es). se ee ee re 404. 47 
Boireau, Patrick 

Winning the battle against pupal parasites! wre ne tee one. -cees-coee eae 405: 71-75 
Bragg, Phil 

Mantids & cockroaches meeting & study, Stroup ccc s0ici--:-c-aee 405: 56 

Brock, Paul D. and Seow-Choen, Francis 
Rare stick-insect from Singapore: Lopaphus brachypterus (de Haan) 1842 

with descriptions of the male and-egaw. ln ae ee 405: 79-82 
Carpenter, Ron 
Sandwich Bay Bird Observatory Trust Entomological Section ......... Dinas 404. 46 
Clausen, Mari Margaret 
Unidentified caterpillar in Saurland, Germany ..................... SES SSS ee 404. 38 
Cole, Stuart 
Insects of the Shimba Hill National Reserve, Kenya, April, 1994 ................. 405: 91-95 
Notes on the insects and other invertebrates of an urban house .............. .. 408: 217-22 
Cooper, John E. 
Invertebrate collection National Avian Research Centre, 

United ‘Arab Emiurates.......::.. gee eee eee. Aa Sh Aum eot eam 409. 256 
Observations of the Painted lady-in Avalide =x. sence cc eee 409. 289-90 

Crawford, Anthony 
Perching to advantage? The Purple hairstreak (Quercusia quercus): 

Observations during July/August 1996 on a common by the M25 .......... 409. 261-2 
Cronin, Alan (and D. MacNamera) 
Unusual foodplant: The Painted lady (Cynthia Cardui) ..........c.c.00c0cceeeeseess 409. 287-9 
Danby, Ilse 

Spanish phenomenon:— answers please ak. ice... cars .insse eee eeeeee 409. 262 

Dawson, M.]J. 

SPAM TODS 9 ead ees Gengavennscsn ce cucas cate ous hy eee Ootee CoRR uM ORERNE AN aac ae eee 405: 59-60 
Dickerson, Barry 

Brown argus (Aricia agestis) in Huntingdonshire (VC31) .........c.cccceeeeeeeeeee 404: 37-38 
Long-tailed blue (Lampides boeticus) in Kent ...........c.cccccccscecseoeceeneeestttveees 405: 75 
Eades, R.A. 

Dragonflies — food for hobbies? Some :aNSweT1s 404. 42 
Feathered ranunculus onvieard!” Ainkicineea ceed, See. eee 404. 22 

Eden, Steve 

MemMeAlANChHCODPEL, LYCACIG TAUPATAD A ij. cn csinc sso EWiinsteSiee seeds Rao Roek ans 409. 274-6 
Unwelcome visitors from Australia: Polistes Hymenoptera) ee 409. 263-4 
Ellis, George (sic. — should read Else, George) 

Speci leo" ICT: Pac a een one ae ee 409. 272-3 

Ellis, Hewett A. 
Observations on Microplitis ocellatae, Bouché (Braconidae: Microgastrinae), 
a gregarious endoparasite of the Poplar hawkmoth caterpillar, 

gar MR PROPTIUAININE Fels 2 inde osesanscsssucnnaeceumieheeteatt snecnadeecegest vecesusdsosesaveasas 408: 199-202 
Ellis, Jonathon 
BODINE ASSES ee ee ee neh lock irik 0) ea 404: 21 
Emmerson, Alan 
SMUIE Gif BSS TM TST POY Tc I pen me ee 407. 170 
Emmet, Maitland 
“UR EALTIET! LES acsearle 405: 57 
Flint, Sharon 
(GUD TPSRME ISITE, TG Bul SCe se a aga S sum le ie a en eRe eee 404: 49 

Gardiner, Brian 
Alleged overcollecting: 

could we have evidence and understanding please? .............cccceeeeeeeeeeee 408: 203-211 
aMOMeGmMersMeaG LO IMACCULALE TECOLGS ........:scececcccecdeveqnncncceesscosenstanceassessones 404. 44 
HOG Plamisr ero wal Owtall JATVAEC c....c..c1nerncneensiternoacenienroanenaacecnneadddacn had cceiies 404. 30 
Some notes on butterflies in Cambridge during 1995. ...............ccsccsessceeeeeee 400: 123-4 
Garrett, John B. 

Some observations on the Behavioul of the Hornet, Vespa crabro L. ......... 409. 249-53 
Gregory, John L. 

Notes and observations: Some unusual courtship behaviour ...............000. 408. 212 
Gunnell, Roberta 

Redaduurais-andiwashing lines = PArt 20.2..0..08 ices eicecdeqsccsestecdesecsonscendens 407. 185 
Guye, Michael G. 

Greyroiem tle SAS MeClleS (HUGANUS CCTUUS VL.) so nccaiseceosctuccetencseninecoscdesteeenaces 405: 60 
Harvey, Martin 

AES Area Conservation Representatives: An update (November 1995) ...... ICN 19: 3-4 
Mewismroniutie AES AGCA REPLESENLALIVES= o......-.00s.nceneccngeeeoadieoussesoeeneasneessons ICN 19: 9-11 
Hatto, Jeanette 

UMM AE ARIV AK Ol A-SITAMACS MONSLET |. ....2...ccedeczceesvenecsecsenneceestogsercesancecesresestes 409. 248 
Hay, John 

Goermus omncear Allan Poe: Fact OF fictioMm?® ......h.c.6.c-.cceorcveoes--denncierckoopone 409. 257-9 
Sheep nostril botfly (Oestrus ovis): Larval infestation of the conjunctiva 

2 2) TREGISUIIA « pBeorene hare eeecocceebeceac sc cc aUaee Seen Rec ere eco ee ee 404. 25-26 
Hayward, Roger 
Diese SRMAMISCOL —AaN UNUSUAL TECOLG coca secs ins aaacdeaddeeeeteddeoeeenesodeibtaths. abate 408: 212 
Hodge, Simon 
Occurrence of seaweed flies (Diptera: Coelopidae) at Hartlepool .............. 407. 186-8 


Huang, Hao 

Noteston! the)senusSizopierts in Ghina.....-)......be17 ne eee ee 405: 67-70 
Hughes, M.O. 

Interesting Notodontid moth found in north-west Somerset ....................... 409. 247 
Uncommon Sysphid found 'in:Conwy, Wales -2-...20. 22 24. 409. 286 

Irons, Stuart 
BDS Collective Knowledge Project update, Aeshna grandis, 

the: Brown awe /s6 fr ecto Stet We Fan os cee sascha Soa aero see a oe Oe MS AS 
Jarvis, Wayne 
Calg ne im SWCD righ 2 sos save ate thse sca gee fees ee Sets eee hae ae 495: 102 
ReporeoMmCoumci= W995 ooo aia secon cd eden Nee 409. 236 
SOME MOlES ON Me: SUMMNICK OLS. [kee eee nc shetacee sane ee ee 404. 27-28 
Legislation for the conservation and protection of invertebrates: 

the JCCBI policyssiateme nt e2 2 sii, ohect ee scree ss. sana see Se ee ICN 29: 3 
Recommendations for each of the above legislative purposes, 

as applied to terrestrial and freshwater invertebrates .................:1ecee00 ICN 29: 4-5 
Jenkins, Derek 
Large influx, of micrants in southern England: 2... 4 409. 276-7 

Johnson. Mark 
Great. Australian adventure Sica..6c8 oe eS eee 404: 16-20 

Joint Committee for the Conservation of British Invertebrates: see JCCBI 

Jones, Colin 

NG@w me cords fOr WALES tes orsth sre oes use ee RDA ten a See ee 404. 36 
Jones, Jerry 
Holidays*inSOuthiawe St BRamnGe taf e.k. te oat a 2a oe oak a 409. 270-2 

Jones, Richard A. 

Hanging around in the woods: Long-leggedness in a leaf beetle ............... 405: 61-64 
King, Gareth 
Etymology not.entomolOsy- Ssh isacls.csccdecocene oe aoe ena a eee ea 400: 131-2 

Korycinska, Anastasia 

MOSGUMtO Sarva oA Ae Re cae ae a cs en Ea ee nee ee 404: 11-13 
Koryszko, Jan 

FROPIMET MOL TECOTO ocris 5555 Sans cakcoane 2ac cnet pensions Ore ReN eRe kaon cee Sine 405: 66 
How long does a Devils. coach-horse Jive?’ «....250.. 0k s.cdencessth sc 405: 66 
Humming-bird hawkmoth in Staffordshire <<. cee. ccesecnencecateacce se etuenenene 405: 77 
Purple and White-letter hairstreak butterflies in Hem Heath Wood, 

StAtOna SITS Set a aaa en Mia eee valves cade eee 404. 49 
Rare find:at Wryley Common; Staffordshire... ....:..........:.csis.ccyaessecasee eee 404: 41 
Sugaring plates for moths and butterflies .........c/..c- Lt ek Ree 405: 90 
Uncommon moth at Park Hall Country Park, Staffordshire ....................... 400: 121 
Visit to Prees Heath and Whixall Moss, Shropshire .............005.....08.Hieesesapeees 405: 58 

Lamour, Michael 
Some observations on breeding Moon moths (Lepidoptera: Attacidae) 

= 22/52 | -c2eccodscaseete social eMBMEMRE ie aser delet RR rear Ee Re eee ee 400: 135-41 
Si Tar POPE ee SN ec acc ashe secach ce nae  BRSERS > Sasaine caste nocd inegeacdeedensenas 408: 233-30 
Lewis, Keith C. 
Locke, Andrew 
Re OME CRTC ASUIG Te OO oon Senin eaguatiesenena@egeebins / salad sshcaen ett demeunt 409. 237 
Lonsdale, David 
BemeemAMOMERepOlt LOL 1995 (oo ac.b soit. cctnessdeeqeicneddecesnsncrsueceneconsTesconensencenenes 409. 238-40 
Maddocks, John 
ee NRCS NTIS IN Ui 2 oe ones sca fede wncoa asecmdo cs av anatorsadeaaueitoeds can onnidestontsacsves 400: 124 
Madin, Don 
Reeiaemurts andiwasiine lines — Part 3 .......c..ssssccreusctennsveteceseevncdoeserserceeseens 407. 185 
Majerus, Michael E.N. 
Ladybird, ladybird, fly to my home! (or how to attract ladybirds 
Ie HOON MUU) Ma eG oe dads ian cd vx nies doa eaveravdet cnedleuevong Beodacsalecneertaeerses 405: 83-90 
Mann, Darren 
EES, GOES OE PELLN TS cL Re ea 404: 5-6 
McCann, Frank 
LEY? SITIO) SE CIC) LO ae ene ee 409. 253 
GESTOR! TNT POH TCHS an ere cee Ble ae EE ei See ee 409. 277 
INAS fan ceamfo OMAN ANE SINT S reac ca0 20s nsecsceusa ood aalnuttpteaptadaeuese ateepeends si iannsrensanaeeas use 404. 43 
MMe Wat AUP W TING IASO OW, 2. <2c6)c0..0encenns-cosnowasedouesiersdeceraliecsaseaceasonsvancencere 405: 65-66 
McCormick, Roy 
Fain NIN MIR PORE LOL LOIS oe o0.0. 50sec choc soecnctosdeoieacscnndese iacseipeseitsedensencesssenseges 407: 146-66 

McNamara, Don 

Long, hot summer of 1995. A note on Mellicta athalia (the Heath fritillary).. 408: 231-2 
Note on Bacillus rossius, the: Gorsican:stick-insect «..).i.. 60.80. eGi adds. 404: 31-32 
Sonor silver ¥- Note On AUl0graphG GAMMA. ....5 eho tee 404. 24 
Unusual foodplant: The Painted lady (Cynthia cardui) (with A. Cronin) .. 409. 287-9 
Unusual pairing: male Cinnabar (Callimorpha jacobaeae) and 

RMA eM CAMCMUGCE CO RAONILUIA) ih cstecucesssccvancseseccnucdsustcctoadgagaenuopessesses 408: 216 
Morton, Tony 
SS CUVEILIL Tap mLAS Pi UST 2 Taco 0 407. 167 
Nettleton, Guy 
GPS AMAOUN CLV INANITIA CISPAN) .Sy.ce.ccacsacesessdincseesssdadevsscesarsosicessnacevedecedavesn’e 405: 90-97 
Newnham, Tim 
Collection of the late Ronald John Gooseman of Bearsted, Kent ................ 407: 191-93 
Nicholls, Colin 
HiGTen meme NGTS | OCALI OMS a ees ceen cere Al he eae oko se abcess ela cave ade lexauecesbelawauaeansiutes 404: 38 
Owen, Denis F. 
rise neMtallror melanic: Peppered MOths ..........csc0sense$.deoneeertan Seas 408: 211 

Page, Bernard 

Hawkmoth larvae on wsinchaeskt sei.2 sch aes. See ee 406: 128 
Partridge, Bob 
Moths of Mepal additions for 1994 and 1995%-2s se eee 409. 205-8 
Pennington, Mike 
Redadmiralssand qwashine limes cc. tee erat eee 404. 2 
Phalan, Ben 
Red admiral attracted to: pale blue jeams\......4¢...:02:-ceicetoeses 2 OES 
Smallitenoiseshelitinkeaniyab cbnuatyyascs-.-u-.5- cree. cores eee 404. 14 
Picknell, Alvin 
Dragontlies!— food: for hobbies? Some AMSWELS -c:.22es.c- eee 2oesc ts ee eee 404: 42 
Pickup, Mark 
Some observations on the pairing and egg-laying habits of the 

Saturniid moth, Dictyoploca simld WestwOOd. 2... -.025.:-.0-<c-<6s5- ee 407. 184-5 
Pittman, Stuart 
BEIMMSTOME HIME CES *CLNOME Uy aise eee eee eile oe 405: 95 
Pitt-Payne, Michael 
Hummingbird haw kaos tm Ayles Duty. -nc..0.0-20-t Gece - ats soc cect eo eer 405: T7 
Plester, Leigh 
Additional correspondence on Swallowtail foodplants «0.0... 4006: 142 
AGmiraliblOwiir Onl COCLSe wera eee ik sor: 2s cc ccsen sok ch ee oe ... 406: 141 
In:Searchtok thie:4-1ol duaete west eclssieisuaktac cies ae 409. 260 
Raper, Chris 
Unusual/rare species seen in- South Oxfordshire .!:4.0.s.ics: decease 407. 143-5 
Rimington, Ted 
Notes:on the! reappearance of Lycaenid butterflies soe 407: 194-5 
Robinson, Neil A. 
Mining bee, Andrena humilis, evicting two earwigs from its nest-hole ..... 409: 269 

Rowlings, Matthew 
Cruel death for Peck’s skipper while the Harvester is collected nearby, 

Cheesequake State Park, New Jersey, USA, 10th August 1995 ................. 407. 108-70 
Graylingitreean the Ardeche, Pramee, 1004 as inlay on Scat: yarn tau 407: 188-90 
INtEf= SEMEN: COURUSIUTT Heche epee oh carer ea eae eee ote gee 407: 174 
Miydirsimino liana roa ek Woe es ss seca caxe ncn ccera ck ae cqitee AS ec ee 406: 129-30 
Nervous ibultertlies dm north-eastern USA cence coc-..c---eccteeakencuneges ca eee 400: 133-4 
Mh bidcoyy Zvovel JoyelnResad hiatal \elrinlez|alcycy Me meen we he eee RRR recmenncercne 4006: 124 
Roy, P. 

Noteston the Silkinoin) Rearer’s HanGboOk ess... 655 i nessclcgncen cons sne ete ceee eee 404. 29 

Sato, Sotaro 

BUTISHINES OF TVIATEA hag ee, ce eter cke ees nema ere Riv andaat ca dane « bisScemane Secor 404: 4-5 
Butterflies of the London suburbs from July to August 1993 ........0...cceee 404. 7-10 
Collecting moths in theisuburbs of Yokohama, Japan’ *.....2........00sccenee 404: 13-14 
Unusual matin bEehAaviGuinin SraSshO persis accienace cde tet cns seein ec shen eee ee 404: 10 

Seow-Choen, Francis 
Eggs found in a gynandromorph of the Malayan jungle nymph, 
Heteropteryx dilatata (Phasmida)):...<.s.ccs.ckc.dcsnapeeen stance EP eee a 400: 122 

Seow-Choen, Francis and Brock , Paul D. 
Rare stick-insect from Singapore: Lopaphus brachypterus (de Haan) 1842 

MIPMEASSCEOMONS Ofithe MAIC ANG COS. x cesceesiheecscteeescneedvesevieceeeekcccerderneens 405: 79-82 
Smithers, Peter 
Waretecle TESA CXC INC) 0) OS) eara bates R REE tor aes ee aed ee 405: 97 
Sokoloff, Paul 
elit ote Lem AMC OM aN Ve S rere Serle aie. ia o2 Sisemsenchooons asebesecamea oredmsaieass uiedasGlesaunagonnsnns 408: 213-4 

Sutcliffe, Edward 
Observations on the increase of recorded species of Lepidoptera in the 

Fraga! TEU) ZIG". cect obk SDRee sec RE Ee eRe eee Pt Orne ee te ree eee 409. 281-6 
Sutton, Roger 
itesenea cheb uitentiy. Reserve! 1974-1996 ~..........cccoscsaqecsscdesuyenseesedaededheasepiese de 400: 105-21 
Tordoff, George 
FastemmrcaknneNomolk (13th-to 18th April 1995) ic:cih.ieticeve.s.ssceeeccetensstess 405: 55-56 
Trevis, Geoff 
hememeMrate conservation A local Perspective fiii..28ieeesslccceselde-ceedeodebineee: ICN 19: 4-6 
Wakeham-Dawson, Andrew 
Rime let Ce veni@) MOUILCTHITES, If) GREECE co. .4).08 sn nts0-.casectaaaonslveereacastbowsaesnordecoeseneh 404. 33-36 
Watts, R.C. 
Elie Mathie POA ONNEAIS she) ractgscncsectsdeeeneasyeecnsivataaeClgesiatedenyeadessondesdngeeeedates 405: 
Wilkins, Philip 
SLAY G SE TRE. SVAIS Oe Ses ais ee NRE ee Re cc re 405: 70 
Winokur, Len 
Nevemmingaine molluscs here come the moths! iio. .eii...ciecsesscccccssosseseees 404. 23-34 


DO DIS eae tts hence Maser hea lia co Dudas ee eee Es ee 405: 64 
Addition to correspondence on Swallowtail foodplants ..............0.0cccceeeee 400: 142 
Admiral blowawoliicourseys ) ss teetc yess eel coc! ince ace ete Ss: ..... 406; 141 
AES Area Conservation Representatives: An update (November 1995) ....... ICN 19: 3-4 
NES: GONSETVATOMBR OI yi orale ar ka 0 ccna See eae ee nc ..... ICN 20: 11-12 
INES OES: Oriibellivg ores ces SNE Nt ties ee eter adn aaa ana es eee 404: 5-6 
Alleged overcollecting: could we have evidence and 

understanding. please? cis. fest sostateose givens coset eee eae eee 408: 203-211 
Ancient tee: Foruniand the veteran Iteednitiative:. 3-5. ICN 20: 5-7 
AnmuUal aThivaliOl-ay Strange nme ste tance eee eee cate eee 409. 248 
AT OUNCE EAT SIG Coeaycnit are eecccn Oey Nee tea cee een Perera eee es ee ee 404. 21 
Banned nets lead toxinaccurate records. «2.2 ncs.-ee cee 404. 44 

BDS Collective Knowledge Project update, Aeshna grandis, 

thie Brow awk ciara e ames ss eet te, saa crete de em Too eee ee 408: 215-6 
Biodiversity Action Plan: publication of the UK Steering Group Report ..... ICN 20: 7-8 
BTMStONe MEECIS: CLONE MI sc. keen areca nett ce eee ae tee te 405: 95 
Brown Argus (Aricia agestis) in Huntingdonshire (VC31) pain ten eee 
Bug tmimasked scsccncis datdesee ie Bicester 404. 45-46 
Bus stop entomology ........ Pers ee eters Ais erence hi toe eee ety ee 409. 253 
WEEKES OMIM ANCAN, sere serer eaceten wee tea case eiadcok dace Se Annee ee ae 404. 4-5 
Butterflies of the London suburbs from July to August 1993 .........00......00. 404: 7-10 
@auighit ante; Wel uit iy eet es Fie Meta ee a ee ee ane late ree ee 405: 102 
Collecting moths in the suburbs of Yokohama, Japan .............:c::cceeeeeeeeees 404: 13-14 
Collection of the late Ronald John Gooseman of Bearsted, Kent ................ 407. 191-93 
ConservationgReporulor alos tee ance ee aie cne race ck Sa te sm ieee ee ae 409. 238-40 
Cruel death for Peck’s skipper while the Harvester is collected nearby, 

Cheesequake State Park, New Jersey, USA, 10th August 1995 ...........:... . 407. 168-70 
Dragontlies—food'for hobbies? S@mMe ANSWERS 2. cs: gcse vevece teeta gee ee 404: 42 
Easter break in Norfolk (13th to 18th April 1995) 405: 55-56 
Eggs found in a gynandromorph of the Malayan jungle nymph, 

Heleropieryx dilatata CP hasmida) : 2. Soi cisaccsenneaadanenocctapusnevethsestncns eoesa eatgas 4006: 122 
BiynUGlOPy NOt-entOMIOlOSy sasha eckoec oc: <csesgac ceeds seed Canee sae ceee a en 400: 131-2 
Exhulbinon neport for 1995 sos. iiss snes ge ccs Cae op ee ce 407. 146-66 
Exploding treacle ci ikecnde nie vectc ht Rothe ees Ses thaee tecean sane bak ariel ea a 400: 132 
Feathered tatiunculus Om. board! 6c sccccoteesighcgas caasnteneeneeese ee eee 404. 22 
Foodpiants: of Swallowtail larvae. eas cepa reac eee tegen 404. 30 


ZEST TEISES SNOT ohana Ae a eee ere ae LOO VT, 

Glee eV ORM Swale Wal SS PTR Bee As, ses BIE DR Rehabs Pe 404. 49 
Gola Gus endear Allan POE: Fact,O6 MCHOM?. .......checccssceiceeseceeeedescegeseeeteees 409. 257-9 
Grayhneincemm theArdeche, France; 1994. ciccicsc.ssscceeleghetsocceeuaceceeveseedeecsaeds 407: 188-90 
CG AMOS eD TAIN ACI VE IMCUIE sos w scot 22 Sou. ches baba e See ttecs ode cace ce taddened ibcedsniuebubess 404. 16-20 
Gy prsmIMOt CLYMATIIIOAISPAN)! 2... 0c siceis.cuscsssnsdetscsthdbastateesedssatesseessseeobesteasi 405: 96-97 
anid patinonswallowtalls Stes. f eA st PARR Ato oad ok ole edaccbebubecdatscse 405: 78 
Hanging around in the woods: Long-leggedness in a leaf beetle ................ 405: 61-64 
eee SoM OM AIACHOMOEICCI 02s scccccsesancscsnsasinensocuecudesnacadetas oderssenstacveusncccssosees 400: 128 
TELE (S: WPSTEG) Fm, SST Vee Seed ee ae 400: 124 
ede ete et MUM OM ERT Sic ecru ch hica on aneuelee-czeusnetanqesaavachogacdiedareasabcciesvnttnssacdeceaaces 408: 213-4 
Hints to breeders to prevent predation by wasps when breeding outdoors . 408: 230 
[RICLIC ANTS Ti SONNE SS Mie 10) Ce nee eee ee eee 409. 270-2 
sti alte SA NEE COO et oo os a os nanluda cocced ctuee eet fnndadadivhasbidcnectoieseeeds 405: 66 
Mowmonearcdoes a Devilsicoach-horse live? <....c..csocccesceqscds<onesbvosenssecseovthesens 405: 66 
Humane oicd Wawkaaoth i AyleSDUry .............cccclencscceesesncds lensscesevensetesesss 405: 77 
umn oine Maw Kanon in. Staffordshire <.4..-5...c.cccsegccece casero suatecwicsenncneseesees 405: 77 

if, SSAC Cal nS OC aS eae eee ee ene 409. 260 
Insects of the Shimba Hill National Reserve, Kenya, April 1994 ..........0....... 405.9 1-95 
HBSS USING OCIINOIS ooh cage Ace Ee or et ee 404. 38 
Interesting Notodontid moth found in north-west Somerset .............0006 409. 247 
LEE SETS S CTUAES TD) Sav ro 407. 174 
Invertebrate collection National Avian Research Centre, 

(VGC. AC |, JEST OU TT, YS em ee eee el ee 409. 256 
hnverteorace.conservation:A:local perspective + .. io o.i.6. lied ences sedeheceleesees ICN 19: 4-6 
Invertebrate Conservation Conference, Peterborough ...........c.ccccecceseseeeee ICN 20: 13 
Ladybird, ladybird, fly to my home! 

(Gphovwtoratrct adybirds to your gardem)) !........c.2....eccectececcesscentetaessrees 405: 83-90 
fame imilux of migrants: im southem England: (:............ecsceecec-ctceccedscessesees 409. 276-7 
Legislation for the conservation and protection of invertebrates: 

ETS [CBI j ONO, EGS TS 00 0) pe i ea ICN 20: 3 
bess intensive Parmine and the Environment CLIFE”) ..).........ccccsscccaeceree--- ICN 20: 8-9 
intl eseccachebuttetily REServe: 1974-1996 no... scxstecceseselencdsccenassstsensecsensanses 400: 105-21 
spn TPO ROU CR es ek te Me Bnet Fe nce JN dria leepiledannqanesniieenSedanbenseinadsaee+suanae 404. 47 
Long, hot summer of 1995. A note on Mellicta athalia (the Heath fritillary).. 408: 231-2 
Ponetailedisiue; Lampides DOcweus)) im KEmt ....5....0.sces.0.0deaceneoiheaihesescanens 405% 75) 
PAPE outa NONLIN MET PANT SIDI Crys eat occ edakies onc BS atk ca apeocsduvenes «cavacebe te. 02. SMR S Sense ak 404. 43 
Mantids and cockroaches meeting and study group ..........:ccceeecteeeteeeeeees 405: 50 


Marbled beauty oniGlasgow. .72::.0- 00 ane nae 405: 65-66 

Mining bee, Andrena humilis, evicting two earwigs from its nest-hole ..... 409. 269 
MOO=VAN GU SKPEMEMCE: uae Sasetersnountens-soaneyaqeamres uacdeeeh Sete tse ds sae ceeeee ae ee enema 405: 58 
Mosquito glares ir i citecedenekstlodeuatoes sauce bonbdeaccocecieacuials | soSebe SiGe aetna a ee 404. 11-13 
Moths of Mepal — additions for 1994 and 1995 ......:...:..:ccssceseennteestarstecens .... 409. 205-8 
My; firstuboliday abroad 7.1. ie. 8c cise iese.pegoeehsp onceseba ces caequ ce Jae BRcpene Cyne ene eeneenee 406: 129-30 
National Moth Conservation Project (Butterfly Conservation and 

Joint Nature Conservation, Commitee)... cig. esteaepeee sea ecer eee eee eee ICN 20: 10 
Never mind the molluscs, here-come the moths!Gt....%..:4,ce-m0-s sneer 404. 23-24 
New n records for Walese +-.c.0)c.lcosscsssce seca ee 404: 36 
News from the-AES Area Representatives: (:2ia:.tet etcetera ICN 19: 9-11 
New, Zealand ‘Copper, LiCaenG) TOUPATADG psi. eee eee eee ee 409. 274-6 
Note on Bacillus rossius, the Corsican stick-insect Mae rn OR hindu ance 404. 31-32 
Notes and observations: Some unusual courtship behaviour. ................:.00. 408: 212 
Notes*on-the, genus, Simopierts im Chima) cays..cseees- cease eee eee ee 405: 67-70 
Notes on the insects and other invertebrates of an urban house ................ 408: 217-22 
Notes: on the reappearance of Lycaenid’ butterflies) \..1-1- ome een eee 407. 194-5 
Notesionm- the Silkmoth Rearer's) Handbook ass vscsscco eee ee 404. 29 

Observations on Microplitis ocellatae, Bouché (Braconidae: Microgastrinae), 
a gregarious endoparasite of the Poplar hawkmoth caterpillar, 

LAOLDOC POPUlI VAD? 5:2. cocesne,aasueseuiootarsoraenc cease Obes ee 408: 199-202 
Observations on the increase of recorded species of Lepidoptera in the 
Penidle Hall areary rei aees ahs es cenc lesa vache teenage se ee eee nee eae 409. 281-6 
©bservations on the Painted lady im Arabiay)....4. 00.7000) eee ee 409. 289-90 
Occurrence of seaweed flies (Diptera: Coelopidae) at Hartlepool .............. 407: 180-8 
Orgy-of male*stae-beetles (iucanus cervus li) eae. ee 405: 60 
Out’ oh seasonyTortricoicl 2. ack... cies ccyteogosee se el Mees cule eat ee ee 407: 170 
Perching to advantage? The Purple hairstreak (Quercusia quercus): 
Observations during July/August 1996 on a common by the M25 .......... 409. 261-2 
Purple and White-letter hairstreak butterflies in Hem Heath Wood, 
Staitorals hae ea. s.8 35. coe veaeanetann eel ce seu Ge eterno os sO cee ae 404: 49 
Rare finid,at Wryley Gommion, Staffordshire )...0..<.ccsccrsccecss a 404: 41 

Rare stick-insect from Singapore: Lopaphus brachypterus (de Haan) 1842 

with descriptions of:thesmale and: ego) 7.0... c6. an ne ee 405: 79-82 
Recommendations for each of the above legislative purposes, CCBI 

Policy Statement) as applied to terrestrial and freshwater invertebrates . JCN 20: 4-5 

Red admiral attracted: to ‘pale: blue: jearisucis. wc ens. ek a a ee 404: 15 
Red admirals and washing limes’ iii... cccsccsucssccthbehse Oke GER ENRI Se 404: 2 
Red admunaisiand washing lines — Part 2 o.c)cccisisspcasecsveccs soveeuys oacee ccBRReeeD 407. 185 
Red admirals ‘and washing lines — Part-3: sce cncscisescbsssigcaccectecceeees sdanulterenee 407. 185 

Report of Council — 1995 
Report of the Treasurer — 1995 

Ringlet (Erebia) butterflies in Greece 

Rise and fall of melanic peppered moths 

Sandwich Bay Bird Observatory Trust Entomological Section 

Sheep nostril botfly (Oestrus ovis): Larval infestation of the 
conjunctiva of a Bedouin 

Small tortoiseshell in early February 

Small white in Australia 

Snail-dwelling wasp 

Snail-dwelling wasp 

Some notes on butterflies in Cambridge during 1995 

Some notes on the Summer of ‘95 

Some observations on breeding Moon moths (Lepidoptera: Attacidae) 
= Past t 

Some observations on the behaviour of the Hornet — Vespa crabrol. ....... 

Some observations on the pairing and egg-laying habits of the 

SAMUEMMGIMOLM WCLVOPIOCG SIMIA WEStWOOG -i.iiicccciacceseccetescececnesetonscecess 
SOMO SMe Ie NOLS ON AULOLTADVG GAMMA. \oic.ecccnccssoscsecsssinsccccssarseeeees 
Spain 1995 

Spanish phenomenon — answers please 

Sugaring plates for moths and butterflies 

Turkey and butterfly identification 

Unbanned nets 

Uncommon moths at Park Hall Country Park, Staffordshire 

Pneommotn-syrplid found in Comwy, Wales ................cceccsseseesnsseseeesnesesoose 
WitidentineG erterpillarin:saurland, Germany <......:...0...:0scdececsesoesereeqteeete 
Unusual foodplant: the Painted lady (Cynthia cardui) (with A. Cronin) .... 
Unusual mating behaviour in grasshoppers 

Unusual pairing: male Cinnabar (Callimorpha jacobaeae) and 
female Scarlet tiger (C. dominula) 

Unusual/rare species seen in South Oxfordshire 

Unwelcome visitors from Australia: Polistes Hymenoptera) .............000:c00 
Violet click beetle Limoniscus violaceus 
Visit to Prees Heath and Whixall Moss, Shropshire 
Wanted: The Woodhopper 

Webb’s wainscot — an unusual record 

What’s in a name? (Poem) 

Winning the battle against pupal parasites 

409. 236 
409. 237 
404: 33-36 

409. 272-3 
: 27-28 

f USA 
Zo prow) 
| 249-53 

- 184-5 
404: 24 
405: 59-60 
409. 262 
405: 90 
400: 124 
405: 57 
400: 121 
409. 286 
404: 38 
409. 287-9 

404: 71-75 
405: 71-75 


Amateur Entomologists’ SOCIety 22.00.0000... ccececeeccet cette eeeeeetenseeneeeneenes 404: 5-6 
Nita) NE PESEMIAMVC SW fesse eee ee. taane scenes ceeding sedecee spcheir aac: ae ee ICN 19: 6, 9-11 
CONnSErVvaliOm POMC ye et eel onelotes ces eeeiosconsnevosetsts cc ious. Mahe tesa ere ICN 20: 11-12 
EXIM OM* Sales). aye ce seh icecs dice acetyl cable WOR ch che legac eee ICN 21: 5-5 
Financial statements — Year ended 31st December 1995 021... cece 409. 241-47 

Reports of the Society 1995 — 

CONnSEI ATOM RE PORi ei eee seers ache oacceetadace san ee eee a 409. 238-40 
Xd @MpRe POM eres. can toda aes cet hoecnatcaces en «calbeasedee Soaens ete eee ee 407. 145-66 
Repo olthe Councils. Sees eden coescsn bee eee 409. 236 
REPOLrteOl the WLCASUREL oi) 28) acl seen acoenaeseedinecslbadics te. do teeee encen See ae 409. 237 
PENI oo are ea ah ie swe tirheeh hone oe Ad ougs oC hucde duds Clas aatet tt Sasst cae eee 405. 91-95 
PGT ACUNNEUIE Ca ono so ee ected igi nns be beng odeeensica Svcs tans ee ee ICN 20: 8-9 
WE IA@ PUG EA seas hes os Sesnhetaats oc cilanetacsesboreeune chou cnadin lhtpan tent eer 407: 167 
INatiia WSR: et eects soak aes ca esbiny WW ca ae een ee 404: 16-20 
Beetles — see Coleoptera 
WOle@ pte rete soe se a0 Bs oc ntk ee tal Deg dana Outer ae ae 405: 60, 61-64 
DONDE Heated acc tees ds ak tartar ath, Moana he coh steel eese cage an chk ea ce ee 405: 95 
VMEMO PUCLAL, sce, doctivi ace ooasnsy ooh dabun togsaes uae: aaceosee tea ceee ke ce cates ec ae ee 405: 70; 

409. 249-53, 
269, 272-3 
MEPIGOPLE LA si ce ceaessee tle vevstyaddngersciigeectecs stake aes ee 405: 90; 
407. 174, 185; 
408: 212, 216 

PATASHUASI Ns eit acess tases dances cs Spee ba aie calcu nsn aa ele Se Neh ee 405: 71-75; 
408: 199-202 

BIOGIVERST Oye ise isi OE i ee ee ICN 19: 7-8; 
20: 7-8; 

21: 5-8 

Biological control. eo. 5 Sos cock, sos ce heehee aac con eee ee eee ICN 21: 8-9 

Book & Journal Reviews: 
(Names in brackets are authors, not reviewers) 
(B = Book; J = Journal; JA = Journal article) 

Auer Bnnpire (6- O'TOOLE) G3). coc hisnsoccachant eine ocr eae, ee eee 405: 98 
PUGRUS EI WY LGN CU) cxaussnecweh ccessecatartenses eereun cee tece lace ee NG al oy ee 409. 278-9 
Butterflies of the Canary Islands: a survey on their distribution, 

biclopyand ‘ecology GM. Wiemers) GA) vai kee ee 409. 279-80 
Diptera (True flies) from the Kenfig National Nature Reserve, 

Corl aimee: CF AS TEMIM CB) cassis oss cysccuecsuSdean sonuth sanaghe canatecteoeeene cata 405: 99 
InsecteS. in autre monde parmi nous (OPIE) () <....n.da ne. eee 404: 40-41 
TISGGE WeeCl ier iva tari Cp Ook ce trccs lekvenps tence ccmeieece cue cee ae 405: 99-100 
Insects & flowers, a biological partnership (J. Brackenbury) (B) ............ 407. 171-2 


Microlepidoptera of Europe — Vol. 1: Pterophoridae (C. Gielis) (B) 

National Trust and nature conservation 100 years on 
(D.J. Bullock & H.J. Hervey (B) 
New British Beetles: Species not in Joy’s practical handbook 
(PJ. Hodge & R.A. Jones (B) 
Wandelnde Blatter, Stab- und Gespentschrecken (D. Schulten) (B) 

Butterflies: see Lepidoptera 

Rs ORNs RK AM Re Eee tien nt nies soe soak te ctembeetaae reecnee seeenscaceeeeensvacetnees 
Cockroaches: see Orthoptera: Blattodea 



MUU RR A EINAC EGLO DER ec oss cP ae oat auclaceioe cence ua abioeak de passeenewndened@ere 

se OER Ae ao os BS ay Pa HINTON Svs Har bees aagaduedanoansnsesiudabaseoacsvansbone 



THEG SHR CIRL Jame cos SoO ee eect aeRO TR 1 ee 1 NA Ce a an 
Diptera | 
TEESE ESS nS SSS aR A TO A= es wo 
REA C STORING COUS 6 29 ec cue ese eee CECB H a caldae S a oe dea eee deedadod eanitel 


406: 126-7 

405: 100-101 

406. 125-6 
404. 39-40 


405: 71-5, 78 
407. 184-5 
400: 135-41 
408: 223-30 
408: 230 

405: 67-70 

404: 49 

405: 60, 61-64, 

ICN 20: 9-10 

405: 83-90 

ICN 19: 3-4, 
ICN 20: 5-7, 
10, 11-12, 
ICN 21: 3-4 
406: 105-21 

407. 175-83 
409. 254-5 

409. 269 

404: 23-24 
404: 30 

400: 128, 142 
409. 287-9 
408: 230 

404: 11-13 
407. 186-8 
409. 286 
404: 47-48 
408: 217-22 

Dragonflies: see Odonata 

Earwigs: see Dermaptera 

By Insect Order: 
| DY G5 Sse sass Arar me 9 a a cece ee i retail bs har. 407. 186-8 
LES SG eta ail eds Ris pe ret ta ain nate elma Sil pba net nena on ns 404. 21, 46 
ICN 21: 9-11 
TIVES iAtes tere rene mete shi. Aeeecee nti, 02 nae euaee te reNuae Pee eee ICN 21: 12 
IMeyeslele) ol Cas beep Paci e de tel ee notre ad | aM ROE etry RERUN eh iene, Aart 404. 7-10, 24, 
37-38, 41, 
47-48, 49 
405. 55-56, 75, 
= 9657 
406. 123-4, 124 
407. 170, 194-5 
408: 212, 
409. 276-7 
ICN 20: 10 
@srtla@ tera 2s iz.) nc ckicshashe lon sus S ya tusSzecncs Gen cacetn ve es hse eee ores ecco gene eee ICN 21: 11-12 
By Geographical Region: 
|B YS) 0s) Ml esas a ane Meer ee Jen ahioae Ag, sasbuadegode age eeeet seen ICN 21: 12 
Camibrid sesh ine ves: sczsicstags citacocacey ci Jia! sccvates eeke sas eea se ee 406: 123-4 
409. 256-8 
PSV Ie oon Sods oe Tbacaane ata cto tac bei ea deinetig eo MD, oes Braels sae dela ee ICN 21: 12 
FLAT SII 5. schs Se ca cen cah oe eee te eee oe oa eae esses eas saan ae ICN 21: 9-11 
TROT 8 risen aes od aes se eo SCL el 406: 124 
407. 191-93 
Wan GAStnite vaca Sr ian a ee ea at pa ne eee 409. 281-6 
NonsuchgPark, Sumey 22.24.05): 2a Reet Aa cs eee ICN 19: 11-12 
NOntollk: Sei 5c a oe UN See Ia cc dao Scdgaioe SE ee 405: 55-56 
ORPOLGS UMM. a ceo Sessa ake esa tu See toe aaa a ae su past ot ed cess ee 407. 143-5 
Slat S ERS essa divesevns easendncatwan potnce aa tancae teat een Sacee nae ian ee 405: 58 
S10) 01,15) Ral =) Danian ee Manure ppp nen Mier penn n tay, Jia tier here ie MRE Sehyncn RNS St ICN 21: 11-12 
406: 105-21 
409. 247 
Stafiondslaire fires seete ade cron as othac a bans Soka ere ceeds Bet cents Sco es ee 404. 41,49 
406: 121 
SULTON, Sy acaihe tte scedie cnc Gi unc alh ownanwntonechaancc ape oeeaa nena Naw ah ole npc ee eRe oo reo ICN 19: 11-12 
Tiwytord Downy Ham pPsnise rs 0. fle eee ate aes Oe cece ee RR cece ance ICN 21: 9-11 
Tiymie so Wain oAe eee Reg Se Sc ce 407. 186-8 
Windsor. (Beckeshinie ooNes aie fr oinccoo ecco Ne cea a nee ata eee cone ae ate ee ee ICN 21: 12 
|e Ch 95 1 Los 11 cp ner nen RR SRO RT RE Ret MED 405: 90 
406. 132 
409. 260 


Flies: see Diptera 
Foodplants: see Dietary 

aN yc cuba esbancboaceaullsahyaelenpeteesfooidoesunuedvbavessseciae 400: 129-30 
407: 188-90 
409. 270-2 

MeN ARAMA RENCE BIN 8 ae a 3 Sasa cvs v2 sec pionss Su caet sing = se usandesentedeeotadlenes ICN 21: 8 
“2 VEL ETE coonsddadebstssdsacoe dala SCHaCe He NpEe MAE gREBaE Sarin cre ABA Zt ennet WE nan Prem 404: 38 
Ee DT SECEE TS L116 C0) 010 el 407: 191-3 
Grasshopper: see Orthoptera 
MA TR I cece vans aces cy acatencdeden ndeasedesuseisen! 404. 33-36 
Re MEN ESM est eer sone Soa coe Tai vaaddeasnandslacaechatec aus sduces heasdiesoraatvasrsasdacaeedaaedae ICN 20: 5-7 
MME Nereis cceniooecis dante ndecdosmnccbuncssoSursowesteosvnbsnsenseaeestneatdsassvenenss 400: 142 
MMB emer a oe eet Fone acct oA ead a cuiesac ek ad aacan cid watedredigudcaceespenghveiser 408: 213-4 
Hoverflies: see Diptera: Syrphidae 
Ra MMLC PORNO errs RFC ON, 58 cei isa Dio deals srnaad va wsticdtnenutilswaéues dasa vaunevenes 405: 70 
409. 249-53, 
ae rt ANN PENI NS Ss utes Jeo Lau wssdacvSae isi aachdosdncasoudesssideneaieeshaveiencende’ 409. 263-4 
RE MERLE CR EN he oe rao wacis daca soslaanncebadueodyadnciviuwbtabvexSoccauiessadhjaccc4esseaeiloass 408. 203-11 
eee ENP NO a ohh sasha de hasnt oviiceloe vavcpisediae ethecage edeceeedeosurosenvewieuds 405: 96-97 
MMAR NS BRAS OP LA 606) acc sos anelins nO owindadiente uvvadin die eandedvsleveidinedenadanense 404: 38 
Pe NI 8 3.5 asinine dccaaunasatesandastiaawad oamdedand dou sentaatvansand¥e 404: 21, 27-28, 
400: 105-21 
a ea RR eo an ln oes ela ack le otaaises asdcdda ua wiavendausedacipos vaddeaeshedatelneddedes 405: 102 
Invertebrate Conservation SOCICCY ...0000...0o occ cece cece ects eeeeteeeeetseees ICN 21: 3-4 
MME MME gna. Ba ic ci Seehsad Sosa ass énsjsennsdaad wen sdvashdoenedind sos stinenwnoe ives 409. 256 
ICN 20: 13 
vO IPERS: neler  a 404: 4-5, 13-14 
J DED NT LE chee et Rae a oc 404. 3 
Ladybirds: see Coleoptera, Coccinellidae 
OREN S FDTD sdiccb gb ec ELDO Sane SE eae Eo = SS it 404: 44 

ICN 19: 2, 8-9 
408: 203-11 
ICN 20: 3. 4-5 



Be AVA OUT assis Searce sels nec ae sate ae ee pa SS asa ee Sere 404: 2, 15 
408: 216 
409. 261-2 
Camino allisiined iiss ceca ceo ee a Eng een EE 404. 23-24 
FOOG plants 2) wseedecepeks reseeee eet sce eum cena pater ade ade tn cian Ree Nee tere 404. 30 
4006: 128, 142 
409. 287-9 
PAID SRM ATOM fecc sskcisc Soe eacees es VARA RR eee ee or eee cag ged 408: 213-4 
|B 12 Coreen mametin inn Caer esi miais ah Ae ean aT ace as Se Meh te rest Oe asus cana ower eer 404: 38 
PARASILISIING irs fees ene sacan san sateaea ee seat aie eco c oe eS e tn Ca ne nen NI cee 405: 71-75 
RE CORES ae sake cacao oa a ade eect a ete later BON seers RS a en OP 404. 14, 22, 
36, 37-38 
By area: 
Camiboridges liner = tere eee eee ee eae es eee SP EE netic 400: 123-4 
409. 265-8 
(Ooh 0 Weeee ema Puta Ss aay oe murs A aR CG BE NSN AIAN AE aRR ey BSC ee 405. 67-70 
COT fae eee cet alee Ud ae Sa a tas eg eee ae cea la a ae 407. 175-83 
409: 254-5 
Fn 1A hls rsa de oetee tatiana eae acl dae Meal a Sea a RC ag RRs care 404. 7-10, 24 
37-38, 41, 
47-48, 49 
405: 55-56, 77 
407. 170, 
408: 212, 231-2 
409. 247, 248, 
ICN 20: 10 
GALLO Bac secs ees eR os ae Se ame at AEs Msc ee Se ag Rc 400: 129-30 
407. 188-90 
GOTTA Vie sc cac daca sage tate sae cae seems Cees ear Ne awning abc Ba eatin eaten Sean 404. 38 
UE exci Cle aan ONAN OH RUNTIME ARIE cic) CA In ia Puan Sa forte RE Reto atte 404: 33-36 
A ARN es Ses es van ecedeuak co atnnceheaeec ees ctiesaeen Cees ae seen Ure an tease oS Me Sa ee 404. 4-5, 13-14 
Ree inte ten i Vt ar te eee ene NO Dae dither aera conte Sales) Pe Beet See 406: 124 
TRAN CAS UME ees oe scion Saad un Mitene ele cee cerebro ca Rte CER eae gt onan 2 eae 409. 281-6 
Net: Zadar sil ichcoi eer Sect cere ar ane GRE See IR RN eee CE ca 409. 274-6 
Stil cata Gh I 3 olsen secs so dauntuc ae tec etm seg ee eae Ee a ed 405: 65-66 
406: 141 
SOMERSET Hie dic cdadars wee rine coded aed ons rerencanecGnihponc Wet ud GRIN sRneke an RR epee eee 4006: 105-21 
SITET O1 20S) 01 by Rha a ane a PER De PE RTE, asco cH Mi a sae Peed chee” 4006: 121 
Warley RR csesegaaices tae toe i ccs cg ARRAN ee 406: 124 
Wate ATA EMAITALES secant sadanccencecacedencnaec ube taces RADAR cele Cee Rete En RAN een 409. 289-90 
TITEL SS BATES 1 oi ssn Cae TA Ga Soe cnc RES EAR Set Ce ene 400: 133-4 

407: 168-70 


By Family: 
LE CRE TIC IG. jodocsode a Boson uO EREC UBM CRE UGE enn TCnC Tea ene BEL erent i en er ER ete See 408: 233-4 
SAUTE IVEIUIDS conotoce SSeconeOS GREE HEC COC MME BSEE Cocke Goce AME RCEI RECS ne nt Ei Stee ey earn en 404: 29 
407: 184-5 
409. 253; 277 

SHINS CUAL. on saaatsacidencontad SeCaeA ONE RR ee ema aizee 0h nA oi Ie mA Sone aR Re 404: 29 
erccstale Tuvat Oh UU Time ce eet ts tle yn Sache) fic asid anes un See HN Haat sis hele etcahe clone ata nen clacton 404: 2, 15 
408: 216 
409. 261-2 
CB Aantal OPTS Me Mer ne th eee ch Aad cet a dut cee inasiaaasieh acenbigueduvcmamaeesisies 404: 23-24 
OY OIG [Os AMES PM ee ce ce chit eG usc, Lae cu meine eaveesea dae eeeen ech da dseeduvaceeesnewestnees 404: 30 
409. 287-9 
TSP CSI RAIG IA ce co labs su SeBORR DAG AE SERCH EH NMC e EE aR RIT ISS ics BRE ene aS OE ae 408: 213-4 
LE TETEVE sso os0nsn0ennt be SoN Sec ROn OEIC Ee SEC EA CCAR RAT CREE BERR Rae ett es =a a ee a er em a 404: 38 
[PEEPS SHUISIIN bs ananone cecodathds RRR BASE EE St eee Nn Pa ere ee ne eT OG a 405: 71-75 
G16 HAL OLS PP TNCs ta a ee Seale eatibede tac Gattis chon dbeave 404, 14, 22, 
36, 37-38 
NUMER BIC Seem PO ssc Glas acp ces sculde oaks <naatoral swedish suatuioeueugnaguesasesdsudediainss 405: 56 
MCN ANN LOMO LO DY 6 occ 2 dnc cb seins Scnnnasddeenacehtesdabookunsmbaciadnsecsassennasciis 404: 25-26 
IIE) EV CUISS TD, oss ntidcniset Bas Os Rae SN ee Seam ern ene 2 A 408: 211 
PYM MARA CONE ois 344 cance gsencsu sda ec’ sate wcsadaweadoo.sodutoueoes aseddeonsoenmecs 409. 2706-7 
Moths: see Lepidoptera 
i VEU D DSI Laos vocebdodede 60600 BGS REI ae ee ea eee 405: 59-60 
New Zealand 
Is OHS ko fab erly Me PHM een Gea gage sn 0k adbyvna abnanabeea eam Bers bébeiis ww wdeunn ode 409. 274-6 
INSIGo BN 2 NRE RONNIE eet a re ic iis. vances aucuaoasenncunenaeceoconccamace sontieleatwosnncs 406: 131-2 
Paid MOR ClPMMES he tr cs ie Oy ose sa 08d aca su odnsnitustunonandeordanuvslacenesatutagaiednoensuneraseneys ICN 19: 13 
IMAGER DIENT, LEENNGSS é jssct aacae sana eA eM ERE ROU Aen ra inten gat ors Hie enn ey ICN 19: 13 
alti Ios tn commit Camere denen aioe ote cauae ea atel 6. ccalba yeah d cans ovhcae me ucuapeouon neeamtermctaet 408: 214 
COI ELE oa cnnid ay aci4 0 ye SMe Ae le EI RSE 2 SARs NT RE IR I eta te MO 404, 42 
408: 215-6 
JENS. TSVAOUYE 338 oie Ube aR Gee a ee URE IND Ri ea Dn a a cee a O 404, 10 
BIB UGTOOISAL sce’ le ea ore en a. Rg GR Se 405: 56 
NAA SINMI LAC Erte ere et aca s Mec ck mo A aheay te UNO Ent Ne eats ro 404, 31-32 
405: 79-82 
SICIMMIEISEL ceo bak anand ict com eanee Gia Ace Ee Rae MBRR nen nee Her REPRE an ts Re RE oe Pe eee TEN GZ ok 
SE UERT ISIS TS OY sh ae clade et gs NRO eR al ag Ee 405: 71-75 

408: 199-202 

Phasmidae: see Orthoptera, Phasmidae 

M@ems — What's im A MaAMe? ccc... boiccccccccesceccesssecctesccssnssescctecgoccsdusvecsuenescenss 404: 32 


Recording Schemes i008... ee eee 404. 36, 46 
PRESS LVOS ooo oes se See SS Sct abies Lon sa sea eee De 406: 105-21 
Scotland 653 aN ed cee. eee 405: 65-66 
406: 141 
409. 253, 277 
SUMD AMON ie ooo. occ see Re oe Fe cae ae ne ee re 405: 79-82 
Spain ees GON ee Ne, I ieee a A oe et ee eee 405: 59-60 

409. 262 

SUE VEY S650 os Ss ge soe as cos a echo Se RST ea ne 400: 142 
Taxonomy es 6 2s eee een SO ees Sa See 2 eee 405: 67-70 
United Arab Emirates 02000005. .c62...00 cise lesen ee i I 409. 256, 289 
United States 
Repid@pte na s-..2 6.52 sa toses sc tet es eee nag ee ec a 406: 133-4 
407: 168-70 
Wales) 555 e ee A oy ee ee ee 404: 36, 49 
409. 286 
Wasps: see Hymenoptera 
Effect on Lepidoptera <..\ airs ober ee 408: 231 



References are to articles mainly or solely about listed species; Species’ lists and passing 
references have not been indexed. 

ABST OD: SIRIUS. cools GCS BRSBEL SRS AE EEE REP E Sos: CERN ae Ee ee = a 408: 215-6 
ADAMS WAGE isto 5§85 08 BBE OTE SEE oN Be Rs | a REE oa 404: 14 
AUHCUG! GIDESHS wucinanethes te Sierra OER ie ASR CEE AEDS Se cee nee eT eae nnn em 404. 37-38 
EZICUEAS FESSIUS condcinac 3 Oba du a AEECOS HE AGIOS O AaSH APE BeeNEEE BE OSL )=3 45 Esra See Ta 404, 31-32 
ECU DECI: SCOR AIL! ecemoocsgne sbicace se 08 SAE Se BUCO GE ENDER oc 0) See PERERA CET EE he eer 404. 41 
OSG (ECO IECID) weacbeadcpeee: dle dopUBy cocoa Age Ope DERE CREERE oc ac oc 40 oe EC Ree EEE EEE CET 408: 211 
PISO ANDI OOULIES VELAUD cn on Siaclae Sosa SoBe ERE ERE SNERERT SLL ae: See eee eee Eee 409: 286 
AAO AMAOIIUUTL Uae, Asie an cen Stuaninaiss at dc MOMMA Mccd Sod dnstasassnncaacecaceests 408: 216 
ACNE ND cP Oy A eto) Sch stiles un ae NE on Sad ancened nngueesasenee’ 408: 216 
OPI AMOOTIATOURAUUS 5.5 ten 8h dein becal a ntciinddeasiigs adie BE oacnnnctnesSvp ease veteu's 404: 10 
CUVGISE! GSNET VE CITY si cg Be oe EOS aR PORES 60 ROE ee ee eee RE 407: 170 
CME IIE: QRGIII se Wisi ean SA EEE CN OREO RAMEE CS? Or Pg en Crt cc eee eRe eae eee 409. 287-9 
LGN LOGE, SUMDUGE seco eae ee SO eee OM te een Serene ree eee 407. 184-5 
ZE-QBIA GOD» shacsaosssce: Se ee ee NRE ies Un ane 404: 33-36 
IME IIESMECICIICH TICIONCR «0-128. Gein cuccct onctnlnoc-veetiesehessceametiabinasarabunsmannct ss 404: 22 
[PEE SOEG) NOTAG BIO TUS. eee NEA ee Ae ee Eee ek ec 407: 108-70 
HOR DEAETON ES HOIIGUITIOS sane aera eee RNE EE Ee EEE eT ic ene neo ae ee 405: 95 
HES SLOT SEPO ANE OUUIUS 0 nen Brahe dev etnccncce ed qnvelupuaadBeaenacste hecerscpideeaesveuabee 408: 212 
LSIEUSORDES | DET GTIC colt wae aa Ie oR enc sR rn An 409. 247 
Heteropteryx dilatata............. ST PEERED Rs or tel tie to. che een e epee oe se 4006: 122 
WEA OAC SRO OCLC S Re ect h ne (a cteiN fetes te vinene sta tader ates UR ean Sa cates duet otaeasmnede 4055 
OGTR) ME SRILOCEIILC Ae sr 2 il snes MPa a danke tube’, oo ca letnandsdedeoseovnuedes 404. 49 
LPCUEOG (CODON asm dakota eter te cna Ob oc Mac aseee ono eRe ee Ee ee CEE 408: 199-202 
TOM ISIGN SHO EOLA CUS Oe et e2 is 574. c eR es Ok oe op oh oe veins eigen nn dalncloamaatenalttles ICN 20: 9-10 
MOE AAU PESHGEUUDUS He rs Am LM Corsa! fot et MONO Ne ei OES) cca Oidsecnnesvoeiaciorhieasonsee sadiledy 405: 60 
CAM EAUD AVIA aS, Us. Goce shee dh os snd Mouse ow ii choca vuln one dadh nnd eben sasecneieec 409. 274-6 
LE CSVESRIO BS ois 3 CSc RIS SERENE On AEE EEE SUE RCE AE c= NEI nr nent Coan 407. 194-5 
Inns saeacenos door edo pe ane JOB UE HE ACRE G7 Ode. TOM MERIC EER En tea Meira aes eae A ae ria ae 408: 233-4 
EGON ONSET SICIVALATELIID 7 Mere ne ania Senn hk « thehun sung sihdughitea Matec tot on ce eeue veh OSS WT. 
GSCUD) QUID CUICIS EARS Bs seri Cii BNE a oles ee Ree PRE RS ELL OES hR, tah hora ene ene 408: 231-2 
BAGO [IVIISKOCCH ALAC.) Wa giy Ness oi ie te etek der Sas aca roasts dono ot MebNeEn bal waa ates vee 408: 199-202 
 EVGED ODS CIS) Wee asd ee gnc ne mete Oe Sot Ee ne a eeeee ae ee 405: 66 
DSNBOIS ONLUIS ics Ise etehceitap GASB Bee PUREE HAE CERES eR Pa St NO he 405: 66 


400: 142 
PPS SCUTTOUS Fosse: ors bd ian ty rae a golesee upsets vk dale od dc ee an oe ee ee 408: 212 
PICVIS INANMUL cen Te Bide sane ae pine Sea ike dg Seong laese decode ager eee Ree cE ee 407: 175-83 
409. 254-5 
BP VADGE ate hau Or a aoe ee ee egg Need DT Gk 407: 167 
Polistes Chinensts .. ote vin odes serae bo ans S eae eh oe eeas 5 ee 409. 263-4 
Politesspechius:: spit cntation cue ie i te Gr te en ae Access SC 407. 168-70 
PSCUGOPIEL PNG PLUINQhd GiVOPUNICLATIG: serene Ramee ee 4006: 121 
QUCTCUSIG:GUCTCUS eit nse tr ae lena sears Caee SG ees steam 404: 49 
409. 261-2 
IRCAUUIUS: PETSONLALUS ae on I nets es a epee ne ee 404. 45-56 
4006: 142 
Seat tmnti la Siem yw tales as ticile aol. yeine on NiasOianed re naee unee ck eel ae ate ae ee 404. 29 
SCOMODLCTY MIO QUININE ei aeons! duane ceuoadieecedteneae aeaate: tains dace eios ese ee eee 408: 213-4 
SCSIASADUORINIS oii. Show ah Ss el bcsonten ons cy tice aibeyee, Gig AN ae 405: 66 
SUM OPICTIS SPDs cee. iok cou date seed svel Mannocters cnet ae Bacehe vernon ea: tee tia ae ee 405: 67-70 
SUP INONIGIA W=QlOUNT 558 cdc i csosnonhe Spe pace Ee ee 404: 49 
VGILCSSGA GIA ATUG EO Reap Na sick ath eo SHU yo eps Uae Ds Pe ee 404. 3, 15 
VESPA CHAONO i) de Garerdenssars Stasaeel tok ainda ay ecco ale oe .. 409: 259-53 

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NY sf} a 

1996 Members' Day and AGM 
to be held at the 

Royal Entomological Society, 

41 Queen's Gate, London SW7. 

on Saturday 20th April 1996. 

Doors will open for coffee at 10am 

and the day begins with a talk at 10.30am. 

The AGM will take place at 2.30pm. 

Members are encouraged to attend the day, you are welcom bri 
specimens for identification if you so desire, and Council members will 
during the day to answer any questions that you m 
or entomology in general. For further details, plea 
with this Bulletin or telephone 01582 486779. 

See | 
ay f 

se refer to t 

The cover of this issue of the 
Bulletin depicts the Brimstone 

butterfly (Gonepteryx rhamni). 

sruary 1996 

BSSN 266-8 SX 

Ecitiars Wayne frase BSc 

Photo: Nick Holford 

ae the Ape ateae Prtamolocists: Saclety 
Volume 55 *° Number 404 February 1996 
Le a 
26 FEB 1990 






Well, at long last, after months of work, the new look Bulletin is finally 
here. I hope that you find it an improvement on our previous format. I 
must thank everyone who has been involved with the preparation, 
especially all at Cravitz Printing, the Nature Conservation Bureau and 
Nick Holford, who has kindly provided the photographs for the front of 
the first few issues. As always, I am interested to hear your views, 
whether they be good or bad, and any suggestions on how we can 
improve our publication still further are always welcome. 

Another change that you may have already noticed is the Society's 
new central address for correspondence. This is so the Society has a 
base for all its mail for many years to come rather than having 
addresses change as Council members move. I must thank the Royal 
Entomological Society of London for their help in establishing this new 
address. It would greatly help if members would now begin to use the 
new address for all matters, but particularly for secretarial and Bulletin 
matters, as I have moved since the publication of December's issue. 

The 1996 Members' Day and AGM is almost upon us again, and this 
year it will be held in the rooms of the Royal Entomological Society on 
Saturday 20th April. Doors will open for coffee at 10am and the day 
begins with a talk at 10.30am. The AGM will take place at 2.30pm. 
Members are encouraged to attend the day, you are welcome to bring 
along any specimens for identification if you so desire, and Council 
members will be around during the day to answer any questions that 
you may have regarding the Society or entomology in general. For 
further details, please refer to the insert included with this Bulletin or 
contact me on 01582 486779. 

This issue of the Bulletin is slightly larger than usual (I'm sure you 
won't mind!) to accomodate both JCNand a Junior Section, the first for 
some time. We are aware that we need to promote entomology to the 
younger generation, and the Society is currently looking into this matter 

2 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society a 

in some detail. However, the most obvious way is to begin by including 
more Junior Sections, which requires members to write articles for 
them. It is rare for us to receive Junior articles from senior members, 
who with their wealth of knowledge may like to pass on some tips to 
our younger colleagues. If so write and tell me! 

I hope to meet at least some of you at the Members' Day, and wish 
you an enjoyable year of entomology. 

Wayne Jarvis 

Red admirals and washing lines 
by Mike Pennington (9799) 
9° Daisy Park, Baltasound, Unst, Shetland ZE2 9FA. 

The Red admiral Vanessa atalanta is an annual migrant in Shetland, 
numbers rarely exceed 100 in a year, although we have had a good run 
of records in recent years. Most records involve butterflies seen in the 
normal way, flying around in sunshine or nectaring at flowers. 
However, the butterfly seems to be regularly recorded amongst washing 
out on the line! Of at least 100 seen on the island of Unst in the last few 
years only about seven or eight recordings have involved such 
circumstances, but it still seems to be a regular habit. Insects always 
seem to be found amongst washing in the late afternoon or early 
evening. Some are flushed from the washing as it is brought in, others 
only emerge after being brought indoors and in one case the poor 
beast was tumble-dried to death before it was discovered. No other 
species have been recorded in similar circumstances, although only the 
Large white Pieris brassicae and the Painted lady Cynthia cardui are 
regularly recorded in the islands. 

The time of day and lethargy of the butterflies suggest that they were 
seeking roost sites for the night but overall more questions are raised 
than I can answer. Are the butterflies roosting or if not what are they 
doing? Why are the butterflies roosting in washing? Are they attracted 
by chemicals in the washing powder or conditioner? Is the habit 
restricted to Shetland or is it recorded elsewhere? Why is it only Red 
admirals that are recorded? The only thing I would tend to rule out at 
the moment is that butterflies are attracted by colour, as they are just as 
often found amongst blue jeans as bright clothes. 

Has anyone else recorded this habit or can anyone shed some light 
on the subject? 

a Volume 55 « February 1996 3 

I would imagine that some members of the Society had thought that the 
Honorary Youth Secretary and the Junior Section of the Bulletin had 
ceased to be! Well, that is not the case. Since the publication of the last 
Junior Section we have been very busy, having held three field weeks 
and two field weekends, the written accounts of which I hope to be 
able to publish in a future Bulletin. It's the same old reason for the 
omission of Junior Sections, that is, the lack of articles by, and for, 
junior members. Once again I find myself pleading with the members 
for suitable articles for this section. It is for your benefit, so please put 
pen to paper. 

It could be said that 1995 was the year of the AES field week. Not 
only have we had a two-week trip in Devon, five days in Abergavenny 
and two field weekends in London, but we also have a range of new 
equipment. In the early part of 1995 the AES Council agreed to 
purchase a selection of field equipment for use by juniors on field 
weeks. This included hand nets, sweep nets, water nets, beating trays, 
pooters, specimen tubes, Malaise trap, moth trap and a generator. I 
would like to express my sincere thanks and those of the juniors who 
have so far benefited from this equipment to the AES Council. I would 
also like to thank Watkins and Doncaster, Marris House Nets and G.B. 
Nets for the kind reductions in equipment charges they made for us. So 
you juniors who thought that field trips would be boring due to lack of 
equipment now have no excuse not to attend. Those juniors, or 
sons/daughters of any member, who are interested in attending Field 
weeks, please let me know (address at front of Bulletin), so that details 
of the 1996 trips can be sent to you as soon as they become available. 
Also keep an eye on the Wants & Exchange list for forthcoming events. 


4 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Butterflies of my area 

by Sotaro Sato (9673J) 

3-207 Kikuna Hts, 3160-6 Mamedo-cho, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa, Japan. 
During 1994, continuing on from 1993, my friends and I (the Kikuna 
Entomology Group) undertook a survey on the butterflies of our area 
(Kikuna and Ohkurayama, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama City, Japan). This 

area is particularly rich in wildlife, but we have tried our best to record 
as many species of butterfly as possible. 

As many Japanese people think it strange to see someone of my age 
(17) collecting butterflies alone i.e. without anyone of say ten years old, 
I found my excursions quite embarrassing. It is quite a common thing 
to see parents, especially fathers', taking their children out to catch 
cicadas or butterflies. Children in our area tend to prefer the former. 

Now back to butterflies; what we had found in 1994 are shown 
below, and some are illustrated in Plates 956A and 96B. 

Swallowtail Papilio machaon hippocrates C. and R. Felder. Papilionidae 
Xuthus swallowtail Papilio xuthus (Linnaeus) 

P. protenor demetrius Stoll 

Common bluebottle Graphium sarpedon nipponum Fruhstorfer 
Common grass yellow Eurema hecabe hecabe Linnaeus. Pieridae 
Colias erate poliographus Motchulsky 

Anthocaris scolymus Butler 

Small white Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval 

P. melete Ménétries 

Curetis acuta paracuta de Niceville. Lycaenidae 

Narathura japonica japonica (Murray) 

Small copper Lycaena phlaeas daimio (Matsumura) 

Long-tailed blue Lampides boeticus (Linnaeus) 

Pseudozizeeria maha argia (Menetries) 

Short-tailed blue Everes argiades argiades Pallas 

Holly blue Celastrina agriolus ladonides (de \'Orza) 

Neptis sappho intermedia W.B. Pryer. Nymphalidae 

Polygonia c-aureum (Linnaeus) 

Vanessa indica indica (Herbst) 

to] Volume 55 « February 1996 5 

Painted lady Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus) 
Kaniska canace nojaponicum (Siebold) 
Ypthima argus argus Butler. 

Lethe sicelis (Hewitson) 

Neope goschkevitshii (Ménétries) 

Mycalesis gotama fulginia Hewitson 

Daimio tethys tethys (Ménétries). Hesperiidae 
Potanthus flavus flavus (Murray) 

Pelopidas mathias oberthueri Evans 

Parnara guttata guttata (Bremer and Grey) 

During 1994, despite the very warm weather, the Small white was 
very slow in appearing. Also due to habitat destruction, the Small 
copper has gone through terrible decline. All the rest have either stayed 
the same or increased, some tremendously. 

This is the result of the survey done by the whole group. I personally 
surveyed a smaller area and had quite pleasing results. Please contact 
me for further information on the survey or on the group. 

The AES goes on Telly 
by Darren Mann (8181) 

Those of you who watch children's television will know of the Really 
Wild Guide to Britain, a BBC magazine-type programme, exploring 
events and societies that are available to young people. Last year the 
AES was contacted about appearing on this show, to give an idea of 
what the hobby of entomology was all about and how young people 
could become involved. The day started in the bedroom of Joe Parker 
(Plate 96C, Fig. 5) who has been attending AES camps for some years, 
and was a suitable “star” since he has a large collection of preserved 
insects (mostly beetles) and some livestock, but mostly because he's a good 
communicator (got a big mouth!). So Joe, research people, a small camera 
crew, the presenter of the programme and myself all squeezed in between 
Joe's bed and bookshelf. Joe then went through some of his collection, 
talking a littke about the species he had collected. He then went through 
the processes of identifying insects using his microscope and the relevant 
books. I believe the idea behind this was to show what the enthusiast gets 
up to at home. 

6 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 3 

The next stage was to film junior members doing fieldwork. I had 
written to several members within the region to see if they were 
interested in coming along to a site in South Wales to collect some 
insects and become “TV stars”. Three members, Mandy Grey, Chris 
Collins and Adam Muncer agreed to join Joe. Kenfig Burrows NNR is a 
large sand dune system near Port Talbot which is owned and managed 
by Mid-Glamorgan County Council, the warden Steve Moon helped out 
with areas on the site to visit and also provided us with a moth trap for 
later. Unfortunately the weather was against us, so coats were essential, 
although this did not stop us from collecting. 

We began by showing the presenter how we used sweep nets and 
beating trays, and although we did not catch much, we found enough 
insects to keep us occupied and the cameraman happy (Plate 96C, 
Fig. 6). We then went over to Kenfig pool, where we took samples 
from the margin using water nets. This proved to be quite successful — 
we had a good selection of water beetles, water boatmen and a few 

Later that evening, we set up the mercury vapour moth trap close to 
the Kenfig visitors! centre, this being the only source of electricity for 
the trap. This was the most gruelling part of the day, as we were all 
getting tired, cold and even wetter. However, the moths did not let us 
down, and within a few minutes of the trap going on the moths began 
to arrive in the trap, which took our minds off the cold (for a while 
anyway). We were then filmed watching the moths coming into the 
trap. At the end the juniors had to lie on their backs around the trap 
with sunglasses on staring upwards at the moths spiralling into the trap, 
which looked very funny from where I was standing. Overall, it was an 
entertaining day, although rather exhausting, and even if we did not 
catch large numbers of insects, we all learnt some 
of the things that go on behind 

the. SCenes seta * iV 

programme. Children's telly 

will never seem the same 
again.” Sin€G. Amen. boss 
programme has been shown 
twice and has generated a large 
amount of interest in the AES. So 
thanks to Joe, Adam, Mandy and Chris the 
AES has had national exposure on TV, 
which has resulted in a number of new 

> Volume 55 + February 1996 7 

Butterflies of the London suburbs 
from July to August 1993 

by Sotaro Sato (9673]) 

3-207 Kikuna Hts, 316-6 Mamedo-cho, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa, Japan. 

I moved from England to Japan in 1992. What I really wanted to do 
was to stay in England to study more about the British fauna, as I had 
only started to look closely at insects during 1992. Time, however, did 
not allow for this. 

I was pleased when I knew that my family would be able to visit 
England during the summer of 1993. I informed one of my friends, who 
is also interested in insects, about this and he was also interested in 
coming. The date: 19th July to 10th August. The place: London borough 
of Barnet. 

Three weeks is not really long enough for doing a lot of entomology, 
but at least I could go... 

I had already recorded these butterflies in the London Borough of 

Large white Pieris brassicae L. 

Small white Pieris rapae L. 

Green-veined white Pieris napi L. 

Orange tip Anthocharis cardamines L. 

Small tortoiseshell Ag/ais urticae L. 

Peacock Inachis io L. 

Red admiral Vanessa atalanta L. 

Comma Polygonia c-album L. 

Meadow brown Maniola jurtina L. 

Gatekeeper or Hedge brown Pyronia tithonus L. 

Speckled wood Pararge aegeria tircis L. 

Holly blue Celastrina argiolus Rott. 

Small copper Lycaena phlaeas L. 

and also an unconfirmed Painted lady Cynthia cardui L. 

The first site we visited was the car park of a supermarket in 
Totteridge. I had previously (summer 1992) recorded some Red 
admirals, Peacocks, Large whites and Gatekeepers there. Unfortunately, 
27th July turned out to be a rainy day. We found one Large white, and 
that was all. We then moved to the nearby Totteridge and Whetstone 
station as it had stopped raining. Still nothing there. But close by there 
was a park (Brook Farm Open Space) where I had not been insect 
collecting before. There was an area of tall grass which looked quite 


8 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society td 

undisturbed and productive. There was also a stream running nearby 
called Dollis Brook. We found Gatekeepers, a Speckled wood, Essex 
skippers (Thymelicus lineola Ochs. a new species to add to my list), 
and Large whites. | 

The second site we visited was Windsor Open Space located in 
Holders Hill, Hendon. This open space was actually found by accident 
while we were driving around the area, and therefore was totally 
unplanned. At first sight, we thought that this area looked like a “moth- 
place” rather than a “butterfly-place”, and that seemed to be quite true, 
but my friend and I were more interested in butterflies at the time. I did 
not expect much from this place, but we went anyway. 

What I expected to see were Large and Small whites and maybe 
some Gatekeepers, but it turned out to be a much better place than 

As we were staying near the place, we walked. The date: 30th July, a 
warm, sunny day with a medium strong wind. 

On the way there, we saw Large whites on the wing. We then found 
a butterfly bush (Buddleia sp.) planted in a front garden of a house 
near the park. I stopped to look at it and to see what could be feeding 
on it. To my surprise, I found myself staring straight at a Peacock 
butterfly! The butterfly was wise enough to escape onto the roof of the 
house at the sight of my net, far out of our reach. It stayed there for the 
rest of the day. 

We headed for the park. Suddenly, we saw a large black thing cross 
in front of our eyes. Another Peacock, but it was too late. At least we 
knew they were there. 

Now actually in the park, we looked for something other than 
Peacocks. As we had expected, Gatekeepers, Large and Small whites 
appeared. We found more Peacocks in a large nettle bed, also Commas 
and Red admirals nearby. 

There is a stream (Dollis Brook again) running through the park. We 
crossed it by a small bridge. We looked right and left. We saw a path 
leading through an area of tall grass on the left and went that way. This 
proved to be the correct way. Speckled woods were found in 
abundance; tens and probably hundreds. Almost everywhere we 
looked, there was one. Also abundant was the Green-veined white. We 
saw nothing else from then on. The park seemed to_be much larger 
than we thought, although it was just long and thin on the map. We 
took a few photographs and turned back towards home. Before we left 
the area of the park, two girls (both strangers) questioned me about 
why I liked butterflies, and what I liked about them, and then they 

Fr cmt ah a 

to Volume 55 « February 1996 9 

asked if they could borrow a net “because they wanted to help me 
catch them”. I would not let them borrow my kite-net, but I had a 
spring-framed net in my bag which I let them have as there seemed to 
be no harm in doing so. But once I let them have it they would not 
give it back. Instead they gave me moths and even unexpectedly, a 
Comma. Also, my friend who insisted on staying, kept me back. 

The third site was Parkside Farm, a “Pick-Your-Own” farm in Hadley 
Wood, Hertfordshire which we visited on 31st July. The weather was 
sunny with some cloud cover. We were able to get permission to 
collect while my family picked berries, beans and the like. I had 
previously recorded Large and Small whites, Small tortoiseshells, 
Meadow browns, Gatekeepers and an unconfirmed Painted lady, but 
this place is also quite good for collecting Orthoptera (Roesel's bush 
crickets Metrioptera roeselii and Common field grasshoppers 
Chorthippus brunneus). 

This time we found Large, Small and Green-veined whites, Small 
tortoiseshells, Peacocks, Commas, Meadow browns, Gatekeepers, 
Speckled woods, a Common blue (Polyommatus icarus Rott.), Small 
skippers (Thymelicus sylvestris Brinnich), and Essex skippers. 
Particularly abundant were Green-veined whites, Peacocks, Meadow 
browns, Gatekeepers and Essex skippers. That gave me two more to 
add to my list. 

On Ist August we went again to Windsor Open Space. Again we 
found Speckled woods, Large, Small and Green-veined whites, 
Peacocks and Commas. This time we found that the walk beside the 
brook (the “park”) has a long extension with one end at Hampstead 
Garden Suburb in Hampstead, London, which actually has nothing to 
do with the brook, and the other at Woodside Park, London. The actual 
end of the brook is at Brent Reservoir in West Hendon. This means that 
the “park” is a few miles long, and the bushy area in Totteridge is 
actually a part of it! 3 

On 2nd August, we visited Arnos Park in Arnos Grove, London. It 
was cloudy with some sunshine and rain at times, and windy (what a 
day!). We found Meadow browns in abundance, but nothing else. I had 
recorded Orange tips in the nearby areas, but we came a little too late 
for them. We ignored the stream that ran through it (this time, not 
Dollis). We also found an extension to the park as Waterfall Walk. 
Despite its name, this has nothing to do with a waterfall, but is only a 
small walk beside Pymme’s Brook, another long brook. This we found 
rather fruitful. Meadow browns, Gatekeepers, Green-veined whites, 
Speckled woods, a Common blue and a Small skipper. Here we found 
that all Green-veined whites stayed around nettles. Does anybody 
know why? 

10 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society a6 

The last four days were spent on other things apart from entomology. 

Looking back on these few days, I regret not having visited Trent 
Country Park. Maybe some other day I will have a chance to visit it. 

For more information, if the need arises (quite unlikely?), please 
contact me by fax Japan 045-434-3153) or by mail (address at the 
beginning of the article). 7 

Unusual mating behaviour in grasshoppers 

by Sotaro Sato (9673J) 

3-207 Kikuna Hts, 3160-6 Mamedo-cho, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa, Japan. 

On reading an article in the June 1994 Bulletin (53:107, 108) by W. J. 
Tennent, I was prompted to write an article about a case in August 
1991 when a Meadow grasshopper (Chorthippus parallelus) male and a 
Lesser marsh grasshopper (C. albomarginatus) female mated. 

I had caught some Common field grasshoppers and Roesel’s bush 
crickets (Metriopetera roeselii) at Monken Hadley Common in Barnet, 
Herts, and one Lesser marsh grasshopper female in Mill Hill, London, 
and was keeping them all in one aquarium tank with soil and grass, 
when a stridulating male took hold of a Lesser marsh female which 
happened to pass by and mated, despite the presence of Meadow 
females. The female showed little sign of refusal. They remained 
together for some time. 

A few days later, the female showed ovipositing behaviour but no 
ova were found. 

4 Volume 55 « February 1996 11 

Mosquito larvae 

by Anastasia Korycinska (9577]) 

17 Pitcullen Terrace, Perth PH2 7EQ. 

Approximately 50 mosquito larvae hatched out from the 19th to the 
20th July 1994. They were kept in a container, which had an 
approximate capacity of 130 cubic centimetres, with their food being a 
hay infusion, dried bread and dead flies. 

As anyone who has watched them will know, a sudden movement 
above the water surface will send all the larvae diving, and it takes up 
to 30 seconds for them all to return to the surface, and sometimes 

One larva was in a separate container, being drawn, when I noticed 
that it did not dive when I reached over to fetch a pencil. This made 
me start experimenting. 

The smaller container for isolating the larvae was closest to the light, 
with the larger container containing all the others directly behind, 
almost touching the first. A third container, for keeping separate the 
larvae that had been experimented upon, was on the other side of the 

For an object to use for starting the diving, my hand or a paperback 
book worked well. One of these was moved over the first two 
containers (at a distance of roughly five centimetres above the water 
surface), from the source of light, over the smaller then the larger 
container. If no larvae dived in the main container, then that trial was 
not counted. 

I also tried breaking the surface of the water with the end of a 
paintbrush, expecting that the solitary larva would dive. It did not. 
When this was tried in the main container, they all dived every time. 

The experiments were done from the 30th July until the 6th August 
1994. In each batch of larvae, a random series of breaking the surface 
and passing an object over was used, each adding up to twenty at the 

For one larva, on average it dived once in ten times for an object 
passing over, and once in five for something breaking the surface of the 

For two larvae, they dived about half the time for passing over, and 
about nineteen times in twenty, or most of the time, to an object 
breaking the surface. 

12 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 36 

Complete experiment results 
All figures in tables represent the number of larvae observed out of a total of 20. 


Object passing Object breaking Object passing Object breaking 
over surface over surface 

Dive No dive Dive No dive 


Object passing Object breaking Object passing Object breaking 
over surface over surface 

ad Volume 55 * February 1996 13 

With one or two larvae being isolated, I could keep them apart until I 
had finished with the experiments on that number, but when it 
increased to three and four larvae, then I had to return some to the 
main container, or I would have inadequate control, as there were ten 
experiments for each number of larvae. 

The results for three larvae at a time were that their response for 
breaking the surface of the water was the same as the main container, 
or they dived twenty times in twenty. For an object passing over, the 
response was a bit higher, as they dived thirteen times in twenty, on 
average. For four larvae, their response was exactly the same as the 
control, bar one time in one of the trials for passing an object over. 

This suggests that the reaction of mosquito larvae to something 
overhead is a chain, maybe each larva reacting slightly until enough are 
convinced that the danger is real, these then dive, and are followed 
almost instantaneously by the rest. 

If anyone has any alternative theories, perhaps they could write to me. 

Collecting moths in the suburbs of Yokohama, Japan 
by Sotaro Sato (9673]) 

3-207 Kikuna Hts, 316-6 Mamedo-cho, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa, Japan. 

Moth collecting in the suburbs of Japan tends to be more difficult than 
collecting moths in the suburban areas of Britain. This is due to it being 
more built-up (flats, office blocks, houses efc.) than the suburbs in 
Britain. There is also a lack of space in those areas. This results in the 
houses being more closely packed, making small or no garden areas 
with little or no vegetation. This will inevitably result in moths and 
indeed many insects losing their habitat. Also the air tends to be much 
more poiluted. 

Therefore, if you were to try collecting moths in one of the small 
gardens you would end up with more flies and cockroaches (not 
welcomed by most cooking mothers) than moths, and the number of 
species would be very limited, and anyway, there is often not even 
enough room for light traps, the buildings surrounding them will make 
them useless. 

But there is an unexpected solution: the flats. These act as giant light 
traps. It always amazes me to see how many moths the fluorescent 
lighting on flats attracts. Indeed, most of my best records come from 
flats — not friends' houses. 

But unfortunately even then there is a problem which cannot be 
overcome: it is both ill-mannered and dangerous to collect too late at 
night, and lights turn out just past midnight. 

14 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society Lf 

Nevertheless, I have tried my best. As I live in a block of flats, as 
many do in the suburbs, I have started with my own block. It is 
probably less ill-mannered and dangerous to walk just a few metres 
around one's own block of flats than to do the same around others. 

So far (by the end of April 1995) I have collected one hundred and 
eleven species including the day-flyers. These include one 
Yponomeutid, twenty-five Pyralids, five Tortrices, one Pterophorid, one 
Zygaenid, one Ctenuchiid, one Heterogeneid, one Arctiid, three 
Lymantriids, six Sphingids, twenty-seven Noctuids, two Notodontids, 
twenty-four Geometrids and thirteen yet to be identified. 

Small tortoiseshell in early February 
by Ben Phalan (10160)) 

Waterfall Road, Enniskerry, Co. Wicklow, Ireland. 

At about 2.50pm on 3rd February 1995, I was returning from a short 
walk along the Dargie river near my home in Enniskerry, Co. Wicklow. 
On my way up a more or less south-west-sloping field, I was surprised 
to see a butterfly flit past. Despite the unseasonal sun and warmth of 
the day, it must be unusual to see one out so early in the year. 

It turned out to be a Small tortoiseshell (Agi/ais urticae). It was quite 
active, flitting around and then settling on the grass to bask in the sun. I 
took several pictures of it, but unfortunately the results were 
disappointing. When I nudged the insect with my finger, it crawled 
onto it, which a butterfly wouldn't normally do. This would seem to 
indicate that it was still a bit sluggish after its long hibernation. 

The weather was, as mentioned above, unusually mild for that time 
of year. It had been sunny all day, and no doubt it was this warmth that 
had brought the butterfly out from hibernation. For the record, I 
present weather reports from Dublin airport covering the three days up 
to, and including, the date of observation, in Table 1. 

Table 1. Weather records for 1st-3rd February 1995 (Dublin Airport). 

Temperature (C) Pressure Rainfall 
Date maximum minimum noon average* average* total 
ist Feb. 8.7 2.6 7.9 6.1 1008.8 1.4mm 
2nd Feb. 9.1 -2.0 75 6.8 1021.2 trace 
3rd Feb. 10.9 7.4 10.4 94 1016.9 0.1mm 
“Averages are calculated from readings taken at 9am, 12 noon, 3pm and 6pm. 

Zé Volume 55 * February 1996 15 

Red admiral attracted to pale blue jeans 

by Ben Phalan (10160J) 

Waterfall Road, Enniskerry, Co. Wicklow, Ireland. 

On Ist July 1994, in a small wood near Enniskerry, Co. Wicklow, a Red 
admiral (Vanessa atalanta) landed repeatedly on my pale blue jeans. | 
was standing in a fairly small patch of sun between the trees, and my 
trousers were the lightest surface there. It seems likely that the butterfly 
was attracted to the pale colour because it indicated a sunny spot for 
basking in. 

I managed to take a photograph of the butterfly perched on my 
knee. This involved moving slowly into an awkward crouching 
position, in order to position the camera a few inches from the insect 
on my knee! Fortunately it wasn't disturbed from its sunbathing, and 
you can see the result of my contortions in figure 1. 

Fig. 1. Red admiral, Vanessa atalanta. 

| ae 

16 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society Se 

The great Australian adventure 
by Mark Johnson (3464)) 

54 Airedale Road, South Ealing, London W5 4SD. 

On 31st March 1994, at 9.45am, my mother and I left Heathrow for the 
other side of the World. I was going to visit my brother and young 
niece in Australia, and it was to prove rewarding socially and 

The flight took 36 hours. We were fortunate to see the villages of 
Pakistan as the evening drew on. We flew across India to Rangoon and 
early on Thursday morning we touched down at Bangkok. We had a 
choice; stay on board or stroll round the airport for an hour. We chose 
the latter. 

It was enlightening to see all the different goods on view. I bought a 
preserved specimen of the black and brown scarabnid beetle Eupatorus 
gracillicornus for $8.40, which I thought a reasonable price. 

We continued our journey, flying over Kuala Lumpur, the South 
China Sea, Bali and, at last, the Northern Territory of Australia. It took 
another three hours to reach Sydney before another hour's flight to 

The next day we spent most of our time walking around the 
botanical gardens, which are very pleasant; the flowers so exotic and 
the way the whole garden is displayed makes it photogenic. It is no 
wonder that Victoria is known as the Garden State. 

That night on the patio, I saw, near the wall light, a lovely dark green 
moth which I reckon was similar to our European Hippardus species. 
Also there was a grey moth with yellow underwings with black 
markings. There was a black and white moth with two black circles on 
each hind wing which looked like a face when its wings opened. 

The next day I investigated the flora and fauna. There was a small 
black garden ant about 5mm long. My niece, Katherine, caught a baby 
skink, grey in colour with a reddish bronze head. I found three black 
weevils in the pool. In the evening one can listen to the cicada with its 
whirring sound, but not a patch on the warbling of the Australian 

The next day we went back to the city to visit the Museum of 
Victoria. There was an exhibition on called “Gargantuans in the 
Garden” focussing on insects. It was very well done. There was an 
animated mosquito, dung beetle, cicada and the best, an animated 

a Volume 55 ° February 1996 1/7 

praying mantis. There was also a colony of bull ants Myrmecia 
nigricaps in a special aquarium which allowed one to see them moving 
through their tunnels, and another display showing bees on the 
honeycombs. The museum also houses a fine collection of manuscripts 
and items from the 1920s and 1930s as well as models of different 
canoes used by the aborigines. 

Back home that afternoon, I strolled along Dandenong Creek, a 
linear public park, and found a small frog under a clod of earth. Sitting 
on logs arranged to form tables and seats we saw the willie wagtail 
performing its territorial dance. This is a small black and white bird and 
its dance involves hopping from one point to another on the ground in 
a wide circle, then flying to a high perch, all the time wagging its tail 
from side to side. 

From the creek one can see the Dandenong Ranges, where lives 
sculptor William Rickets who has turned his hilly home into a 
sanctuary. In his 90s he is still going strong. His works, mainly of 
Aborigines are set among the trees. It's a cool shady place to be on a 
hot day, watching brightly coloured rosellas flitting through the trees, 
and listening to the kookaburra's strange laugh. Ricketts, known as 
Brother Billie to Aborigines, bases his art on their beliefs that to get 
back to Alchira or Gondwanaland, where the first living creatures 
appeared 345 million years ago, is to be at one with nature, with the 
forest spirits and rippling waters of the creeks. One can feel this when 
walking through his sanctuary. 

The Dandenongs are full of hamlets, parks and walks which take you 
into forested areas untouched for years. Near Olinda as we left the car 
and set off for a waterfall I was lucky to see a new specimen on a leaf 
stem for my collection. It was the chrysomelid Eulinca vitatta. 

Back home that night lots of different insects alighted on the outside 
wall, including a green thornbug and an elaterid, small and brown 
which I later identified as an Agrypnus sp. 

There was the brown cerambycid, similar to Caresium mijberci. It is a 
small, long thin beetle with brown elytra. It also has long antennae for 

It is autumn down-under at this time of year. The sky is blue, there 
are mares! tails up there slowly changing colour as evening approaches. 
The chorus is lovely to hear; even the pigeons sound different. When 
night falls, the moonlight is sufficient to read by and then the night life 
appears again. 

18 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 3 

There was a black and white moth with red spots, a small weevil 
which escaped and a red melonthine beetle, Halonycha irridpennis 
Flanch. Katherine found a large green grasshopper with red eyes. 

Next day, bright and early, it was back to the city and the Nature 
Company of Australia which sold fossils of all sorts, butterflies and 
beetles, ranging in price from $28 to $80, far better prices than in 
Bangkok. Melbourne is built by Port Phillip Bay so it was natural to go 
on to the seaside. Sandy beaches were a conchologist's paradise. 

With so many strange creatures around my brother borrowed a book 
from the library to help me out. There I found that the white butterfly 
which I'd seen a day or so earlier was the Lemon migrant Catopsilia 

The small black ant belonged to the Pomerina and is most frequently 
seen, apart rom the the big bull ant. I believe it belongs to the genus 
know as Carapachys. The small reddish ant was the Rhytidoponera 

Melbourne, capital of the Garden State, abounds in parks. In the 
Fitzroy Gardens, behind State Parliament, is Captain Cook's cottage, 
shipped there from the UK some years ago. There is also a model 
Tudor village sent by Lambeth community in thanks for Australian 
shipments of food during World War II. The gardens also house a 
conservatory containing a beautiful display of rainforest plants and 
orchids and an aviary. 

A visit to Victoria is not complete without a trip to Ballarat, home of 
the Eureka Stockade battle of 1854 in which miners went on strike and 
raised the flag of the Southern Cross in rebellion against the 
government for imposing a 10$ mining tax. The miners lost, but the 
fight went down in history. Ballarat has created Sovereign Hill, a living 
museum of the gold fields of the last century where visitors can pan for 
gold, and lucky people will find a speck or two in the gravel. 

Ballarat is about 100km west of Melbourne. About as far to the east is 
Healesville sanctuary, home to native wild animals and birds. The 
sanctuary is laid out for the benefit of the inhabitants. People walk 
through the various aviaries and open areas and can almost touch some 
of the animals. Some, like dingoes, it's best to steer clear of. I saw black 
and white ibis, cassowaries, wallabies, kangaroos, wombats, even a 
platypus in a special viewing tank. In the “night section” were the 
spinex mouse, possums and gliders and flying foxes. 

ae Volume 55 «© February 1996 19 

North of Melbourne, on the border with New South Wales, is the 
River Murray port city of Echuca. Well, the paddle steamers are for 
tourists now but at the turn of the century it was a bustling metropolis. 
The Pride of the Murray steamer took us on a cruise, the captain 
pointing out the places of interest, but since the Murray is some 2000 
miles long, we only saw a little. 

Australia is a huge country and while Victoria might be compared a 
little to England, Queensland in the far north-east is definitely tropical 
and home to the rainforests. 

We flew there, via Sydney — it took more than three hours — and had 
soon booked tours of the Barrier Reef and a rainforest. 

The Reef Cat took us out and on board I bought a waterproof camera 
for £25. A marine biologist gave a lecture on the underwater life for 
those of us who wished to dive, or travel in a submersible. 

Diving was an exhilarating experience and for an hour or more I 
revelled in the water, trying to fix in my mind the lighting and other 
visual experiences for later use in paintings. 

Back at the hotel I walked around the gardens and streets and 
wildlife was everywhere; a big Orb spider stretching a web over plants; 
a synastid beetle. 

The Daintree Forest was the real reason for our trip though and Cape 
Tribulation conservationist Gary took us to Port Arthur. As we drove 
along he gave us a personalised tour. Our destination was Heritage 
Lodge and to get there we had to travel by boat up the crocodile-infested 
Daintree river. While waiting for the boat I noticed the plants were 
covered with green spiders and I saw some strange looking ants .. . 

As we boarded our boat Gary indicated an Orb spider, as big as his 

Cruising the river we saw the crocs, masses of birds and an 
occasional tree python and after landing and striding off to our hotel, 
the trees were full of butterflies — I recognised a Ulysses blue — and a 
brown snake slithered away. 

At Cooper's Creek it was time for a swim in a natural pool, with 
water that conditioned your hair, and Gary pointed out the lawyer 
plant, so named because of its barbed hooks which grab and won't let 
you go. 

There is the spot where Aborigines used natural rock to paint 
themselves, a plant which when split, made a useful fork, and a 600 

20 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society be ] 

year- old tree. Lunch by the pool, and we were entertained with white 
wine, fresh fruit, prawns and fish, while the floor show comprised 
numerous large birdwings coloured blue and green fluttering around. 
There was a 100 foot high strangler fig in the forest on our return trip 
to Port Douglas, where Gary showed us an animal and bird sanctuary 
similar to Healesville. ? 

We saw koalas grooming, ibis and the cassowary which eats the fruit 
of a particular tree and drops the pips elsewhere so the tree 
propagates; a classic bird-tree symbiosis. a rainbow lorikeet showed 
particular skill, trying to get at the sugar on our table. When we opened 
a tub of ice-cream, it quickly helped itself. 

Next day we went on a restored train to Kuranda, passing through 
reclaimed swamp and many tunnels before reaching our destination, 
Kuanda station, festooned in tropical plants. During my wanderings 
here I found two specimens of ladybird Scymnodes platyomus- 
baccoformis in the leaves of a huge cactus plant. It's also sugar cane 
country — one acre produces 40 tons of sugar — and Tate and Lyle have 
taken over the local Bundaberg sugar company. 

At Junguburra are two lakes and more and more rainforest. We 
cruised on lake Barrine and saw many birds — pelicans, ducks, 
cormorants, a whistling kite which caught food from us in mid-flight, 
and bush turkeys. 

At Milla Milla, a spectacular waterfall surrounded by forest, I found a 
small blue chrysomelid Arsipoda chrysius Oliver. Walking about here 
we were warned not to touch a certain plant which could give an 
excruciating sting that might prove fatal if not treated. 

After three days in and around Cairns we had to fly back south, to 
Sydney and the Park Regis hotel, 45 storeys high and with great views. 
With only a short time there I did mange to visit Oceanworld at Manly, 
across the bay and also walk through the Rocks District, the heart of 
old Sydney. Back to Melbourne, and two more days before flying off to 
Singapore where, on my last afternoon, I captured my last beetle, an 
orange Lagriid called Exosama nigra. 


My thanks to staff at the Coleoptera Department of the British Natural 
History Museum for helping me identify some of the creatures 
mentioned above. 

2 eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeOee—— 

3 Volume 55 + February 1996 21 

Around Arnside 
by Jonathan Ellis (10077)) 

St. Thomas Vicarage, Heber Street, Radcliffe, Greater Manchester M26 2TG. 

During 1994 I went on holiday with my family to the Lake District and I 
stayed at Grange-over-Sands. One day we decided to go across the bay 
and climb Arnside Knott. When we were about half way up we came 
across a meadow that was full of butterflies and other insects. They 
seemed to be attracted to common knapweed (Centaurea nigra). As | 
had my butterfly net with me I caught (and released) the butterflies I 
found there. These were the:- 

Common blue (Polyommatus icarus) 

Meadow brown (Maniola jurtina) 

High brown fritilliary CArgynnis adippe) 

Other insects found that day included:- 

White tailed bumblebee (Bombus lucorum) 

Soldier beetle (Rhagonyca fulva) 

Common green grasshopper (Omnocestus viridulus). 
But this is not all. I visited the meadow again on another warm day and 
this time insects recorded there included all those seen before (apart 
from the Common blue (Polyommatus icarus)), and in addition the:- 

Tree wasp (Dolichovespula sylvestris) 

Red admiral (Vanessa atalanta) 

Scotch argus (Erebia aethiops). 
I also came across a National Trust notice board that said the meadow 
was one of two places where the Scotch argus (Erebia aethiops) is 

found, it also said that the Brown argus (Aricia agestis) may be found 
there too. 

Also on this walk we went through some woods on top of a cliff and 
here I saw thousands of wood ants and some Grayling butterflies 
(Hipparchia semele). 

As you can see Arnside is an excellent place for insects and these are 
obviously just a few I found there on my walk. But these were a very 
interesting two days for me. 

— = SS 

EE ee 

22 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ee 

A Feathered ranunculus on board! 
by R.A. Eades (9730) 
28 The Stray, South Cave, Brough, North Humberside HU15 2AS. 

On the afternoon of the 2nd October 1993 I boarded a ship in 
Alexandra Dock, Hull, called the “Arco Arun”, in order to pilot this 
vessel down the Humber and out to sea. The ship is a large dredger, 
which extracts gravel from the bed of the North Sea, and occasionally 
calls at this port with aggregates for the building industry. She had 
arrived during the night and discharged her cargo of gravel. The 
weather was settled at the time, and the previous night had been humid 
and misty. In the wheelhouse I noticed a dead moth at the bottom of 
the bridge windows. As I could not identify it, I collected it, and 
showed it to Derek Cutts, who identified it as a Feathered ranunculus, 
Eumichtis lichenea lichenea. | took the specimen to Spurn Nature 
Reserve, where the warden, Barry Spence and his assistant David Boyle 
confirmed the identification. Presumably the moth flew on board during 
the inward voyage whilst the ship passed the end of Spurn Point, | 
during the hours of darkness. At Spurn the species is a “common 
resident” (Spence 1991), and the date is within the dates given by him 
of “second week of September to the second week in October’. Sutton 
and Beaumont 1989 describe it as a “mainly coastal species” which “is 
now spreading again in Yorkshire”. The possibility also exists that the 
moth came on board in Hull docks, where there are still areas of 
derelict land with a very interesting weed flora (Crackles 1990). 
However, I think this unlikely, because the ship's wheelhouse is locked 
up in port, which would both prevent a moth flying in, and also 
prevent a moth trapped inside from leaving. Furthermore, with the 
rapid growth in trade since Alexandra Dock was reopened last year a 
lot of interesting habitat has been lost to industry. The sighting is of 
interest in showing once again the possibility for insects to spread by 
human transport. I wish to thank Derek Cutts and Barry Spence for 
their help in identification and preparing this note. 


Crackles, E. (1990). Flora of the East Riding of Yorkshire. Humberside County Council, 

Spencer, B. (1991). The Moths and Butterflies of Spurn. Spurn Bird Observatory, Kilnsea, 

Sutton, S.L. and Beaumont, H.E. (1989). Butterflies and Moths of Yorkshire. Yorkshire 
Naturalists Union, Doncaster. 

ae Volume 55 « February 1996 23 

Never mind the molluscs... 
here come the moths! 

by Len Winokur (8070) 

55 Palmer Park Avenue, Reading, Berkshire RGO 1DP. 

Never mind ichneumons, spider mites and slugs. Scourge of the 
breeding tub may well be closer to home — among our Lepidopteran 
“friends”, no less. 

tasteuly i hada tub of bird's-foot: trefoil — or “BFT” as it is 
affectionately known (Lotus corniculatus L.), freshly potted up for 
imminent oviposition by captive bred Wood white butterflies (Leptidea 
sinapis L.). | at once covered it with an intact netting sock, tied the 
neck of the sock secure to the rim, and placed the set-up in a bowl of 
water as a “moat” against ants. Only sinapis adults were let in — under 
scrutiny, before re-tying the sock with string. And over the prevailing 
hot and sunny spell, free oviposition ensued. 

SO when one day I inspected my charge, I was baffled to find the 
yellow flowers now withered, and the upper stems — which I was sure 
ought to be much taller — stripped of leaves. But most distressing of all, 
no Wood white eggs! I urgently unveiled the netting only to find a very 
self-satisfied caterpillar, which this Lotus-eater later proved to be, a 
Large yellow underwing moth (Noctua pronuba L.). The parent female 
had undoubtedly sneaked in a lay at the very start, and as for the Wood 
white eggs, well, the babies went down with the bathwater. 

On another occasion, while transferring Wood white between tubs, I 
segregated six pupating larvae plus some Lotus to a clean plastic carton, 
to prevent risk of damage during transfer. I also placed therein some 
third instar Common blue (Polyommatus icarus Rottemburg). Paul 
Daniels — you ain't seen nothin! yet! For when I removed the lid, just 
four pupating larvae — hey presto! — but no chrysalids! Not — that is, 
until I discovered two ghostly hollowed-out cuticles. Distressed again? 
A touch of the blues, I say! 

Many readers will be familiar with the cannibalistic habits of some of 
our butterflies, the Orange tip (Anthocharis cardamines L.) and Holly 
blue (Celastrina argiolus L.) being the two most notable offenders, but 
there appears to be less mention of cross-species attacks by otherwise 
phytophagous (vegetarian to you and me) caterpillars. E.B. Ford in his 
famous. Butterflies (1957. London: Collins), describes the Dun-bar moth 
(Calymnis trapezina L.) as wholly carnivorous with a weakness for 
larvae of the “looper” moth family (Geometridae). That the Large blue 

24 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society a 

butterfly (Maculinea arion L.) makes good on ant grubs in the nest is 
common knowledge, Ford suggesting their flesh fad to be an extension 
of their cannibalism, which others assert may itself have arisen in 
Lepidoptera as a consequence of competition for foodplants. Now 
feeding is typically stimulated by specific chemicals in the plant tissues. 
Since moulting larvae and freshly-formed pupae will likely have 
accumulated a concentrated dose, is it possible then that they might so 
be serving as scrumptious “eat-me” beacons? The soft cuticles of fresh 
young pupae would surely make for easy pickings. 

Son of Silver Y: Note on Autographa gamma L. 

by Don McNamara (5537) 

6 Fulham Close, Hillingdon, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB10 OSU. 

1994 was a good year for these lively moths, seen in great numbers 
whenever and wherever I went moth-hunting. : 

In West London (Uxbridge) and in Buckinghamshire (Denham) every 
expedition revealed hordes of them dashing about in the fields around 
the Colne River complex — also on the South Downs (Brighton, Hove 
and Portslade) and on the North Downs (Dorking, Westhumble and 
Box Hill) great numbers of these greyish-brown moths occupied the 
fields during late July and throughout August. 

The West was also inundated: the Cotswolds in particular — and in 
the Forest of Dean (Newnham-on-Severn), they were very common, 
flying to light in houses and pubs causing much comment — so many 
being noticed by local observers. 

Of course it is possible that among them were numbers of the Plain 
golden Y, Autographa jota, the Beautiful golden Y, Autographa 
pulchrina, and other similar noctuids, but having inspected many 
moths, which were almost certainly Autographa gamma, I'm sure that 
Silver Ys were in the majority. 

It seems that from May onwards a substantial immigration of the 
Silver Y occurred which added to the indigenous population. Mostly 
these moths were somewhat “tatty” and dull, no doubt due to their 
having travelled great distances and because of their energetic habits, 
but on the 8th September (1994) I saw a freshly-emerged specimen on 
a gatepost in Hillingdon, Middlesex, a pristine moth with its intricately- 
patterned wings and subtle colouring showing just how beautiful they 
can be. 

a Volume 55 « February 1996 25 

Sheep nostril botfly (Oestrus ovis): Larval infestation of the 
conjunctiva of a Bedouin 

by John Hay (6878) 

3306 Glasgow Road, Ralston, Paisley, Strathclyde PA1 3BH. 

Larvae of several dipteran species can invade the human eye and cause 
disease. This so-called ophthalmomyiasis, which can occur with varying 
degrees of severity, can be induced by Gasterophilus spp., Hypoderma 
spp. and Oestrus ovis larvae (Soulsby, 1982). The infestation can affect 
the orbit, or the internal or external parts of the human eye (Keen et al. 
1991). External eye involvement, such as conjunctivitis, is commonly 
associated with O. ovis, the Sheep nostril, Sheep warble or Botfly 
(Cameron et al. 1991). This occurs mainly in shepherds, or those 
involved with cheese-making from sheep milk, and most often in 
Central America, Southern Africa and the Mediterranean, but the larvae 
are sometimes isolated from the eyes of travellers returning from these, 
and other endemic areas. 

The adult female O. ovis is viviparous Carviparous), usually 
depositing her larvae in the nostrils of a sheep, or sometimes another 
animal such as a goat. There may be as many as 500 larvae instilled 
into the nostrils of a single animal. The first instar larva, about 1—1.5mm 
in length, migrates into the nasal tissues where it undergoes further 
development. About eight to twelve months later, the mature third stage 
larva, by this time around 25mm long, migrates back to the nostril, falls 
to the ground and subsequently undergoes pupation. 

impthe case reported here, a Bedouin shepherd had the‘larvae 
deposited onto the conjunctiva of his right eye. The larvae cannot 
undergo further development in the human host. He suffered from 
intense irritation and discomfort and his eye was badly inflamed. Six 
whitish-yellow larvae were removed from the surface of his conjunctiva 
using fine forceps. This is not always easily performed since the larvae 
can be quite motile. Topical steroids were applied to reduce the 
inflammation and antibiotics were provided to eliminate bacterial 
infection (Reingold et al. 1984). These interventions were associated 
with a rapid resolution of his ocular problems. 

The extracted larvae were placed in a balanced salt solution, prior to 
chemical fixation using formalin. They were processed and stained 
using a solution of acid fushsin in 20% alcohol (Oldroyd, 1973). A larva 
is shown in Plate 96D, Fig. 7. The anterior end of the larva had a 
prominent pair of protuberant oral hooks (Fig. 1); these are used to aid 

26 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 34 

attachment to the tissues of the host. Several rows of spiracles were 
located dorsally and ventrally to the oral opening. The terminal end had 
two characteristic terminal bulges, each carrying 12 hooklets (Plate 96D, 
Fig. 8). | 

Fig. 1. Anterior end of larva showing prominent pair of oral hooks. (Hay) 

Some dipteran larvae can rapidly penetrate the outer coats of the eye 
to cause very severe, potentially sight-threatening disease. In the case of 
an O. ovis infection, the condition is usually benign and self-limiting, 
but as was the case with this unfortunate shepherd, the infestation can 
lead to more overt disease. The entomologist is a key person in this 
situation. Prompt removal of the larvae from the eye is essential, as is 
rapid and precise microscope identification of the offending immature 
insect, since successful medical treatment is very much dependent upon 
a correct diagnosis. 


Cameron, J.A., Shoukrey, N.M. & Al-Garni, M. (1991). Conjunctival ophthalmomyiasis 
caused by the sheep nasal botfly (Oestrus ovis). American Journal of Ophthalmology. 
112: 331-334. 

Kean, B.H., Sun, T. & Ellsworth, R.M. (1991). Opthalmomyiasis. In: Colour Atlas’/Text of 
Ophthalmic Parasitology. lgaken-Shoin Medical Publishers Inc., New York. pp. 223-228. 

Oldroyd, H. (1973). Collecting, Preserving and Studying Insects. Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., 

Reingold, W.J., Robin, J.B., Leipa, D., Kondra, L., Schazlin, D.J. & Smith, R-E. (1984). 
Oestrus ovis opthalmomyiasis externa. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 97: 7-10. 
Soulsby, E.J.L. (1982). Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals, 7th 

edition. Bailliere Tindall, London. 

3 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Fig. 1. Papilionidae. 
Left: Papilio xuthus Right: P. protenor 

Fig. 2. Lycaenidae. 

Top left (two): Curetis acuta Top right (two): Everes argiades 
Mid left (two): Lycaena phlaeas Mid right: Celastrina agriolus 
Bottom left: Lampides boeticus Bottom right (two): Pseudozizeeria maha 


Volume 55 « February 1996 36 

Fig. 3. Nymphalidae. 
Top left: Neptis sappho Top right: Vanessa indica 
Mid left & bottom left: Polygonia c-aureum Bottom right: Cynthia cardui 

Fig. 4. Hesperiidae. 
Top left: Daimio tethys Top right: Pelopidas mathias 
Bottom left: Potanthus flavus Bottom right: Parnara guitata 


Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Fig. 5. Joe becomes a star? 


Volume 55 « February 1996 


TT ; 
or a Ni 


i ANN 
‘ \\ 

Fig. 8. Posterior end of larva showing hooklets. 


+] Volume 55 ° February 1996 2/7 

Some notes on the Summer of '95 

by Wayne Jarvis (9899) 
9 Napier Court, 44-40 Napier Road, Luton, Bedfordshire LU1 1XP. 

The summer of 1995 has broken many a record. In the Lincolnshire 
Fens there was only 72mm of rain between April and August, and June, 
July and August were nationally the driest months in most areas since 
records began 336 years ago. These three months were also the third 
hottest on record — only 1826 and 1976 being hotter. August brought 
temperatures which were 2 to 4C higher than average in Scotland and 
eastern England and 4 to 6°C higher than average in the rest of England 
and Wales. There were a staggering 11 days where no rain was 
recorded anywhere in the UK in August but by the end of the month, 
the weather had broken and September brought rain. The highlands of 
Scotland received a record September rainfall in only 12 days. Floods 
were common, with the baked earth unable to soak up the exceptional 
falls of rain. The unseasonal trend continued with the warmest ever 
October being recorded. 

The summer was a wonderful one for migrant insects, especially from 
the east and south. Hundreds of Camberwell beauties have been 
recorded, mainly in the south and east but also much further north. | 
have received several reports of sightings of this insect from throughout 
the country. I received a letter from Stuart Pittman (9135) detailing a 
sighting in Hitchin, Hertfordshire on 4th August in a forest of Buddleia 
in the town centre. Not to be outdone, I visited the site 24 hours later 
and sighted two insects on one bush. On 5th August Jonathan Ellis 
(10077J) spotted a beauty when climbing Hopegill Head in the Lake 
District whilst on holiday and Mr D.W. Lacey (8872) reported a sighting 
on Saturday 12th August in the Botanic Gardens of the University of 
Durham on a Buddliea bush. Jerry Jones (8347) reported the insect on 
the Isle of Man between the 13th and 16th August in Port Erin in the 
south-west of the island. However, the two records which I received 
that stand out are from Nicholas Cooke (3266) and Steve Fry (4302). 
Nick Cooke was returning from a day's fishing in the Reay Forest above 
focheviore between Laire and Durness on the 8th August. Ihe 
specimen was on open moorland at an altitude of around 350 metres, 
well away from woodland cover. After consultations with Steve Moran 
of BRISC Highland Record Centre at Inverness Museum, it was 
discovered that all previous sightings of the insect have been further 
east in Caithness and Easter Ross. There were four other Scottish 
records this year from Ayrshire, Dumfries and Galloway, Fife and 

28 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 34 

Moray. Steve Fry's record came from Wales on the 10th August. Steve 
was on a heather-clad ridge which forms the Clwyd/Powys boundary 
near the summit of Moel Sych in the Berwyn Mountains (SJ1051314) 
and was at an altitude of 710 metres — does this take the altitude record 
for British Camberwell beauties? 

Several Queen of Spain fritillaries were also recorded this year along 
with more common species, such as Painted ladies and Red admirals, 
which arrived earlier than usual and moved swiftly northwards. A few 
records of the Long-tailed blue have been recorded, one of which Barry 
Dickerson (8422) sighted on 27th August whilst on a Huntingdonshire 
Moth and Butterfly Group Field Meeting in Kent at the Sugarloaf/ Castle 
Hill complex near Folkestone. 

Butterflies which lay their eggs in the late summer have generally 
suffered as a result of the drought but the wetland species such as the 
Swallowtail, have done well. The Large blue has done exceptionally 
well this year, which poses many concerns for conservationists, as there 
is a fear for the future of the ant colonies which the butterfly parasitises. 
Monarchs have also invaded our shores with a vengeance this year, the 
fifty records being the best since 1981. Most of these butterflies landed 
on the south coast, west of the Isle of Wight, and spread inland as the 
summer progressed. Mr T.K. Dunkley (7423) from Rushden, Northants 
reported a Monarch on the 11th August in a friends garden in Finedon, 

As far as other insect species were concerned, wasps had a very 
good year and the newly established Continental species continued to 
spread north and west. Hornets also did well and bee-keepers had an 
extremely productive year. Dragonflies were much in evidence this year 
and there were many records of migrants from the east, notably the 
Yellow-winged darter in East Anglia (see April's Bulletin). Ants, 
droneflies, ladybirds and hoverflies thrived as did grasshoppers and 
crickets. Long-winged coneheads continued to spread northwards and 
the Roesel's bush cricket also had a very good year. One insect which 
also had a good year is the Anopheles mosquito which transmits 
maleria. It is worrying that if the trend for warm summers continues, it 
may well become resident in this country. 

What will the effects of last summer be on this season's insects? We 
shall have to wait and see. 

34 Volume 55 « February 1996 29 

Notes on the Silkmoth Rearer's Handbook 
by Dr P. Roy (9647) 

162 Southcroft Road, Tooting, London SW17 OTP. 

The following information may be of use to members who are interested 
in silkmoths. 

Caio romulas. 

One female and one male were caught at lights in Italiae near Rio de 
Janiero, Brazil, in October 1992. 

The female laid 18 ova, six of which emerged after one week. The 
larvae fed on willow and survived until the third and fourth instars 
when (Christmas now) the willow was in very poor condition and the 
larvae languished and died. They were not difficult to rear and with 
good foodplant would have pupated. The larvae were similar to Agiia, 
tan with eye spots along the sides. 

Copaxa canella. 

One female at lights in the same locality at the same time. Willow, oak, 
holm oak, privet, grass and rhododendron were all tried as larval 
foodplants with no success. 

Automeris ovalina. 

Larvae were very common at the same locality and took sugar cane and 
bamboo. In the UK they took bamboo. I took a dozen of which only 
four survived. They grew very slowly and hatchings of the adults were 
staggered and so no pairings occurred. The larvae were black all over, 
including the head and the spines. The pupae were formed in loose, 
flimsy cocoons amongst the bamboo leaves on the floor. 

Italiae is 100 miles west of Rio. It is a national park with good and 
relatively cheap accommodation in the park. The area is Atlantic 
montane forest and the altitude 1500 feet. The specimens were found 
over a period of three days and nights with no use of a moth light. 
More moths might have been caught with one. Butterflies were also 
numerous in the area. 

30 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 36 

Foodplants of Swallowtail larvae 

by Brian Gardiner (225) 

2 Highfield Avenue, Cambridge CB4 2AL. 

I have noted with interest the articles by Trevor Sampson and Leigh 
Plester concerning P. machaon larvae feeding on ground elder 
(Aegopodium podagaria). This is in fact one of the many foodplants 
recorded in 1949 by P.B.M. Allan in his book Larval Foodplants: a vade- 
mecum for the field Lepidopterist. In this book Allan often differentiates 
between foodplants which a species has been found on (or recorded 
on) and those which it is known to eat in captivity. Ground elder is 
amongst the latter and is also a member of the Umbelliferae, members 
of which are the chief foodplants of the Swallowtail. 

Swallowtail larvae, both of Papilio machaon gorganus and of P. m. 
britannicus have been recorded as feeding on a wide variety of 
foodplants, all in either the family Umbelliferae or the Rutaceae. The 
British race britannicus, in the wild, has been, and still is, much more 
particular in its choice of food than is the continental gorganus. Both, 
however, have been recorded on, and will accept when in captivity, a 
very wide range of plants. Generally it seems that britannicus prefers 
wild angelica (Angelica sylvestris) and milk parsley (Peucedanum 
palustre) while gorganus prefers carrot (Daucus carota) and fennel 
(Foeniculum vulgare). | venture to conjecture that the reason for this 
differential choice lies in both the habitat and the habits of the female. 
In England the habitat is low-lying marshy area; on the continent wide- 
ranging and up to 4000 feet. As has been shown by Dr Dempster in his 
study of britannicus on Wicken Fen, the females are only able to find 
the plants on which to oviposit if they are standing proud of the 
surrounding vegetation. This effectively limits the choice of 
foodplant to wild angelica and milk parsley. With its very 
wide-ranging habitat, covering all 

types of vegetation, gorganus has 
no such constraints and the female is 
able to find and to lay on a much 
wider range of foodplant. 

Although Umbelliferae are undoubtedly 
the main plant family used, several members 
of the Rutaceae are also avidly eaten, rues 
(Thalictrum spp.) in particular being the most 
often used and quoted in the literature. 

36 Volume 55 ° February 1996 31 

A note on Bacillus rossius, the Corsican stick insect 

by Don McNamara (5537) 

6 Fulham Close, Hillingdon, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB10 OSU. 

In 1985 I bought some ova of the Corsican stick insect from a dealer in 
Cheltenham, to add to my growing number of species. I have often had 
“population explosions”, particularly of the Indian stick insect 
Carausius morosus, and others — and the habit was to give them away 
but in the following spring, 1986, I had so many that I “liberated” many 
of them in a bramble patch by a local Hillingdon wood, Pole Hill 
Wood, and throughout that year both Carausius morosus, and the pink- 
winged stick insect Sipyloidea sipylus, were evident until late into the 
autumn. Incidently there is a bramble patch in the centre of this wood 
that is frost-free — where I gather food during winter-time (for insects, 

I had difficulty, oddly enough, with the Corsican stick insect, despite 
breeding some exotic, far-eastern types. Many offspring died in mid- 
growth — before maturity, despite changing temperatures, spraying 
regimes and alternative foodplants. Other pressures were upon me at 
that time so I decided to cut my losses and close down the “operation”. 
The livestock was snapped up by budding young entomologists and I 
eventually cleaned out the cages throwing away the detritus, 
presumably containing some ova, into the back garden, where much 
bramble exists. During the summer and autumn of 1986 the neighbours 
reported “strange insects” in their gardens — all of which turned out to 
be either Carausius morosus or Sipyloidea sipylus. The pink-winged 
stick insects appeared the next year, 1987, five alone in my garden. But 
since then — nothing. 

That is until last year, 1993. Whilst collecting some bramble leaves for 
caterpillars from the back garden of the above address, I discovered, 
low-down, just above ground level, two greenish stick insect nymphs 
about two centimetres long. They certainly looked like Bacillus rossius, 
but I wasn't sure and in any case I left them where they were — despite 
being puzzled at the time. 

However, on 30th July, this year, whilst hacking the slightly out of 
control bramble I dislodged an adult Corsican stick insect, a beautiful 
specimen, light green with the tell-tale lateral white stripe on each side. 
This I now have in “protective custody” and it has laid five eggs to date 
(ist August). 

32 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 3 

Although I believe, in Cornwall and Devon, New Zealand species 
have “acclimatised” and are now regarded as British, this is the first 
time I've heard of this species lasting more than one year “in the wild” 
in Britain. 

As, from the time of the disposal of the eggs until today, eight years 
have elapsed — and although it is true that winters appear to be milder 
and it is possible that inside the London Basin a warmer climate or 
micro-climate exists anyway, I would think that the possibility exists for 
this species to be viable here. Whether it has the capability of 
“acclimatising” (not a very scientific term), or it has already the capacity, 
a small colony has undoubtedly been in existence here for nearly a 

What's in a name? 

by Graham Best (7928) 

Bellargus is Adonis 

I thought everybody knew, 
and Plebejus argus 

is the Silver-studded blue; 
galathea is the Marbled white 
carduis the Painted lady, 
hyperanthus is the Ringlet 

its haunts are damp and shady; 
iris is the Emperor 

brassicae is a white 

and that's as much as one small head 
can carry, I think — quite. 

She listened very patiently 

then turned when I had done, 

to where a lovely Brimstone 

was basking in the sun, 

She said “I love this pretty yellow one” 
and, with that my tale is done. 

With apologies to Reginald Arkell 
(Collected Green Fingers). 

3d Volume 55 « February 1996 33 

Ringlet (Erebia) butterflies in Greece 
by Dr Andrew Wakeham-Dawson (9379) 

The Game Conservancy Trust, Fordingbridge, Hampshire SPO 1EF. 


There are at least 46 European species of Ringlet butterflies and they 
are often associated with arctic or alpine habitats. These species are all 
quite closely related and over 75% of the species are endemic, 
sometimes only located in a few particular mountain areas (Higgins, 
1975). The localised distribution of these species may be a result of the 
prehistoric ice-ages. With the periodic advance and retreat of the polar 
ice-sheets, it appears that some populations were isolated in mountain 
areas and evolved in isolation from even quite close neighbours. The 
genus Erebia has been discussed in detail by Warren (1936). 

As part of a study of Greek butterflies, I reviewed recent information 
on Erebia butterflies reported to live in Greece. I found that at least 
nine species (apparently mainly restricted to the mountains of central 
and northern Greece) have been recorded, and I include a summary of 
information relating to these species in the current article. I also include 
some of my own observations. I hope this may be useful to other 
readers and I would be most grateful for any information about the 
subject that others could supply to me. 

List of Erebia butterflies found in Greece 

In the following list, * indicates that the pre-adult stages of a species are 
described in Chinery (1989). Larval foodplants listed are those generally 
recorded for a species throughout its range and not necessarily those 
used by a particular species in Greece. 

Erebia ligea /ligea Linnaeus 1758*. Arran brown. 
Flight: Early July (Dacie et al., 1972). 
Habitat: A single colony near Florina, north Greece in flowery mountain 

meadows between 1000m and 1450m. Flying even in cloudy 

Larval foodplant: Grasses, including finger-grass (Digitaria) and wood 
millet (Milium effusum) (Higgins & Riley, 1980). 

34 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society aS 

Erebia euryale euryale Esper 1805*. Large ringlet. 
(a). Flight: Late July and early August (Dacie et al., 1982). 

Habitat: A colony in fresh condition in a mountain conifer forest 
clearing near Drama, north Greece at 1450m. 

(b). Flight: Late July and early August (Wakeham-Dawson, 1995). 

Habitat: A small colony in sub-alpine pasture at 1750m near Drama, 
north Greece. Males only. 

Larval foodplant: Grasses (Higgins & Riley, 1980). 

Erebia aethiops raethiops Esper 1777*. Scotch argus. 
Flight: Late July and early August (Dacie et al., 1982). 

Habitat: A colony in open mountainous terrain near Drama, north 
Greece at about 1300m. 

Larval foodplant: Grasses, including purple moor grass (Molinia 
caerulea) and couch (Agropyron) (Higgins & Riley, 1980). 

Erebia ottomana ?ottomana Herrich-Schaeffer 1847. Ottoman brassy 

(a). Flight: Early July (Coutsis, 1973). 

Habitat: Rocky ground with sparse vegetation at 1900m on Mount 
Tymphristos, central Greece. Two males and one female. 

(b). Flight: Early August (Dacie et al., 1982). 
Habitat: Sub-alpine meadows at 1700m near Florina, north Greece. 
Larval foodplant: Not known (Higgins & Riley, 1980). 

Erebia melas melas Herbst 1796. Black ringlet. 
(a). Flight: Early July (Coutsis, 1973). 

Habitat: Rocky ground with sparse vegetation at 1900m on Mount 
Tymphristos, central Greece. Also recorded from Mount Olympus and 
Mount Parnassus at 1800-2000m. (Coutsis, 1969). 

(b). Flight: Late July and early August (Wakeham-Dawson, 1995). 
Habitat: An extensive colony in sub-alpine pasture between 1700m and 
1800m near Drama, north Greece. Females rare. Flying even in cloudy 
and misty conditions. 

Larval foodplant: Not known (Higgins & Riley, 1980). 


4 Volume 55 * February 1996 35 

Erebia oeme spodia f. vetulonia Fruhstorfer 1918*. Bright-eyed ringlet. 

Flight: Late June, a first record of this species in Greece? (Dacie et al., 


Habitat: An extensive colony flying among fir trees between 1300m and 
1650m near Drama, north Greece. 

Larval foodplant: Wood-rush (Luzula) (Higgins & Riley, 1980) and 
fescue (Festuca) grasses (Chinery, 1989). 

Erebia medusa ?medusa Denis and Schiffermtiller 1775*. Woodland 

Flight: June (Luckens, 1990). 

Habitat: Northern Pindos Mountains. Also recorded between 1400m and 
1800m from the Pindos Mountains and Mount Olympus (Coutsis, 1969).. 

Larval foodplant: Grasses, including hairy finger-grass (Digitaria 
sanguinalis) and wood millet (Milium effusum) (Higgins & Riley, 1980). 

Erebia phegea ?dalmata Godart 1824. Dalmatian ringlet. 

I think this species has been found near Kozani in north Greece. Any 
information would be most gratefully received. 

Larval foodplant: Grasses (Chinery, 1989). 

Erebia epipbron. Knoch 1783*. ?subsp Mountain ringlet. 
Luckens (1990) reports that there is a race of this species near Florina. 
Any information would be most gratefully received. 

Larval foodplant: Grasses especially tufted hair-grass (Deschampsia 
caespitosa) (Higgins & Riley, 1980). 


I thank the Greek government (especially Mr John Petamides at the 
Ministry of Agriculture), and the staff of the Goulandris Natural History 
Museum, Kifissia, Greece (especially Katerina G. Prapopoulou) and the 
British Museum (Natural History), London for their help. 

36 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society oe 


Chinery, M. (1989). Butterflies and Day-flying Moths of Britain and Europe. Collins, 

Coutsis, J.G. (1969). List of Grecian butterflies. Entomologist, 102: 264-268. 

— , (1973). List of Grecian butterflies: additional records 1972. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., 
85: 105-168. 

Dacie, J.V., Dacie, M.K.V., Grammaticos, P. (1972). Butterflies in northern and central 
Greece, July 1971. Entomologist’s Rec. J. Var., 84: 257-260. 

Dacie, J.V., Dacie, M.K.V., Grammaticos, P. & Coutsis, J. (4982). Butterflies in northern 
Greece, July-August 1980. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., 94: 18-20. 

Dacie, J.V., Dacie, M.K.V., Grammaticos, P. Higgins, L.G. & Higgins N. (1979). Butterflies 
in northern Greece, June-July 1978. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., 91: 311-314. 

Higgins, L.G. & Riley, N.D. (1980). A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain and Europe. 
Collins, London. 

Higgins, L.G. (1975). The Classification of European Butterflies. Collins, London. 

Luckens, C.J. (1990). Around Greece in fourteen days — 1988. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., 
102: 77-84. 

Wakeham-Dawson, A. (1995). Butterflies in North-east Greece (28th July — 4th August, 
1994). Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., (In press, possibly for publication in May or July 

Warren, B.C.S. (1936). Monograph of the Genus Erebia. British Museum (N.H.). 

New records for Wales 

by Colin Jones (9694) 

7 Larch Avenue, Shotton, Deeside, Clwyd CH5 1NF. 

On 30th June 1995, my moth-trapping friend, Geoff Neal and I visited 
Shotton Nature Reserve in Clwyd (SJ295710), for a night's light-trapping. 
Included in our catch were a total of six Mythimna obsoleta (Obscure 
wainscot). We have since had confirmation that this is not only a new 
record for Clwyd but also for North Wales. On another visit, 28th July, 
we recorded four Archanara dissoluta (Brown-veined wainscot). This 
species is mentioned in Heath's Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain, 
Vol. 10, stating there is a colony in north-east Wales but no location is 
given. It seems we have re-located this long-lost moth. 

The habitat at this site consists of Phragmites, reedmace, willow, 
birch etc. A perfect Wainscot area, if you don't mind mosquitoes. 

I would also like to inform members and any visitors in the future to 
Flintshire, as it will be in April 1996, that I will be the new moth 
recorder for the County and I would appreciate any records of moths, 
trapped, collected or casually observed, and I will acknowledge all 

36 Volume 55 «* February 1996 oy 

The Brown argus Gricia agestis ) in Huntingdonshire (VC31) 
by Barry Dickerson (8422) 

27 Andrew Road, Eynesbury, St. Neots, Cambridgeshire PE19 2QE. 

I read with interest the article by Peter Tebbutt about the reappearance 
of the Brown argus in Northamptonshire (Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc. 54: 
(402) October 1995). Here in Huntingdonshire this butterfly has enjoyed 
a population explosion during the past three years. The Brown argus 
was unrecorded during stage one of the county survey 1980-1989, but 
can now be found on several sites both in the north and south of the 
county. On one site, Litthe Paxton Gravel Pits, which was the site on 
which the butterfly was rediscovered in 1992, now has a population of 
several hundred individuals extending over the whole complex of 
disused gravel workings. It can also be found in several woods where 
BieneuateawiGe tides and in the disused brick, pits south of 
Peterborough. Two of my recorders have also found it nectaring on 
buddleia (Buddleia davidii) in gardens, although the favoured source 
for nectar appears to be fleabane (Pulicaria dysenterica) as large 
numbers of Brown arguses can be found feeding from this during 
August, along several of our woodland rides. 

The problem of larval foodplant has also intrigued us. There is no 
rock rose (Helanthemum nummularium) growing wild in 
Huntingdonshire and storksbill (Erodium cicutarium) is also 
uncommon. Most of the local Brown argus sites do have a few plants of 
cranesbill (Geranium sp.) growing on them, but not enough to support 
the populations of butterflies found there. I have seen ova being laid 
on cut-leaved cranesbill (G. dissectum) and have tried to feed larvae on 
dovesfoot cranesbill (G. molle). I say tried because I found that first 
instar larvae were not capable of reaching the fleshy parts of the leaves 
because of the abundance of fine hairs that cover the leaves. All the 
first instar larvae tried on dovesfoot cranesbill died of starvation. 
Howard Hillier, one of my recorders, informs me that he has found a 
reference in an old book that states that the Brown argus will feed on 
black medick (Medicago lupulina). This plant is much commoner than 
those mentioned previously; we therefore hope to try this as a larval 
foodplant during 1990. 

One remark in Peter Tebbutt's article does concern me. He states that 
the site on which the Brown argus was found in 1959 no longer occurs 
in Northamptonshire. I would like to point out that if the site was in 
Northamptonshire (VC32) in 1959 it is still in Northamptonshire (VC32) 

38 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 3 

as far as recording is concerned. The politicians can play about with 
county boundaries for their own amusement as often as they like, but 
recording must follow Watsonian vice-county boundaries, a system that 
was drawn up in 1852, so that records from the past can be compared 
with those of today and of the future, thus enabling us to discover what 
changes are taking place over the years in a known area. 

Unidentified caterpillar in Saurland, Germany 
by Mari Margaret Clausen (10435) 

Kleingemtinder Strajse 59, 69118 Heidelberg, Germany. 

Whilst on holiday in late July in the Saurland in Germany, my children 
found beside a pond a very large green caterpillar with a horn at the 
back. It was approximately three inches long with very faint black 
stripes on it and three bright yellow spots near its head. I would 
describe it as smooth-skinned and of the family Sphingidae but as yet 
we have not been able to find it in any of the books we've looked at, 
including Collins Field Guide to Caterpillars of Britain & Europe. \t was 
munching on a low-lying plant which had other minute black 
caterpillars feeding from it. 

I cannot remember if this particular species displayed the sphinx-like 
attitude or not . . . only that it vaguely resembled Sphinx ligustri in its 
size and was green in colour. As far as I recall, the horn too was green 
and not black. 

Insect translocations 

by Colin Nicholls 

Dept. of Biological Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire STS S5BG. 

I am currently undertaking a review of insect releases as part of a Ph.D. 
Studentship at Keele University. I would be interested to hear from 
anyone involved in, or with first-hand knowledge of, insect releases 
into the wild, whether it be for conservation or amenity purposes, or 
merely the disposal of surplus breeding stock. Details of subsequent 
monitoring (if any) would be particularly appreciated, especially for 
insects other than butterflies. The confidentiality of all respondents will, 
needless to say, be scrupulously respected. 

Volume 55 «+ February 1996 39 

Wandelnde Blatter, Stab- und Gespenstschrecken by Dieter Schulten, 
Papcante@. 5). ppls2, + 8 colour plates, /5 figures. 1995. 
Entomologische Mitteilungen aus dem LObbecke-Museum und 
Aquazoo. Available from Lébbecke-Museum und Aquazoo, Bibliothek, 
Frau Enders, 40200 Dusseldorf, Germany. Price 30DM before March 
1996, 40DM from April 1996 ISSN 09386726). 

Even if the stick and leaf-insect (phasmid) enthusiast cannot 
understand German, this work is an excellent guide to 55 species in 
culture, with many line drawings. Some recent research and many 
newer species in culture have been included and the extensive 
references section will be of practical use to enthusiasts. 

The front cover is yellow with an impressive sketch of a female 
Extatosoma tiaratum. Introductory chapters deal with a wide range of 
subjects, including culture information, morphology, eggs and 
taxonomic notes. Pages 26-28 provide a taxonomic listing of the species 
included, which are covered in pp 29-118. 

The species section gives brief notes on each species, with a useful 
highlighted box giving basic information on size, distribution, 
development and foodplants. Eggs are usually illustrated alongside 
adults. This feature will be of considerable use to breeders. The colour 
plates of eight species greatly enhance the book. 

Generally, the information provided is accurate, although it 
occasionally needs expanding, e.g. Haaniella muelleri is only listed 
from the type locality of Sumatra. However, as far as I know, culture 
stock has only been collected at Templer Park, near Kuala Lumpur, 
Peninsular Malaysia. However, such omissions do not detract from the 
main value of this book, which enables the breeder to know the key 

40 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 3¢ 

facts about a species. Another minor point is that species! names 
require amending, as follows: 

p.32 Oreophoetes peruanas should read Oreophoetes peruana’. 
p.49 Lonchodes uniformis should read Lonchodes brevipes Gray. 
p.82 Pharnacia acanthopus should read Pharacia serratipes (Gray). 

p.87 Eurycnema herculeana should read Eurycnema versirubra 

p.92 Bacillus rossii should read Bacillus rossius. 
* = also applies to my AES book (1992). 

Page 114 appears to illustrate Anisomorpha monstrosa Hebard, from 
Belize, under the text for A. buprestoides from USA, which is split into 
two “forms”. This is also the case in the author's fine colour photograph 
(1995) of monstrosa in Datz, 10: 642-646. 

My Catalogue of Peninsular Malaysian phasmids (in press) will also 
impact on some areas. In particular, rearers should note that the pink- 
winged Madagascan culture stock of “Sipyloidea sipylus’ is not this 
species, but should be regarded as a Sipyloidea species for the time 
being. True S. sipylus are common in Asia, but are a brown-winged 
species. Records of S. sipylus from Australia also relate to a distinct, but 
again similar, species. 

An index completes the book. Many of the 55 species covered differ 
from species included in my 1992 AES book, reflecting some recent 
imports and, to a lesser extent, the different species cultured in Europe 
compared with Britain. The two books combined will be of 
considerable value to the phasmid rearer, covering the vast majority of 
species in culture today. 

Paul D. Brock (4792) 

Journal Review 

Insectes: un autre monde parmi nous, edited by l'OPIE. A4, 30pp per 
issue, illustrated in colour and monochome. ISSN 0245 0151. Issued 
quarterly.) OPIE, “B-Pe Nox 9)°/804) GUYANCOURIT Cedexe i france: 
Subscription FF210 (or FF180 in France). 

This is yet another entomological journal which is published in the 
larger format of A4 and is finely illustrated in colour throughout with a 
mix of news, views, conservation items (there is an extremely 
informative article on Parnassius species in issue 93), there is a 
particularly strong emphasis on rearing methods as well as accounts of 
various French insects. To give an idea of the coverage recent issues 



36 Volume 55 » February 1996 41 

have covered the rearing of locusts, a very attractive Goliath beetle, 
Kentish glory moth, the stick-insect Phyllium giganteum and the beetle 
Megasoma acteon. Other articles include an account of a gall produced 
by a tineid larva, and, really fascinating, Medico-Legal Entomology with 
a useful table of which insects and when they arrive on a carcass. There 
is also an account of conserving your collection and, for those 
holidaying in France, a list of museums and butterfly houses where 
insects may be seen. One very good reason for reading (French required 
— but for less than the price of this journal one can buy a computer 
dictionary!) this journal is the insight it gives us on continental practices 
which differ in some respects from ours. In my experience the cages 
illustrated for locusts appear clumsy and awkward; not a patch on those 
used for decades by myself and the Department of Zoology in 
Cambridge, nor those made in this country by Small-Life Supplies. I have 
the impression that the French are much better, or perhaps more 
interested in, rearing beetles than we are. English expertise rearing 
Lepidoptera, however, cannot be surpassed. In view of the number of 
us who now go and collect in France, or who specialise in rearing, this 
journal could prove to be extremely useful. Indeed I found almost all 
the articles of interest. My latest information is that there is serious 
consideration being given to publishing an English edition. 

Brian O.C. Gardiner (225) 

A rare find at Wyrley Common, Staffordshire 
by Jan Koryszko (6089) 

3 Dudley Place, Meir, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire ST3 TAY. 

On 21st June 1995, my friends Mr Derek Heath and Mr Charles Byatt 
visited Wyrley Common, Staffordshire. The weather was fine and sunny 
and they noted and photographed a number of common species. Derek 
then noticed a clearwing moth on a flower, so he netted it, and later in 
the day I identified it for him. It turned out to be a Six-belted clearwing 
(Bembecia scopigera Scop.) — a very rare moth in Staffordshire. The first 
confirmed record for Staffordshire was taken by G. Blunt at Rowley 
Regis on 25th July 1993, and since then there have been only a couple 
of records in the county. In Richard South's book The Moths of the 
British Isles (1909), he gives Staffordshire as one of the counties in the 
Midlands where the species can be found. Wyrley Common has a 
prolific growth of kidney vetch (Anthyllis vulneraria), the foodplant of 
this moth. The Small blue butterfly (Cupido minimus) is also quite 
common in the area — I saw it myself on 2nd August 1995. The Six- 
belted clearwing moth is now in the collection of Mr R.G. Warren, the 
county Lepidoptera recorder for Staffordshire. 

42 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 34 

Dragonflies — food for hobbies? 
Some answers: 

— by Alvin Picknell (10196) 

In response to Arthur Cleverly's request for information as to whether 
hobbies habitually feed on dragonflies (Bulletin 53: 70), it may be of 
interest that the Hamlyn Guide to the Birds of Britain and Europe states 
that the hobby “feeds to a large extent on dragonflies, which are 
hunted in late afternoon/evening”. Also, Subbuteo Natural History 
Books Ltd of Treuddyn, North Wales, who take their name from the 
hobby's Latin name Falco subbuteo, use a line drawing of a hobby 
about to seize a dragonfly in mid-air as their emblem. 

— by R.A. Eades (9730) 

The short note by Arthur Cleverly, Bulletin 53: 70, on the behaviour of 
the hobby, Falco subbuteo, describes a classic hunting technique of this 
magnificent migratory falcon. As he surmises, its prey would doubtless 
be dragonflies or damselflies, which would be eaten on the wing. The 
same technique can be used on swallows and other birds. 

The hobby is very much an insectivorous bird and migrates in winter 
to the plains of Africa where it exploits the abundant supplies of insects 
following the rain fronts. Cramp et al. (1980) gives details of pellet 
contents in England during May and June. The species found were 
Saturnia pavonia, Macrothylacia rubi, Lasiocampa quercus, Melolontha 
melolontha, Geotrupes spp., Carabus violaceus, Bombus spp., and 
Cordulegaster boltonii. However, in England the hobby also eats 
numerous insectivorous birds, especially house martin colonies in 
villages, so its life cycle depends upon insects as the base of its food 

Cramp, Simmons, et al. (1980). Handbook of the birds of the Western Palearctic Volume 2. 
pp 320-1. Oxford University Press. 

— by Ben Phalan (10160) 

In response to the article by Arthur Cleverly (Bulletin 53: 70) which 
poses the question “Are hobbies predators of dragonflies?”, the 
following may be of interest. 

Christopher Perrins, in Collins New Generation Guide to the Birds of 
Britain and Europe, states “The hobby and the red-footed falcon feed 
primarily on young swallows and martins and also take many large 
insects such as dragonflies.” 

In Birds of Europe, Lars Jonsson tells us that the hobby “Often hunts 
dragonflies over marshes and reedbeds on summer evenings.” Perhaps 

a Volume 55 + February 1996 43 

they do the canals during the afternoon, and save the marshes and 
reedbeds for dessert. (Hmmm .. . I wonder if a Libellula depressa tastes 
nicer than an Anax imperaton). 

Lastly, according to The Complete Book of British Birds, the hobby 
“Often catches insects such as dragonflies in flight, holding them in Cits) 
talons to dissect and eat.” 

This is presumably what the hobby in question was doing: swooping 
down to catch the dragonflies, and then climbing high into the air to 
eat them. The swallows were probably safe from attack, as the falcon 
would be too busy staying airborne, and at the same time consuming 
its prey, to simultaneously hunt them! Which begs the question — why 
did it bother with dragonflies when there were swallows flying right up 
to it? Surely a swallow would provide as much food as quite a few 

Several other books I referred to named “insects” or “large insects” as 
being on the hobby's menu, and I recall reading an observation of a 
hobby returning to the nest with a grasshopper for its mate. 


Anon. (1987). The Complete Book of British Birds. Auotmobile Association, Hampshire, 
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy Bedfordshire. (p.137). 

Jonsson, L. (1993). Birds of Europe with North Africa and the Middle East. Christopher 
Helm, London. (p. 156). 

Perrins, C. (1987). Collins New Generation Guide to the Birds of Britain and Europe. 
Collins, London. (p. 252). 

A Magpie moth in Ayrshire 
by Frank McCann (6291) 
3 Langbar Path, Easterhouse, Glasgow G33 4HY. 

I was at Dunure on the Ayrshire coast recently and, whilst waiting for a 
bus back to Ayr, I caught a female Magpie moth which had been 
fluttering on the road. I put some apple leaves with it in a container, 
there were lots of crab-apple trees growing on an embankment just 
across the road from where I found the moth. I damaged the wings a 
bit on capture, but it laid three eggs on a blackcurrant leaf which I 
provided when I got home. I then released it onto the blackcurrant 
bush in my garden. 

I last saw the species many years ago and again it was in Ayrshire. 
The year was 1953 and I was seven or eight years old at the time. It 
was the larvae of the species I saw then. 

44 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society oe 

Banned nets lead to inaccurate records 

by Brian Gardiner (225) 

2 Highfield Avenue, Cambridge CB4 2AL. 

I cannot agree more with the last paragraph of Tony Steele's article 
(Bulletin 54: 101) that loss of habitat due to Government indifference is 
responsible for the decline of butterflies (and of course other wildlife). I 
too am also concerned about the possible banning of nets, for this will 
lead to many false identifications being recorded. I have already had 
experience of this, having been reliably informed that, at a distance of 
ten to twenty yards, “of course I can tell the difference between an 
Essex and Small skipper.” At an even greater distance there are those 
who can distinguish Small whites from Green-veined whites and is it 
not just possible that it might be an immigrant Bath white? Myself, I like 
to catch the specimen and make sure, although to pacify the “anti- 
catching” brigade I now never carry more than a couple of boxes with 
me and certainly no killing agent! Indeed I find, as a member of the 
local Ramblers Club, that my fellow members, non-entomologists but 
mostly interested in the wildlife we encounter on our rambles, take a 
keen interest when I catch, name, show, and then release, any butterfly 
or other insect we come across. Amongst some people also a 
dichotomous attitude exists. I once had my net roundly condemned by 
a lady with a dog; it was wrong to catch (even if they were then 
released) anything, but it was perfectly all right for her dog to disturb 
and try to savage ground-nesting birds. That was a “natural” activity! 

It is perhaps interesting that “the wheel has come full circle” in 
regard to the attitude to nets. One has but to consult some of the 
Victorian literature to realise that nets were then an object of ridicule, 

and collectors often took pains to disguise 
them: hence the invention of the folding 
net. Now it seems the ridicule has tumed 
into abuse and even physical attack has 
now been recorded. We have recently 
been informed by the media of the 
phenomenon of “road rage”; is “net rage” 
about to overtake the poor entomologist? 
One is left wondering if those who so 
object to nets are equally vociferous in 
objecting to Government road and other 
schemes which are wrecking SSSIs and other 

™ - . ht i 
rc ic a nn 

3 Volume 55 « February 1996 45 

| Bug unmasked 

by Maxwell Barclay (9229) 
47 Tynemouth Street, Fulham, London Sw6 2QS. 

The photograph of “An unidentified bug covered in particulate debris” 
in the June 1995 Bulletin (Plate 951, Fig. 1) is a nymph of the Masked 
bug (Reduvius personatus) which, as the author Mr Guye suggests, is a 
Reduviid or Assassin bug (Hemiptera; Heteroptera; Reduviidae). The 
insect is quite common in and around human habitation in Europe, 
where it is quite beneficial, as it will feed on the larvae of flies, fleas, 
museum beetles and other undesirables. It is also found, more rarely, in 
Britain, where it is called the Fly bug. It is our largest native assassin 
bug. The nymph is camouflaged with dust, cobwebs and the like. This 
is probably both defensive and aggressive, as it is a voracious predator, 
but is also likely to be a tasty morsel for lizards, birds and spiders. Its 
camouflage is so good, that in a dusty corner it may escape the human 
eye altogether, except when it moves. Therefore, it often moves fast 
and suddenly, freezes, and then moves again, to minimise the amount 
of time spent moving. 

It is possible that its coating of loose matter also gives it some 
protection against the spider webs which abound in the habitat where 
it lives. If it brushes against a sticky strand, it may not become directly 
snared, but simply leave some of its coating behind. This form of 
camouflage was observed by Linnaeus in the 1700s, when he gave it its 
mame: -—Personatus’, meaning “Masked”. He also touched on its 
usefulness, saying “Consumit cimices lectularios huius larva, horrida, 
personata’ ie “Its horrible masked larva eats bed-bugs”. 

More than a century later the brilliant French naturalist J. Henri Fabre 
turned his all-seeing eye onto this species, and observed how, as soon 
as it hatches, the loose portion of the egg shell adheres to the newly 
emerged nymph. He goes on to say, “The insect exudes a certain 
unctuous humour... to this varnish the dust adheres without any 
further trouble on the insect's part. The Reduvius does not dress itself; it 
dirties itself; It turns into a pellet of dust, a walking bit of filth, because it 
emits a sticky sweat.” 

So, he observed, the process by which the bug acquires its disguise is 
passive, unlike those crabs which actively plant their shells with sea 
anemones and weedy matter. Fabre also disputes Linnaeus's 
observation about bed bugs, saying that they will no doubt be eaten if 
encountered, but not exclusively, or even for preference. Certainly this 

46 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 36 

is backed by my experience, as I have recorded the Masked bug on 
almost twenty occasions, but I have never found the Bed bug, nor has 
it found me, at any of these sites. 

The adult Reduvius is very different from its nymph, and probably 
more familiar, as it is a conspicuous insect. It is around 20mm long and 
chocolate brown or ebony black. It does not cover itself with debris, 
probably because it flies readily, and a coating of dust would interfere 
with its wings. It comes readily to light, and sits quite brazenly on walls 
indoors, almost always facing downwards. 

If one observes it for long enough, one will see it attack other insects 
by sidling slowly up to them, rushing them and stabbing them with its 
broad rostrum. If disturbed it will drop to the ground and then scuttle 
for cover or make short flights. If handled it will squeak alarmingly, and 
may stab one's fingers. 

The Masked bug is certainly an interesting insect, all the more so 
because one can observe it in the comfort of one's own home. 
Unfortunately, I have not yet encountered it in Britain. Possibly it is 
declining, like the Barn owl and the cellar beetle, because the habitat 
(outhouses, attics, stables efc.) is so rapidly being destroyed, converted 
or modernised. 

Sandwich Bay Bird Observatory Trust Entomological Section 

by Ron Carpenter 
26 Peter Street, Deal, Kent CT14 6DG. 
I would like to invite any members of the AES to join with me in the 
formation of an entomological section of the SBBOT. The aim is that of 

an active section in as many disciplines as possible in some 810 
hectares of nationally important and diverse habitat. 

For further information please contact me at the above address or 
telephone 01304 381083. 

AES Members' Day & AGM 
Saturday 20th April 1996 

at the Royal Entomological Society of London 
41 Queen's Gate, London 

10.00am — 4.30pm 

36 Volume 55 + February 1996 47 

The Living Carpet tile 
by Clive Betts (4976) 

Roseland, Poltimore, Exeter, Devon EX4 OXT. 

It was an otherwise normal evening in our basement flat in Teddington, 
Middlesex. I crossed the floor of the living room, checked the window 
was locked, reached up and tugged at the edge of the heavy curtains. 
The curtain did not budge. We did not usually close the curtains in this 
room so, thinking the rail was a bit sticky, I pulled harder. Slowly, fold- 
by-fold, the curtain material unfurled accompanied by a distinct tearing 

Somewhat baffled I inspected the material. All along the bottom hem, 
where the curtain had rested on the floor, dozens of small, silvery-grey 
cocoons lay exposed, tiny trails of silk wafting from them where they 
had been ruptured by my tugging. What on earth had made such a 
large number of cocoons? 

I lifted the curtain clear of the floor. The carpet tiles upon which the 
curtain rested were composed of a coarse organic material like 
horsehair and here they looked distinctly frayed and soggy; we had a 
big problem with damp in this room. 

Forgetting the cocooned curtains I bent down to prise up the carpet 
tile. It moved. As I lifted one edge, the other edge gently wriggled away 
from me. I flipped over the tile and gazed with astonishment at some 
fifty or so fat, white larvae munching merrily away at the base of the 

Each larva was about ten millimetres in length and had a shiny 
brown head and thorax. I prised up the adjacent tile: another thirty 
larvae; the next one, twenty or so more; and so on around the edge of 
the room. I ended up with over 380 larvae and 40 damaged tiles, some 
tiles with nearly 50mm of carpet eaten away. The larvae, clearly 
lepidopterous, were eating and tunnelling in the black tar-like base of 
the tiles, leaving the hairy covering almost intact: from above, unless 
you looked closely (or trod on the tile), the damage was mainly 

The larvae were only present in the tiles around the edge of the 
room. Here it was damper and did not suffer too much trampling. They 
were at their densest by the window and occupied tiles up to one 
metre from the room's edge, although only in small numbers (three or 
four per tile) in the more remote tiles. 

48 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society 36 

At the time I was working for (the then) Commonwealth Institute of 
Entomology as a microlepidopterist and I had a feeling I recognised 
these larvae from somewhere. Sure enough, the following day I 
captured and identified an emerging adult. My living carpet tiles were 
in fact the larvae of the Brown house moth Hofmannophila 
pseudospretella, a magnificent name for a small and rather 
unspectacular moth! It ranges from about 8mm to 15mm in length, and 
is silvery-brown with long antennae and fringed wings. Frequently seen 
in homes, it can cause serious damage to woollens and other fabrics 
but I have not heard of Hofmannophila being associated with such 
wholesale destruction of carpet tiles. 

The males tend to run rather than fly when disturbed and they are 
good at sneaking in between folds of material, cracks and crevices to 
escape detection. The larvae need 80% humidity to complete their 
development: our damp basement flat, coupled with the food supply 
from our floor covering, created a perfect environment for the larvae. 

As for the carpet tiles: I spent a whole day lifting each tile, taking it 
out of the house and shaking free its inhabitants. I rather sneakily 
returned every tile to its former place and hoped any future purchasers 
would not notice that the floor covering was only about 70% tile, 20% 
larval droppings, silk and detritus, and 10% nothing .. . 

A note about identifying household insect pests: there are one or two 
useful books which will give you a good idea of at least the Order of 
insects with which you are dealing, and usually can frequently guide 
you to a precise identity. Insects like the microlepidoptera can be 
difficult to identify to species, but most indigenous pests in the UK are 
well known and readily identified without resorting to tortuous 
taxonomic keys. If you are having trouble coping with insects in and 
around the home try contacting your local environmental health officer 
for advice in the first instance. Here are some books worth looking at 
plus the guide I used to confirm the identity of my moth. 

Mourier, H., Winding. O. & Suneson, E. (1977). Collins Guide to Wildlife 
in the house and home. 224pp. 

Hicken, N.E. (1964). Household Insects Pests. Rentokil Library. London. 
Hutchinson. 172pp. 

Betts, C.R. (Ed.) (1987). CIE Guides to insects of importance to man. 
1 Lepidoptera. Wallingford & London: CABI & BMNH. 262pp. 


4 Volume 55 « February 1996 49 

Glow-worms in Wales 

by Sharon Flint 

7 Church Brow, Halton on Lune, Lancaster LA2 OLS. 

iIngeatyveiuly 1995 4my husbandeand dawere engaged in‘ an 
entomological excursion to Anglesey. We were camped just on the 
border of Newborough forest, on the south-west of the island, within 
an easy reach of Llanddwyn island and Newborough Warren. 

The 5th of July saw our first sighting of two male Lampyris noctiluca, 
one in each loo on the campsite in the daytime (SH422652), both were 
looking rather worse for wear and so we took them as specimens. Our 
next sighting was at the Clynnog, main road entrance to Newborough 
Forest. Here on the road verge were twelve adult male Lampyris 
noctiluca. All were walking in roughly the same direction, into the 
forest, through the grassy sandy verge (SH415649). What were they 
doing out in daylight in the morning and where were they going? We 
do not know! 

Then, on the 7th of July, we explored Newborough Warren, to find, 
in the hollow of a large sand dune under some discarded cloth, at least 
four dead male glow-worms among the debris. The weather that day 
was cold and wet. Were the glow-worms, then, taking shelter and how 
had they died? 

I would be very pleased to hear of similar sightings and more about 
the ecology of this somewhat intriguing beetle. 

Purple and White-letter hairstreak butterflies in Hem Heath 
Wood, Staffordshire 

by Jan Koryszko (6089) 
3 Dudley Place, Meir, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire ST3 JAY. 

After a number of reports during 1995 of sightings in Hem Heath 
Wood, Staffordshire of the Purple hairstreak (Quercusia quercus) and 
the White-letter hairstreak (Strymonidia w-album). 1 visited the wood 
with John Baronovski on the 17th August 1995 and it was not long 
before we spotted these butterflies in the tree-tops. 

It has been almost twenty years since I have seen these two species in 
this wood. They were discovered in Hem Heath Wood by R.G. Warren, 
the County Lepidoptera recorder in the early 1970s and since then they 
have not been seen very often, until this year. No doubt the hot 
summer of 1995 has made them more common in the wood. 

50 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society | 

BENHS British Entomological and Natural History Society. 
DNHAS Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society. 

ITE Institute of Terrestrial Ecology. 

LCES Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. 

LNHS London Natural History Society. 

LSL Linnean Society of London. 

RES Royal Entomological Society of London. 

RES(QG) RES Rooms, 41 Queen's Gate, London SW7. 


Information from: 

To make the diary effective contributions are needed from members. 
Any relevant items should be sent to the Bulletin Editor. No charge is 
made for entries. Please allow three months advance notice. 




ITE Workshop — Butterflies for the new Millennium. 
Monks Wood. A day's workshop costing £5 for participants. 
I: Paul Harding 01487 773381. 

BENHS Workshop — Molluscs. 

Please contact organiser for details and to book in advance. 

I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

BENHS Indoor Meeting — Landscapes and Wildlife Conservation 
in New Zealand. 

RES(QG) 18.00hrs. Talk by Margaret Palmer. 

I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

Volume 55 « February 1996 51 

LCES Indoor Meeting — North Wales Invertebrate Conservation. 
Liverpool Museum, 19.00hrs. 

BENHS Workshop — Aculeates. 

Please contact organiser for details and to book in advance. 

I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

DNHAS Natural History Meeting — Beetles: Well I quite like 

Dorset County Museum, Dorchester at 19.30hrs. 

I: Kate Hebditch 01305 262735. 

LNHS Meeting — Lives and Loves of the Ladybird. 

Linnean Society Rooms, Burlington House, Piccadilly, W1, 18.30hrs. 
Michael Majerus form the Department of Genetics, University of 
Cambridge is the speaker. 

I: Catherine Schmitt 0181 346 4359. 

16-18th A Symposium on British Saltmarshes — geomorphology, 

biodiveristy, restoration. 

LSL, Burlington House, Piccadilly, W1. A look at the structure and 
biodiverity of British Saltmarshes. Day two consists of entomological 
lectures including: The aquatic Coleoptera of British saltmarshes, 
Factors affecting the Ground beetles of some British coastal habitats. 
The Rove beetles of British saltmarshes, Lepidoptera of British 
saltmarshes and Adaptive startegies of arthropods from UK saltmarshes. 
I: LSL 0171-434 4479 or by fax 0171-287 9364 

or by e-mail: 

LCES Indoor Meeting — Leaf mining insects and their mines. 
Liverpool Museum, 19.00hrs. 

BENHS Indoor Meeting — Plant-Insect interactions with 
particular reference to galls. 

RES(QG) 18.00hrs. Talk by Margaret Redfern. 

I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 









Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society tf 

AES AGM & Members' Day. 

At the RES(QG). Doors open from 10.00hrs for morning coffee. 
There will be four talks given during the day and members are 
invited to bring along specimens for identification if they so 
wish. The AGM takes place at 14.30hrs. Free refreshments will be 
available during the day. For further details see inside back cover 
of this Bulletin or the insert. 

I: Wayne Jarvis 01582 486779. 

BENHS Workshop — Saw/flies. 

Please contact organiser for details and to book in advance. 

I: Dr lan McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

DNHAS Natural History Meeting — The elusive white — Butterfly 
bunting in Columbia. 

Dorset County Museum, Dorchester at 19.30hrs. 

I: Kate Hebditch 01305 262735. 

RES Meeting — Title to be announced. 

RES(QG) Tea 17.00hrs, Meeting 17.30hrs. A talk will be presented by a 
member of the Ecological Special Interest Group. 

I: RES 0171 684 8361. 

BENHS Indoor Meeting — Sex, Parasites and Venereal Disease in 

RES(QG) 18.00hrs. Talk by Dr Mike Majerus. 

I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

RES Meeting —AGM € President's Address. 
RES(QG) Tea 17.00hrs, Meeting 17.30hrs. 
I: RES 0171 684 8361. 

INHS Meeting — Invertebrate Conservation at Home and Abroad. 
At the Linnean Society Rooms, Burlington House, Piccadilly, W1, 
18.30hrs. Dave Clarke, Head Keeper of Invertebrates, London Zoo is 
the speaker. 

I: Catherine Schmitt 0181 346 4359. 

Published 20th February 1996 by the Amateur Entomologists' Society 
(Registered Charity No. 267430), from 4 Steep Close, Orpington, Kent BR6 6DS. 



Granby Halls, Aylestone Road, Leicester 

Sunday 31st March 1996 
10.30am until 4.30pm 
Adults 41.50 under sixteens 50p 

All major dealers in attendance. 


Ample car parking 
Bar and cafeteria 


Jack Harris — 01455 846310 

Diary note: Christmas Fair — 1st December 1996 

The Moths and Butterflies of F- E BN 
Great Britain and Ireland —- Volume 3 HARLEY 
(Yponomeutidae to Elachistidae) os 

edited by A. Maitland Emmet — 

We must first apologize for the many delays in publishing this volume due to a combina- 
tion of circumstances beyond our control. We can now announce that it has reached the 
production stage and are therefore offering readers a last chance to purchase it at the pre- 
publication price. 

Volume 3 covers about 240 British species in the little-known microlepidoptera families 
Yponomeutidae, Epermeniidae, Schreckensteiniidae, Coleophoridae and Elachistidae. 
Like previous volumes, it is written by a team of authors with specialist knowledge of the 
families they describe. The Yponomeutidae are treated by David Agassiz; the Eper- 
meniidae by Charles Godfray and Philip Sterling; the Schreckensteiniidae (represented 
by only one species) by A. Maitland Emmet; the Coleophoridae by A. Maitland Emmet, 
with important contributions by John Langmaid, Keith Bland and Martin Corley; and the 
Elachistidae by Keith Bland. Distribution maps on a vice-county basis are provided for 234 

The nine colour plates of adults have been drawn by Richard Lewington who has also 
depicted the larval cases of all the coleophorid species. Genitalia drawings for critical 
yponomeutid species have been drawn by Tim Freed; those for all the coleophorids are 
by Professor Jézef Razowski of Krakow, author of a monograph on the Polish Coieo- 
phoridae; and those for all the elachistids are by Keith Bland. 

Following the practice of other volumes in the series, there is a special introductory 
chapter, by David Agassiz, on established migrant and adventive Lepidoptera in the 
British Isles. There are also extensive reference and index sections. 

This volume contains a considerable amount of original research, particularly of the 
early, hitherto undescribed stages of many species, and also brings together and greatly 
augments information on these families published in Continental works making it 
available for the first time to English-speaking lepidopterists. It will be of great vaiue to 
entomologists both in the UK and overseas. 

approx. 400pp., incl. 9 col. pls., 8 duotone plates of larval cases, several hundred text figs 
and 234 maps. ISBN 0 946589 43 7 H/B 
price on publication approx. £70.00 

pre-paid pre-publication price (c.w.o. by 31.3.96) £55.00 

The Flora of Hampshire NEW! 

by Anne Brewis, Paul Bowman and Francis Rose 
Also of great interest will be the first Flora for nearly a century of this botanically and 
entomologically rich county. 

408pp., incl. text figs and mono. & col. plates; 579 distribution maps. 
H/B ISBN 0 946589 348 £45.00; P/B ISBN 0 946589 53 4 £25.00 (p. & p. £3.00 extra) 

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| enclose my cheque/P.O./Please debit my charge card for 

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Publishes notes, observations, articles and reviews, 
mainly on the Lepidoptera and Coleoptera of the British Isles and Europe. 
Founded in 1890 by J. W. Tutt, and still going strong, we publish six issues a year — 
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Our subscription price is £20 per year. If you would like to see a specimen copy, please send 
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plates showing 74 photographs of larvae and adultmoths) . . . . .£13.75 
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COLCHESTER CO7 7JN. Telephone 01206 251600 


Saturday 20th April 1996 

at the Royal Entomological Society of London, 41 Queen's Gate, SW7 

there is no car parking facility at the R.E.S. and it is therefore strongly advised that public 
ransport is used. 

3y Train: The nearest mainline station is London Victoria from which the under- 
ground or bus systems should be used. 

3y Underground: South Kensington Station is served by Piccadilly, Circle and District Line 

Gloucester Road Station is served by Circle and District Line trains. 

To Hyde Park 
Imperial College of Science 
Technology and Medicine 

imperial 7S EEE Road 

Royal Entomological a | (Rosai Entoinolonical Soulety 
41 Queen’s Gate 

Queen’s Gate en’s Gate Place Science 

: 3 
& 4 
5 5 Victoria and 
5 Naturai History Museum ‘Ss Albert Museum 
Baden Powell oO 2 
House x 

A4 Cromwell Road 

THe outh Kensington Tube 

Cromwell Piace 

Harrington Road (Piccadilly, Circle and District Lines) 
Pethan, a 
out BE 0 50 100 


mm, | he ae ‘ 

of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society 


Junior Section: INombeér-5. 20)28 ee ea a ee 3 | 
J. Hay. Sheep nostril botfly (Oestrus ovis): Larval infestation of the conjunctiva of a 
B@GOUNIN. 252.5222 52S Asta ee doe 23s = 
W. Jarvis: Some notes on the summer of'95: .....:... Sy ; 3 
A. Wakeman-Dawson. Ringlet (Erebia) butterflies in Greece. ..............ceseseeeeeeeeeeeeeeees 5 a 
@. Eetts..the livme carpet tle: spaces saleetannssUlwaance Geert suey sso Seee ees, ee eee Az 
Short Communications | 
M. Pennington. Red admirals and washing lines .0............:seesceesseceeeeescensceeeeeeeeseeeees 2 | 
R.. Eades. A Feathered ranunculus on board) .2..2 22.2): ee I 
L. Winokur. Never mind the molluscs . . . Here come the moths! « 23 | 
D. McNamara. Son of Silver Y: Note on Autographa gamma. ..........::1eccsesceeeteeeeeteeees 1 
P. Roy. Notes on the Silkmoths Rearer's Handbook. ....:..2...---2.-Ses-c<:02-eeoen snes 29 
B. Gardiner. Foodplants of Swallawtail larvae. .....-..... 2.2 SO] 5 
D. McNamara. A note on Bacillus rossius, the Corsican sfick INS@GH <2. ean eee Seed 
G. Best. What's tna name? <2..2 ie 32 | 
C. Jones. New records-for Wales: ..c....5.05.0cc cee 36 
B. Dickerson. The Brown argus (Aricia agestis) in Huntingdonshire (VC31).. ............. 37 } 
M. Clausen. Unidentified caterpillar in Saurland, Germany. ..............::csscceeseesseeeseeees 38 
C. Nicholls. Inseet:translocations» .....-..--24<062ccctenees ee 38 | 
J. Koryszko. A rare find at Wyrley Common, Staffordshire. ...............:::::sceeeeseeeeeeeeees At ots 
A. Picknell, R. Eades & B. Phelan. Dragonflies — Food for hobbies? Some answers. 42 : 
F. McGann. A Magpie moth: in Ayrshire. .....-6..0-.<.con ae eee Ae | 
B. Gardiner. Banned nets leads to inaccurate records. ....2.:<....:<2cecesece--ccesseeereecnnee=see 44 
M. Barclay. Bug unmasked, 5...2..5.2. occ. cccice acetal sees canacencuctachbanceseg cece ee 45 
R. Carpenter. Sandwich Bay Bird Observatory Trust Entomological Section. ............ 46 . 
S..Flint.:Glow worms in Wall@s.........:.3ce0. (cates ecceencscensect teseessns tee te 
J. Koryszko. Purple and White-letter hairstreak butterflies in Hem Heath Wood, 49 
StahOnAShines .cocs cca eck seas esas enact onda /ecmemhntcn ns eeabees ce taceet scat Rete ec 49 
Ecditeiiall 03, csciecssaecsots wx pha cia Geweannemapeeeh meen piace amend Oy Rees 1 
Book Reviews — Wandelnde Blatter, Stab-und Gespenstschrecken ........::cesssceeeeeeeeeees 39 
Insectes: un autre Monde parMi NOuS (JOUrMal) ...........seeeeeeeeeeeeeeeees 40 
Diary Date. 0.0 i. .ccsccccesessuttonnecccednunecbasauttanstadnsassete ckaneus eben et tees ce CCSah Ge GaSe ne 50 

© 1996. The Amateur Entomologists' Society. 
(Registered Charity No. 267430) 
All rights reserved. 

Printed by Cravitz Printing Co. Ltd., 1 Tower Hill, Brentwood, Essex CM14 4TA. 


Volume 55 ¢ Number 405 

as oe 
= = 
= = 

Founded in 1935 

Where to write 
For all Society business, please write to: 

PO. Box 8774 
London SW7 5ZG 

Officers of the Society 
President: Rob Dyke 
Secretary: Wayne Jarvis 
Treasurer: Andrew Locke 
Registrar: | Mark Colvin 

Bulletin Editor: - Wayne Jarvis 
General Editor: Mike Bonsall 
Advertising Secretary: Rob Dyke 
Exhibition Secretary: | Roy McCormick 
Youth Secretary: Darren Mann 
ICN Editor: David Lonsdale 
Wants & Exchange: Caroline Willmot 

Habitat Conservation Officer: Martin Harvey 

Subscriptions: _ First subscription (including entrance fee) £12, or £8 under 
18. Renewals £10 or £6 under 18. Overseas members £12. 
Subcription due by the 1st January each year. 

Advertising Rate: The following charges apply to adverts in the body of the 
Bulletin. Full page £60, Half page £40, Quarter page £25. 
Insert charges available on request to Advertising Secretary, 
address as above. 

lt is to be distinctly understood that all views, opinions, or theories, expressed he pages urmai are s 
those of the author(s) concerned. All announcements of meetings ancial grants offered or sous quests ne 
information, are accepted as bona fide. Neither the Ec Officers and Council o Society is Trustees 
be held responsible for any loss, embarrassment or injury that might be sustained by reliance there 

OL( GY Lf 3RARY || 

sherborne, =U DT9 4QN. Tel 01935 “oF MiisclueeNd THD 


of livestock 
specimens and 

| ie Sy 1996 

Please mention 
5Op in stamps 
would be greatly 


on request, 
Catalogues of 
British, European 
and Exotic 
set and papered 


Registered charity 

At Compton House, Nr. a Cine Worldlife 
has evolved from Worldwide Butterflies. 
As well as magnificent butterfly displays, 
» conservation organisations are showing what 
“ais being done for the environment, and 
how all can become involved. 

Situated on A30 Yeovil-Sherborne Road. 
Open daily Apr-Sep. Tel 01935 74608 



Antiquarian, second-hand and New books 
Special offers and forthcoming book news 
Booksearch service. Please send your “wants” list 
Regular free catalogues and specialist lists 

Books bought 


Oxford House, 

Marlborough Street, 
Faringdon, - 

Oxon SN7 7DR UK 

Tel. 01367 244700 Fax. 01367 244800 

Our Faringdon shop has a large stock of Entomological & Natural History books and prints 

* Specialist suppliers of stereo 

RESEARCH miciocsopee (or EOE EME 


ASSOCIATION All instruments suitable for 

photography and drawing 

18 NORTH ROAD attachments. 
Large stocks of used 
CARDIFF RBcrdion, inatunnente rom 
CF1 3DY Books, slides, stains, equip- te 

ment — the complete service. 

For Scientific and Technical 30 page illustrated catalogue 
information on Bees (Apoidea) plain appiceiatee 

especially Honeybees (ApisSP). Telephone helpline for 
enquiries and viewing 


0272 591551 
Please write to the above address for open until 10pm daily. 
details of publications and membership. 
A specimen copy of “Bee World” is 
Unit 8, Pickwick Workshops, Park Lane, 

Corsham, Wiltshire SN13 OHN 




bon 4 



1 Tower Hill, 
Essex CM14 4TA. 
Tel: (01277) 224610 
Fax: (01277) 262815 



SUNDAY 12th MAY 1996 

PATTISHALL VILLAGE HALL (between Pattishall and Astcote), 


* OPEN 12.00 — 4.00pm * NORTHAMPTON 
Refreshments available 


Tel: 01327 830853 (Mike Bayley) 

Tel: 01909 550272 (Paul Batty) ~ 




Staines Road, Sunbury, Middlesex 

Doors open at llam e Admission £1.00 

Members free on production of pass to be issued with the 
August Bulletin. 

For further information please write to: 
The AES, PO Box 8774, London SW7 5ZG. 

The cover of this issue of the 
Bulletin depicts the head of a 

OF the Amateur Entomologists” Society fly abanus bromicus). 

Volume 55 * Number 405 April 1996 

ISSN O266-836X Editor: Wayne farvis BSc 

Photo: Nick Holford 



L ihe ue Entomologists’ Society 

Volume 55 ° Number 405 April 1996 


Increasingly over the years, the collection of insects has been seen as 
unacceptable throughout Europe by the general public. Indeed, feelings 
in some European countries have resulted in collecting effectively 
becoming forbidden. This in turn, has severely reduced or halted the 
recording or monitoring of insects species. 

In the UK, there are numerous natural history societies which all 
have their own views on collecting. Some are totally against it, except 
for the gathering of scientific knowledge. There are, however, 
“extreme” conservationists that would welcome legislation banning all 

The collection of specimens in the field must continue in furthering 
our knowledge of the science of entomology. It is fundamental that the 
pieces of as many ecological jigsaws are put into place as soon as 
possible if we are to save species that are threatened. Without the 
knowledge to put these jigsaws together, conservation will not be 
based on any understanding. However, the collection of insects as a 
hobby along the lines of “stamp collecting” is, I feel, another matter. In 
saying this, the breeding and setting of captive bred (and I stress 
captive bred) stock, does littlke harm, and gives great pleasure, as well 
as having great educational value to the entomologist. 

The AES Exhibition which is held annually, is obviously a large insect 
fair, selling much livestock and deadstock. The vast majority of traders 
obtain their specimens from captive bred stock or sell set specimens 
which were collected many years ago, when collecting was more 
acceptable. The AES is aware that it faces a major problem with the 
Exhibition with the sale of specimens, but similarly does not feel that 
the indiscriminate ban of the sale of these specimens would achieve 
anything. Britain has one of the most comprehensively studied and best 
known insect faunas in the world, largely through the work of the 
amateur. A lack of insect recording and monitoring due to a ban on 
collecting may actually tie the hands of the conservation bodies that 
need the data to fight land developers. 

54 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 36 

The Council has, therefore, decided that certain species of insect, 
which are so seriously threatened by extinction, are not acceptable for 
trade at the AES Exhibition or by inclusion in the Society's Wants and 
Exchange List, with immediate effect. Rather than compiling an AES list 
of species, we have decided to use the following established lists as 
grounds for not accepting species for sale: 

British specimens of species listed in the Insect Red Data 
Book of Britain 

IUCN Red list of threatened animals 
EC Habitats Directive 

The Biodiversity Action Plan 

These lists comprise over 1000 species, although many are very 
small, very local and very rare. They are, therefore, unlikely to be 
offered for sale at all. However, those species which are included 
which are likely to be offered for sale include: . 

The Mexican red kneed tarantula, the Lepidoptera; Ornithopteras 
aesacus, O. dlexandrae, O. chimera, O. croesus, O. meridionalis, O. 
paradisea, O. rothchildi, O. tithonus, Papilio antimachus, P. homerus, 
P. hospiton, Parnassius apollo, Troides andromache, T. dobertyi, T. 
prattorum, Artogeia virginiensis, Lycaena dispar, L. hermes, Maculinea 
arion, M. telieus, M. nausithous, Coenonympha oedippus, 6 Erebia 
species, 3 Charaxes sp., Graellsia isabelae, Hyles hippohaes, Proserpinus 
proserpina and the beetles C. intricatus and C. olympiae, Mormolyce 
Dhyllodes, the ghost walker, four stag beetles including Lucanus cervus, 
Buprestis splendens (the jewel beetle), and the rare European longhorns 
Cerambyx cerdo, Rosalia alpina and Morimus funereus. 

A full list can be obtained by sending a SAE to: 

Insect List 


PO Box 8774 
London SW7 5ZG. 

These measures have been introduced in an attempt to strengthen 
the status of the amateur, and will hopefully show that as amateurs we 
are committed to studying insects in this country in order to aid their 

34 Volume 55 « April 1996 55 

Easter break in Norfolk (13th to 18th April 1995) 
by George Tordoff (9555) 

68 Whitcliffe Road, Cleckheaton, West Yorkshire BD19 3BY. 

Faced with the prospect of spending the whole of the 1995 Easter 
period studying for my forthcoming A-level examinations, I decided to 
spend a few days with my parents in Norfolk. After all, surely six days 
away from the books couldn't hurt? 

Considering the time of year, as well as the lack of room available in 
our car, I decided against taking my m.v. lamp and generator, opting 
instead for the small portable Heath trap. 

The small house in which we stayed was situated just a few miles off 
the north Norfolk coast, in the village of Briston. A nice garden was 
located to the rear which seemed ideal for the moth trap. 

We awoke to glorious sunshine on the first day, and with the 
weather being pleasantly warm I decided to go searching for butterflies. 
Six species were recorded along the narrow country lanes, including 
two male Brimstones (Gonepteryx rhamni) and a Comma (Polygonia c- 
album). Unfortunately, the weather deteriorated after the first day, 
becoming mucnh- cooler and cloudier. This resulted in no more 
butterflies being recorded during our stay. 

The nights were also cool, with a minimum temperature of about 5°C 
on average. The Hebrew character (Orthosia gothica) and the Common 
quaker (O. cerasi) were predictably the commonest species of moth at 
light. A fine specimen of the Streamer (Anticlea derivata) was taken on 
the 14th (my first record of this moth in six years of trapping) and an 
immaculate male Purple thorn (Selenia tetralunaria) graced my trap 
when it was left in nearby mixed woodland for one night. 

After an hour or so of patiently scanning tree trunks on the 106th, I 
came across a female Waved umber (Menophra abruptaria) about two 
feet from the ground, making up somewhat for the strain caused on my 
eyes during this time. 

The final night was meteorologically one of the worst I have ever 
bothered to put my trap out upon, with heavy rain, strong wind and 
the temperature falling to 4°C. I was mildly surprised then to find three 
moths hiding inside in the morning, including a singleton of the 
Satellite (Eupsilia transversa) in remarkably good condition to say it 
could have been on the wing for six months. 

56 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society se 

Ten species of moth were recorded in all, along with a list of 61 
species of bird compiled by my father and me. 

It was sad to leave on the long journey back to Yorkshire, where the 
moth season doesn't even start to pick up until mid-June in our neck of 
the woods. It even snowed for a time while passing through 
Nottinghamshire, illustrating the unpredictability of the April weather in 

Mantids and Cockroaches Meeting and Study Group 
by Phil Bragg 

51 Longfield Lane, Ilkeston, Derbyshire DE7 4DX. Tel: 01159 305010. 

There appears to be a growing interest in Praying mantids and a 
number of people have recently expressed interest in forming a mantis 
study group. The major problems for anyone rearing mantids seem to 
be finding a mate for their adults or homes for the surpluses! Finding 
information about mantids, and identification of species, also present 
problems, especially for beginners. To try to get around some of the 
problems I propose forming a mantis study group which will produce a 
newsletter and a list of names and addresses of interested parties. 

To form the group, there will be a meeting at Dudley Zoo on 
Saturday 18th May. The meeting will be combined with the Blattodea 
Culture Group meeting. It is hoped that there will be a good selection 
of livestock (both mantids and cockroaches) on show at the meeting 
so, if you can, bring yours along! Access to the Zoo site will be by free 
tickets, to get these and further details about the meeting send a 
stamped addressed envelope to: Adrian Durkin, 8 Foley Road, 
Pedmore, Stourbridge, West Midlands DY9 8RT. Please note this 
address is only for details of the meeting or for information about the 
Blattodea Culture Group. 

If you are interested in mantids but are unable to attend the meeting, 
send a stamped addressed envelope to me at the address above; I will 
send out an information sheet after the meeting. I would be particularly 
pleased to hear from anyone before the meeting if they wish to help 
with the organisation of the mantis group. 

34 Volume 55 «+ April 1996 57 

Unbanned nets 

by Maitland Emmet (1379) 

Labrey Cottage, 14 Victoria Gardens, Saffron Walden, Essex CB11 3AF. 

I read Brian Gardiner's article on banned nets (Bulletin 55: 44) with 
interest and sympathy, but I would have preferred to know all he had 
to say to the crude Comma butterfly which rudely interrupted him in 
the middle of a sentence. 

The best way to deal with do-gooders is aggression. Here is an 
account of an actual incident, though of course I can't remember the 
precise words used. 

Indignant lady: “Why must you catch all the butterflies?” 

Me: “Actually, I'm not catching butterflies at all; but how splendid to 
meet someone who is interested in conservation. Which conservation 
body do you belong to?” 

I. L.: “I beg your pardon?” I repeated my question with explanatory 

I. L.: “I'm not a member of any conservation body”. 

Me? vetmayou “have the ‘effrontery to criticise me, who was a 
contributing author to the Red Data Book on endangered insects; who 
in my younger days joined working parties to improve habitats by 
clearing scrub; who by my study of life histories have helped to provide 
the information needed for planning conservation policy — you should 
be ashamed! Now if you give me your name and address, I'll arrange 
for your county Wildlife Trust to send you an application form for 
membership, so that at least your money can help the cause you hold 
so dear”. 

At this point the indignant lady ran away, weeping copiously. 

[Editor's note: The “crude Comma” on page 
44 of February's Bulletin did indeed cut 
Brian off short. In fact only one word was 
omitted, this being “habitats”. Apologies for 
this omission. ] 

58 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 84 

A Moo-ving experience 

by Graham Best (7928) 

12 Hortham Lane, Almondsbury, Bristol BS12 4JH. 

My technique for sugaring is to paint it in strips onto plywood boards 
which are stored and carried face-to-face in black polythene sacks. The 
boards gradually get impregnated with sugar and it is a clean and 
convenient way to carry them. It is also very economical on sugar 
except on one occasion when I left the boards set up only to discover 
when I returned to find a mooing herd of cows had licked it all off. I 
found later that molasses were an ingredient of silage and the smell had 
attracted them. 

A visit to Prees Heath and Whixall Moss, Shropshire 
by Jan Koryszko (6089) 

3 Dudley Place, Meir, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire ST3 JAY. 

On 5th August 1995, Derek Heath, Charles Byatt and myself set out for 
Shropshire. It was a very hot and sunny day, and our first stop was to 
visit Prees Heath to see the Silver-studded blue (Plebejus argus). We 
were not disappointed and several photographs were taken. It was a 
wonderful sight to see these beautiful butterflies. I also took an Ear moth 
(Amphipoea oculea Linn) on a ragwort flower. It resembled one of the 
many forms of the Large ear moth (Amphipeoa lucens Freyer) but on 
dissection by Bernard Skinner proved to be A. oculea (I would like to 
thank Bernard Skinner for examining the genitalia). It appears to be the 
only example of this genus that has been recorded flying in sunshine. 

We then moved on to Whixall Moss, where we saw large numbers of 
dragonflies around the water-filled ditches. Also of note were the 
number of trees which had been scorched by the very hot sun. Horse- 
flies were abundant — they seemed to be attracted to my black sun-hat. 
These flies had iridescent green eyes with orange patches on a dark 
abdomen and they had a vicious bite, no doubt the females of Chrysops 
relictus and a few Tabanus bromius. We saw a few Brimstone 
butterflies (Gonepteryx rhamni), all males. The most abundant moth 
was the Chevron (Eulithis testata Linn.) which we beat in quite large 
numbers from trees and shrubs. Also recorded were the Manchester 
treble-bar (Carsia sororiata anglica Prout.), the Blue-bordered carpet 
(Plemyria rubiginata rubiginata D. & S.), the Flame (Axylia putris 
Linn.) and one Dot moth (Melanchra persicariae Linn.). 

3¢ Volume 55 « April 1996 59 

Spain 1995 
by M.J. Dawson (9130) 

66 Tivoli Crescent, Brighton, Sussex BN1 5ND. 

The main reason for this trip was to study the Ascalaphids 
(Neuroptera). With the kind co-operation of the Agencia de Medio 
Ambiente in Madrid, authorisation was obtained to capture insects, 
including butterflies. Only four species were exempt, due to their rarity: 
Iolana iolas Golas blue); Plebejus pyalon (Zephyr blue); Plebicula 
nivescens (Mother of pearl blue) and Agrodiaetus fabressei (Oberthir's 
anomalous blue). Of these, only one P. nivescens was seen and this 
was out of the Madrid autonomous region. 

The only EFrebia retained was one E. triaria (de Prunner's ringlet). 
Our main hope was to find £. zapateri (Zapater's ringlet) but we were 
probably too early, as this species flies in late July and August. 

The main area studied was the eastern Sierra de Guadarrama, to the 
north-west of Madrid. The most common ascalaphid was Ascalaphus 
longicornis (Plate 96E, Fig. 1) which occurs in northern Spain and south 
and central France. In most places where A. longicornis was flying 
another ascalaphid A. cunii was found. In fact, the latter became more 
common the farther east one travelled. They fly together in the air. It 
was noticed that A. Jongicornis usually moved parallel to the ground, 
while A. cunii had an inundating flight. 

Only one specimen of A. baeticus was seen. This species is very 
similar to A. cunii, the main difference being in the heavy cross-veins in 
the forewings of the latter, as described by H.W. van der Weele in his 
monograph of the Ascalaphidae 1908. One writer treats these two 
species as one; there is, however, no overlap in the two forms, which 
would probably occur if these were variations of one species. 

A. coccajus (Plate 96E, Fig. 2) does not occur in the Madrid region, 
although it is very common in northern Spain, particularly in the Eriste 
(Huesca) area. 

Expectations of finding the two ascalaphids Bubopsis agrioides and 
Deleproctophylla variegata (Plate 96F, Fig. 3) were not fulfilled. Both 
these are given by van der Weele as occurring in Spain. 

The least frequently seen of the indigenous ascalaphids is Puer 
maculatus. A few specimens have been captured in southern France, 
around Marseilles, Nimes and Hyeres. Then none was seen for many 

60 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 34 

years until the capture of two specimens at Estagel, France, in 1981. 
Another was seen in the Sierra del Negrete in Spain in 1982. Lastly, a 
specimen was captured near Albarracin (Spain) in 1987. We searched 
long and hard but none was seen. 7 

Any information on ascalaphids would be welcomed for publication 
with photographs of the European and North African species: 

An orgy of male Stag-beetles Zucanus cervus L.) 
by Michael G. Guye (10024) 

1 route du Gat Mort, 33050 Cabanac et Villagrains, France. 

During the hot dry summer evenings of June, Stag-beetles are 
commonly seen on the wing here in my corner of the world in south- 
western France. Their slow heavy flight together with their particularly 
large size is unmistakable. On the evening of the 25th June 1995 I 
decided to do a spot of gardening. At 10pm, as dusk was falling, I 
heard a steady low humming noise at a distance of around ten metres 
from where I was digging. On approaching the source of the hum I 
realised it was coming from the large clumps of tall bamboos growing 
at the side of the house. It appeared to be coming from one clump in 
particular on the edge of the bamboo “plantation”. Closer examination 
quickly revealed numerous male stag-beetles in flight, hovering up and 
down the leaves and stems of this clump. Several more were walking in 
a frenzied fashion on the leaf litter at the base of the plant, as well as 
on the leaves and stems. On one stem, at about one and a half metres 
from ground-level, there was a group of five males that seemed to be 
engaging in a free-for-all fight. The bamboo plant seemed to be literally 
“alive” with these beetles. 

What was the cause of this “swarming” behaviour? Much to my 
surprise a close search for female stag-beetles proved negative. 
Therefore the attraction to this clump of bamboo was not due to the 
presence of females. This clump of bamboos grows very close to the 
soak-away for our domestic sewage. Could human contraceptive pill 
residues in this waste have been absorbed by the roots of the bamboo 
and somehow made the plant sexually attractive to male stag-beetles? 
Perhaps this idea is a bit far-fetched. Can anyone offer any other 
possible explantation for the above observation? 

36 Volume 55 « April 1996 61 

Hanging around in the woods: Long-leggedness in a leaf beetle 

by Richard A. Jones 

13 Bellwood Road, Nunhead, London SW15 3DE. 

Lankiness is a characteristic typical of many leaf beetles of the 
subfamily Clytrinae, but unlike other long-legged insects, it is the 
disparity between the long front legs and the relatively shorter middle 
and hind legs which gives the beetles their distinctive form. This long- 
leggedness, particularly pronounced in the males, has earned the group 
the American name “baboon beetles” (eg Arnett, 1993). 

The subfamily contains few species; in Britain only four are recorded 
(Kloet & Hincks, 1977); in central Europe 24 (Mohr, 1966); in Australia 
two (Lawrence & Britton, 1994), and in the USA about 40 (white, 1983). 
Erber (1988) gives a table of world-wide distribution of this and other 
subfamilies of the Camptosomata. The habits of few species are not 
known in any detail although it has long been known that many of the 
larvae are myrmecophilous and construct a case from their frass (eg 
Westwood, 1839; Erber, 1988). 

One very interesting paper was written by Donisthorpe (1902) on 
Britain's commonest species Clytra quadripunctata (L.) in which he 
describes how the beetles mate and how the females hang from 
branches whilst coating each individually-laid egg with excrement 
before dropping it to the ground below, where it will hopefully be 
picked up by ants and taken back to their nest. These observations are 
summarised in his later work on myrmecophiles (Donisthorpe, 1927). 

During a recent visit to the United States I had the opportunity to 
observe a North American clytrine species mating and “hanging about” 
in the herbage and offer a few observations on these curiously convex 
and slightly clumsy beetles. 

The evergreen oak woodlands of central Florida have a_ thick 
undergrowth of herbs and shrubs. A medium-sized red and black 
clytrine beetle, tentatively identified using Arnett (1993) was common 
on the leaves of many of these shrubs. Mating pairs were frequent. 

The males in particular have very long and curved front tibiae, 
presumably to grasp the females during mating. Both sexes are convex 
and semi-globose and during copulation the male hangs precipitously 
to the back of the female. Together the pair orient to form an almost 
right-angled coupling (Figure 1) appearing very ungainly. 

62 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 34 

Figure 1. Right-angled coupling of the leaf beetle. 

While the male's hind legs grip the underside of the female's 
abdomen, his middle and front legs hook their long claws under the 
rim of elytra behind the middle. This is in marked contrast to Clytra 
quad ripunctata the male of which clings to the disc of the female's 
elytra with broad tarsal pads (Donisthorpe, 1902; Erbur, 1988). 

Invariably, the mating pairs were seen attached to the edge of a leaf. 
The female maintained a firm grip of the leaf edge using her legs like 
clamps, one set pressing down on the upper surface, the other three 
reaching beneath the leaf and pressing up onto the underside. Here the 
beetle pair remained almost motionless while coupled. 

The females were sometimes seen alone, also gripping the leaf edge, 
but now hanging down from the leaf (Figure 2). Again, the beetle held 
the leaf margin in a firm clamp-like clasp, but now using only front and 
middle legs while the hind legs were held out along the body axis. The 
head and antennae were pressed hard against the under surface of the 
leaf and the body was held down at an angle of about 45 degrees. 

34 Volume 55 «+ April 1996 63 

Figure 2. A female leaf beetle hangs upside down from the leaf. 

At the time I thought this was a novel resting or roosting behaviour, 
or perhaps an unusual feeding technique, allowing for the beetle to 
“hide” under the leaf, yet feel for vibrations in its feet and antennae 
which were flattened against the leaf. However, after reading 
Donisthorpe's (1902, 1927) descriptions and examining Erber's (1988) 
photograph it would seem likely that these beetles were egg-laying. 
Unfortunately I did not think to look for this event at the time. 

During the process of oviposition in Clytra the back tarsi are used to 
mould a coating of frass around each egg. Whilst the frass is being 
applied, the egg is held in a depression at the tip of the abdomen and a 
similar depression is present in the females of the Anomoea species. 

In Anomoea the sexual dimorphism apparent in the front tibia length 
is quite marked. In females the front legs are about 25% longer then the 
middle pair, but in the males they are about 40% longer. Though the 
males may use their long legs to clasp the females during mating, the 
females too have relatively long legs which they use to goo advantage 
when hanging down from a leaf edge — perhaps loitering with intent to 

lay eggs. 

64 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 36 


Arnett, R.HJr. (1993). American Insects. A Handbook of the Insects of America North of 
Mexico. Sandhill Crane Press, Gainsville. p.374. 

Donisthorpe, H. St. J.K. (1902). The life history of Clythra quadripunctata, L. Transactions 
oe the Entomological Society of London. 1902: 11-24, Plate III. 
, (1927). The Guests of British Ants: Their Habits and Life Histories. oS Routledge & 
Sons, London. pp. 61-62. 
Erber, D. (1988). Biology of Camptosomata Clytrinae — Cryptocephalinae — Chlamisinae — 
Lamprosomatinae. In: Biology of Chrysomelidae. Ed. P. Jolivet, E. Petitpierre, & T.H. 
Hsiao, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London. pp. 513-552. 

Kloet, G.S. & Hincks, W.D. (1977). A check list of British insects. 2nd edn, rev. R.D. Pope. 
Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects X1Q3): 73. 

Lawrence, J.F. & Britton, E.B. (1994). Australian Beetles. Melbourne University Press, 
Melbourne. p. 153. 

Mohr, K.H. (1966). Clytrinae. In: Die Kafer Mitteleuropas. Ed. H. Freude, K.W. Harde & 
G.A. Lohse. Goeke & Krefeld. 9: 115-122. 

Westwood, J.O. (1839). An Introduction to the Classification of Insects: Founded on the 
Naural Habits and Corresponding Organisation of Different Families. Longman, 
London. Vol. 1, p. 386. 

White, R.E. (1983). A Field Guide to the Beetles of North America. Houghton Mifflin, 
Boston. p. 293. 

by Graham Best (7928) 

12 Hortham Lane, Almondsbury, Bristol BS12 4]H. 

Oh, 595.78, what pleasures you introduced to me for so many years. 
Newman, Hyde, South, Harmen, Stokoe, Ford .. . you filled me with 
visions of flower-filled valleys, blues on the hills, browns in the 
meadows and fritillaries in the woods. The kitchen perfumed with 
darkest of Barbados sugar and rum and the pressure lamp hissing as 
dark shapes filled the air. Apple-green and purple-striped privet larvae 
clinging to twigs, pupae wriggling in beds of peat and atropos 
squeaking as I held them gently but firmly. Monarchs flapping like bats 
around the buddleia and the wings of Peacocks rasping as they flexed 
their wings for the very first time. The merry dance Clouded yellows 
led me over fields in 1947 and little faces appearing from rock hard 
cases as Puss moths entered the world. One hundred wings of Adonis 
shimmering in a cage and the thrill as dispar spattered the dock with 
eggs. Undercliffs at Ventnor and my first Red underwing at m.v. 

These and so many other delights you led me into. Thank you Messrs 
Newman, Hyde, South, Harmen, Stokoe and Ford and thank you 
595.78. God, how I loved that shelf. 

t Volume 55 « April 1996 65 

Marbled beauty in Glasgow 

by Frank McCann (6291) 
3 Langbar Path, Easterhouse, Glasgow G33 4HY. 

Before Christmas I bought a small hand-lens, magnification 10x. I 
wanted it for studying the markings on larvae which I might find. 

I was at Westercraigs in Dennistown, Glasgow about one week 
before Christmas and noticed a garden which had a growth of moss 
and lichen on a wall surrounding it. I took off some moss and on 
examining it I discovered two small larvae which I would identify as 
the Marbled beauty species. I examined them on the spot with my lens 
and noticed the shiny black heads of the caterpillars, the greenish body 
colour and the raised black dots with hairs arising from them. They 
were small, around quarter of an inch long. I put them in a small 
container with moss and lichen. I found the species at various other 
places — again it was under moss on walls etc. I searched for it at 
Riddrie, Glasgow where my friend Margaret stays, but with no success, 
until, when going towards St. Thomas's Church where there was a 
cleaning operation of the red sandstone wall of the church. A man was 
firing a powerful jet of water at the moss, lichens and algae growing on 
the wail, I spoke to him briefly, and then walked on about two or three 
yards. I took a small piece of moss from the red sandstone wall and on 
examining the underside I found a small larva of the Marbled beauty 
moth. I scraped some lichen off the wall further on and put it with the 
larva and the moss into my small tobacco tin. 

I also discovered the species at Swinton (three larvae); and just yards 
from my front door at Langbar Path, on moss-covered debris on the 
ground behind Queenslie Service Station, a garage on the Edinburgh 

I found other species as well around New Year. On Ist January I 
found a caterpillar in a garden under a piece of newspaper near a 
friend's house in Easterhouse. In confinement it fed on grasses and 
various plants. I found a few more caterpillars — mostly Lesser yellow 
underwings at Bargeddie Parish Church area and at Molinsburn, a small 
village near Cumbernauld. All were found on pieces of paper efc, on 
the grassy roadside verges. The date of finding the Marbled beauty at 
St. Thomas's Church, Riddrie was 7th February. I was feeding my other 
larvae on grass, a broad-leaved species from my garden, plus 
dandelion, primrose, plantain and slices of potato and turnip when the 
weather was too wet to supply them with leaves or grass. J also fed 

66 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society sé 

them on lettuce. It has been a good start to the year for me and I'm 
looking forward to the coming months when a lot of species will be 
even more in evidence and a bit easier to collect. 

How long does a Devils coach-horse live? 
by Jan Koryszko (6089) 

3 Dudley Place, Meir, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire ST3 7AY. 

On 2nd September 1994, after workmen had been in my house, I 
noticed a Devils coach-horse beetle (Ocypus olens) running across my 
living-room carpet. I captured it and gave it to my friend Mr Derek 
Heath who kept it in captivity for 14 months. It was well looked after 
with a rich diet of corned beef, chopped chicken and a small number 
of other insects. 

I would be most interested to know how long this beetle lives in 
normal conditions, and whether the captivity diet helped it live longer. 
There are not many books on Coleoptera which give this information. 

Many years ago, back in 1972, I purchased two Camberwell beauty 
butterfly pupae CVymphalis antiopa L.). They both hatched, one lived 
for 12 months and the other almost 14 months. I fed them on sugar and 
water with honey on cottonwool pads. I noticed that warm water on 
the pads seemed to make them feed more often. During the winter they 
were kept in a cool dark room, and every ten days or so I would bring 
them into the warmth of the living-room where they would wake up to 
feed and fly around the room for a while. They were then returned to 
the cage in the dark room. During the summer they fed daily and were 
kept in normal conditions. Undoubtedly some insects in captivity do 
live longer. 

Hornet moth record 

by Jan Koryszko (6089) 

3 Dudley Place, Meir, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire ST3 JAY. 

On the 21st July 1995 Mr Alan Flannagan of Normacot, Longton, 
Staffordshire, telephoned me at work telling me he had found a Hornet 
moth (Sesia apiformis) sitting in his back garden on a fence, in the early 
morning sunshine. It has been ten years since this species has been 
recorded in Normacot, Longton, Staffordshire. 

36 Volume 55 * April 1996 67 

Notes on the genus Sinopieris in China 

by Hao Huang 

Qingdao Education College, China 200071. 

In this paper, the female genitalia of the genus Sinopieris is examined 
and compared with the genera Pieris, Pontia and Aporia, with the 
conclusion that two old species, “Pieris” davidis Oberthur 1876 and 
“Pieris’ davidis var. venata Leech 1891 belong to the genus Sinopieris. 
All of the specimens here dealt with were captured by the author 
between 1990 and 1993 and are preserved in my collection. 

In my preceding paper (Huang, 1995), I described a new genus 
Sinpieris Huang 1994 to comprise the “dubernardi-group” and a new 
species Sinopieris gongaensis Huang 1994 mainly based upon the 
external features and male genitalia. The morphological diversity in 
wing shape, wing pattern and male genitalia between this genus and 
Pontia (including Pontia callidice, the type species of the genus 
Synchloe) has been well documented. Little however, has been 
discussed in terms of the difference between this genus and the genus 
Pieris. Sinopieris. differs mostly in the female, where there is the 
presence of a postdiscal band in forewing space two. In addition, 
Epstein (1979) has pointed out that there were no androconia to be 
found on the entire “dubernardi-group”. The scent scales are also 
absent in Sinopieris gongaensis. Since there is no stable diversity in the 
male genitalia between Sinopieris and Pieris, | examined the female 
genitalia of many typical species of these genera and those belonging 
to Pontia and Aporia. Based upon the comparative morphology of 
these structures I came to the conclusion that the genus Sinopieris was 
a good genus which can be distinguished from Pieris as well as Pontia 
and Aporia. : 

Comparison of female genitalia 
(Figures 1-3). 

Accessory pouch 
The corpus bursae has an accessory pouch in Aporia, Pieris, Sinopieris 
and Pontia, except for Pontia chloridice. 

In Aporia (1 examined many Chinese species), the signum is a single 
long bilobed and dentate bar on the inner face of the dorsomedian 

68 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 34 

(1) Aporia hippia 

(2) Pieris melette 

(3) Sinopieris dubernardi 

Figures 1-3. 

Female genitalia consisting of lateral views of inner and outer genital 
plates of right sides and corpus bursae of dorsal view of the corpus 
bursae to show the signum (at top of each figure). 


36 Volume 55 * April 1996 69 

surface of the corpus bursae, distant from the opening of the ductus 
bursae. In Pontia the signum is a single long bilobed bar as in Aporia, 
but near the opening of the ductus bursae. In Pieris the signum is a 
smelemoilobed?) plate “or pair “of “lobes on’ the “inner ‘face’ of « the 
dorsomedian surface of the corpus bursae, sometimes (in Pieris melete, 
P. napi, P. eurydice etc.) with a slender tape extended towards the 
ductus bursae, weakly curved downwards in lateral view. In Sinopieris 
(including “Pieris’ davidis and “Pieris’ davidis venataO the signum is a 
single very long oar-like band extended along the dorsal margin of the 
corpus bursae. Its broader part is also longer, more denate and much 
closer to the opening of the accessory pouch in dorsal view. The 
slender part is bent strongly downwards in the middle, and bent 
strongly upwards near the end, giving a characteristic S-shape in lateral 

Ductus bursae 

The ductus bursae is very long in Aporia, but slightly shorter and not as 
long as the corpus bursae in Pontia , Pieris and Sinopieris. In these 
three genitalia it is also colourless and non-sclerotised (except for 
Pontia callidice). 

Genital plate 
In Aporia, the genital plate is conspicuously smaller and the dorsal 
process much longer than in Pontia, Pieris or Sinopieris. The outer 
genital plate is semi-circular in Pontia daplidice and Po. callidice, whilst 
in Po. chloridice and other genera it completely envelopes the inner 
genital plate. 



This genus is sharply different from Pontia, Pieris and Sinopieris not 
only by its weak sexual dimorphism and forewing vein R4 not 
obsolete, but also by its female genitalia: genital plate exceedingly 
small with a long dorsal process and ductus bursae and its signum 
being a bilobed bar on the inner face of the dorsomedian surface of 
the corpus bursae. 

70 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 3 


This genus can be easily distinguished from Pieris and Sinopieris not 
only by its wing-shape, wing-pattern and male genitalia but also by its 
female genitalia: the signum being a bilobed bar near the opening of 
the ductus bursae. 

Pontia chloridice 

(Type species of the genus Pontieuchloia) shows slight differences from 
Pontia daplidice and Po. callidice in that the accessory pouch is absent 
and the outer genital plate being non-semicircular. Therefore, the genus 
Pontieuchloia probably merits being separated from the genus Pontia. 

Although there are several conspicuous morphological resemblances 
between Pieris and Sinopieris, they are slightly different from each other 
in the forewing postdiscal band and androconia and the female 
genitalia. Pieris has a bilobed plate or pair of lobes as a signum, on the 
dorsomedian surface of the corpus bursae, whilst in Sinopieris the 
signum is undoubtedly longer, non-bilobed and with its slender part S- 

As mentioned above this genus can be easily distinguished from other 
genera noted here by female genitalia. 

Snail-dwelling wasp 
by Philip Wilkins (7607) 
78A New Dover Road, Canterbury, Kent CT1 3EQ. 

Whilst walking in the Andalucian mountains near Ronda, I picked up 
an empty snail-shell. On closer inspection, however, I discovered that it 
was occupied by an insect. Try as I might, I failed to dislodge the 
individual. I think the only way to have got it out would have been to 
break the shell. Only the abdomen (orange and black), hind legs 
(yellow) and wings were visible. The insect seemed to be a wasp, but I 
could not be completely certain (Plate 96F, Fig. 4). The shell had clearly 
not housed a live snail for some time. I would be interested to know 
What the wasp was doing. Had it pupated in the shell? Would it be 
laying eggs? Was it merely looking for food? Is there another 

3 Velumes5e April 1996 71 

Winning the battle against pupal parasites 

by Patrick Boireau 

‘La Jungle des Papillons”, 309 avenue de Mozart, 00000 Antibes, France. 

Translated from /nsectes, no. 84, 17 — 18 (1992) and reproduced with 
permission from the author and OPIE. 

All breeders of Lepidoptera have the disagreeable surprise some time or 
other of seeing hymenopterous parasites or a tachinid fly emerge, 
instead of the eagerly-awaited beautiful butterfly or moth. This is most 
disappointing and impulsive breeders will not hesitate in giving vent to 
their anger by squashing the parasites; those of a more phlegmatic 
nature use a killing bottle charged with cyanide of potassium or ethyl 
acetate. However, are you quite sure you have killed them all? We 
know for certain that a single Swallowtail chrysalis can contain more 
than fifty microhymenoptera. 

If you receive specimens of native livestock and breed them, you will 
be irritated, but it is not a major catastrophe. However, if you are 
keenly interested in foreign species and import livestock from abroad, 
ai Unpleasant imeident such as this can have more serious 
Consequences. aS, tmere is’ the ;danger of these’ tropical parasites 
becoming established in this country. Indeed, escapes are always 
possible. It is not easy to control these microhymenoptera, compared 
With’ spmttertiies: and: moths; on account of their small size, their 
possibilities of adaptation must not be under-estimated and most 
certainly not neglected. Finally, the situation can become critical for 
anyone in charge of the butterfly houses which have been established 
in Europe these last few years and which regularly import very large 
numbers of chrysalids. It is absolutely essential for us to be aware of 
the dangers involved when importing chrysalids and to act responsibly. 
We must be able to identify chrysalids which have been attacked, so as 
to control the parasites. 

How to recognise parasitised chrysalids 
A parasitised chrysalis can be recognised in two ways: 

Careful examination on receipt. 

Puparia and pupae of parasites which pupate outside the chrysalis can 
sometimes be found by examining the surface of the chrysalis, the silk 
used for spinning the cocoon and the packing material (cotton wool) 

72 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 34 

which was in contact with the chrysalis. I carried out. such an 
examination of some pupae of Urania ripheus, and this enabled me to 
detect some mites. 

The larva or pupa of a parasite can sometimes be seen through the 
shell of the chrysalis. This often happens with Pierids such as Eurema 
and Delias. ae 

Owing to the flaccidity of the cuticle between the abdominal segments, 
the chrysalis appears to be somewhat longer and often becomes softer 
when dead. This is an indication that the fleshy material inside the 
chrysalis has liquefied. It can be caused by a large number of diseases, 
mostly due to a virus. However, it sometimes means that parasites are_ 

Change of colour. Abnormal brownish coloration. 

Comparison with the species' normal biological cycle. 

Given some experience and provided you know something about the 
biology of the species received and those you breed, you will find a 
butterfly usually spends less time as a chrysalis, compared with a 
parasite. In the case of Papilio polytes, for example, where we have 
experienced the highest rate of parasitism, the pupal stage rarely lasts 
longer than about twelve days at 25°C. At the end of this period, 
provided the chrysalis has not dried out and seems to be alive, given 
its mobility and the flexibility of the abdomen, then it is most certainly 
parasitised. In this case it is advisable to isolate the chrysalis in a test- 
tube or a small transparent box, so that it can easily be kept under 
observation. Above all, make sure you close the container, using a 
very fine netting. A woman's stocking will do, but do not let the 
parasites jostle each other for too long after they have emerged, as 
some Hymenoptera can easily make a hole with their mandibles. They 
should then be killed and sent to an expert who specialises in the 
group to which the insect belongs. As a result, you will know which 
parasite attacks a particular butterfly and at the same time you will also 
provide research workers with material which can often be extremely 

This is why it is important that chrysalids should always be arranged 
in sequence in accordance with the pupation date or, if this cannot be 
done, the date when breeding began; this will make it easier to cope 
with whatever happens. 

3é Volume 55 « April 1996 73 

Besides, when importing entomological livestock, the breeder never 
places an order for just one chrysalis per species, but expects to receive 
a batch of chrysalids from the same location, and certainly from the 
same breeding stock, which probably pupated on the same date or 
thereabouts. If, for example, by the twentieth of the month you still 
have two chrysalids left, while the others have produced butterflies on 
the tenth, then there maybe something wrong. 

How to control the parasites. 

When chrysalids have recently been parasitised, the presence of foreign 
bodies passes unnoticed. At least, at the present time, we have so far 
not found a way to detect parasitism when in its early stages. This 
explains why these chrysalids have not been put on one side when first 

it eniewrecord laas been ‘kept of the pupation date or when the 
chrysalids arrived, and if their development has not been scrupulously 
followed, the parasites will emerge freely and it is then absolutely 
essential to control them as soon as they emerge so that they cannot 
attack healthy chrysalids. 

With tins s.Object,., | propose two. solutions based on the 
photosensitivity of these parasitic insects. 

The first solution is best suited to those who only import.a smail 
amount of livestock. 

In this case, fie imported chrysalids are arranged in a well-sealed box 
which does does not allow the parasites to escape; the ventilation-holes 
are covered by wire netting with a very fine mesh. The box has one or 
several transparent jars fitted into one side, with the top end of the jar 
pointing inwards (see figure 1). Only one side is transparent (glass, 
plexiglass, PVC, etc.). This could well be the door, but it must not be the 
side containing the jars. This allows the sheasallicle to receive the light 
and you can observe them at your leisure. If any parasites emerge, all 
you have to do is to cover the transparent side so that the inside of the 
box is completely dark. The jar will then be the only remaining 
luminous point, and the parasites will immediately rush into it. 

The second solution mainly concerns those who import large 
numbers of chrysalids. Accordingly, this will apply especially to those 
in charge of exotic butterfly houses. The principle is the same, but a 
small chamber is used instead of a box. The following construction is 

74 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ee 

Chrysalids, arranged on 
their support 


door/box After the door has been 

covered, the parasites 
will enter these jars. 

Handle of 
transparent door. 

Fig. 1. Diagram of box for emergences, where small numbers of imported chrysalids can 
be kept. 

used at the Antibes butterfly house, which I have managed for the past 
four years. This chamber, which we call the “emergence zone”, is 
relatively well sealed. Seals are fitted around the door, and netting with 
a fine mesh is used for the ceiling, to ensure that the chamber is well 
ventilated. There is a large window-pane, which enables visitors to see 
the chrysalids inside. The chamber is not lit, this large window-pane is 
the only luminous point and the parasites make their way towards it as 
soon as they emerge. This makes it easy for us to locate them when 
they move about on the window-pane. We can then easily collect them 
and then send them to an expert who can identify them for us. 
Personally, I send them to Mr Panis of INRA, Valbonne, to whom I 
would like to express my thanks. I draw up a card whenever one or 
more parasites appear, giving details of the host (species, family, origin, 
date of arrival, etc.) and the parasite itself (species, family, origin, date 
of arrival, efc.). All this information will be invaluable to you as well as 
to the expert specialising in Hymenoptera or Diptera, as the case may 
be. This will be of mutual advantage and enable us to know these 
fascinating creatures even better. 

a Wolunmetse)aeeeerile1oa6 75 

Explanatory notes 
Nowadays parasites are divided into two large groups: 

True parasites spend all or part of their life-cycle preying on one or 
several hosts, but do not necessarily cause the death of the host. 
Parasites are referred to as internal or external, depending on whether 
their development takes place inside or outside the host. 

Parasitoids complete their life-cycle by preying on just one host. They 
necessarily cause the death of their host when they have completed 
their parasitic cycle (definitions according to C. Riba and C. Silvy, 1989, 
Combattre les ravageurs des cultures, INRA, 230pp.). 

Most cases mentioned in this article concern parasitoids. However, I 
have used the more familiar word parasites on purpose so as to 
simplify the text. 

A Long-tailed blue Zampides boeticus ) in Kent 
by Barry Dickerson (8422) 

27 Andrew Road, Eynesbury, St. Neots, Cambridgeshire PE19 2QE. 

On 27th August 1995 eleven members of the Huntingdonshire Moth 
and Butterfly Group held a field meeting in Kent. The object of the 
meeting was to find and photograph the Adonis blue (Lysandra 
bellargus) which, although the weather was not ideal, we managed to 
find in reasonable numbers during the morning. After a short break for 
lunch we drove to the Sugarloaf. Hill/Castle Hill complex, near 
Folkestone, to look for other butterflies to photograph. It had now 
become cloudier and was quite windy on the tops of the hills, but we 
carried on regardless. 

As we made our way back towards the cars one of our members 
saw an unusual-looking butterfly feeding from a flower, he quickly 
boxed. it and found it to be a Long-tailed blue. We dared not release it 
for photography as we were sure it would quickly disappear from 
view, so all the members, with cameras, photographed it in the plastic 
box. We then tried to release it back onto the flower from which it was 
taken, and I managed to grab a single shot of it as it walked from the 
box, but it quickly took flight, disappearing into the distance almost 

76 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 34 

A continental visitor 

by Francis Farrow (10191) 

“Heathlands”, 6 Havelock Road, Sheringham, Norfolk NR26 8QD. 

On 12th August 1995, while walking over the Beeston Regis Common, 

‘Norfolk I noted a small dragonfly of the darter type fly up from rest. It 
flew high and as it passed overhead two conspicuous dark patches 
were seen on its wings close to the body. After a while it again settled 
and a stealthy approach revealed that it had amber-yellow coloured 
areas on its wings, identifying the dragonfly as the Yellow-winged 
darter (Sympetrum flaveolum), a migrant continental species. 

The Common lies within half a mile of the coast and where I was 
walking was a small bog fringed with sallow (Salix sp.), with black 
bog-rush (Schoenus nigricans) tussocks and areas of Juncus sp. being 
the predominant vegetation. In this areat four individual dragonflies 
were present and two others were in the vicinity of a nearby pond and 
stream. They all appeared to be males, apparently the more usual 
visitor (McGeeney, 1986). The colour of the abdomen was generally a 
pinkish-red to scarlet with black along the sides. The pterostigma was 
also of a reddish hue as illustrated by the photograph I managed to get 
(Plate 96G, Fig. 5). 

When disturbed the dragonflies 
tended to fly high (to the level of 
the surrounding sallows i.e.-five to 
six metres) and in a wide arc 
before settling close to the ground 

on a rush or flower-head (generally 
less than 30cm high). 




if . 


Earlier in the week, the local paper, The 
Eastern Daily Press, had reported an influx 
of continental insects at Great Yarmouth (40 
miles east), particularly the Yellow-winged 
darters and a number of Camberwell beauty 
(Nymphalis antiopa) butterflies. 


McGeeney, Andrew (1986). A complete guide to British dragonflies. Jonathan Cape, 

34 Volume 55 + April 1996 77 

Humming-bird hawkmoth in Aylesbury 
by Michael Pitt-Payne 

18 Church Way, Stone, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire HP17 8RG. 

In August 1994 we moved to a new house in Stone near Aylesbury 
which has been built on a site which was previously a farm-yard. It 
backs onto farmland and we have a clear view of more than nine miles 
to the Chiltern Hills. The back garden is an area of 70 feet by 60 feet. 
When we arrived it was a wilderness of uncultivated weeds with very 
little sign of wildlife. 

During the past year we have been working to create a garden which 
will attract insects, birds and amphibians. The combination of a pond, a 
bird table and a careful selection of plants has proved to be a great 
attraction. What appeared to be a wilderness devoid of life twelve 
months ago has become a regular haven for wildlife. 

We have observed a good variety of butterflies and insects during the 
summer. The highlight came at 7pm on the 31st August 1995, when we 
observed a Humming-bird hawkmoth feeding on the clumps of lemon 
bergamot which my son has planted all around the garden in great 

The moth took very little notice of us while we stood still watching it 
hover before each plant in turn as it stuck its long tongue into the base 
of the flowers to feed. It had a powerful flight: one moment it was 
hovering within a few inches of our legs and the next it was twenty feet 
away feeding at another plant. 

After some time it disappeared and we have not seen it since, but the 
memory of its grace and beauty will remain with us for years to come. 

Humming-bird hawkmoth in Staffordshire 

by Jan Koryszko (6089) 
3 Dudley Place, Meir, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire ST3 7AY. 

On 5th October 1995, while visiting the Potteries shopping centre, 
Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent, I observed a Humming-bird hawkmoth 
(Macroglossum stellatarum, Linn.) flying around bedding plants and 
visiting flowers of Petunia. The moth was seen for around ten minutes, 
then it darted off at great speed in the sunshine. 

78 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 36 

Hand-pairing Swallowtails 
by R.C. Watts (7875) 

Honeymead, Back Lane, Kingston Seymour, Clevedon, Avon. 

I have bred Swallowtails (Papilio machaon) for many years and have 
always hand-paired them quite successfully, although a bit of time was 
spent trying to coax them together. I have read a lot of literature on the 
subject regarding how to hold the abdomens and use the thumb-nail to 
hold the male's claspers apart etc. A number of my friends were 
unsuccessful and gave up in frustration, so I thought there must be a 
better method and I hope those who use this method described below 
will find it much easier and take a lot less time. 

Methodology: One thin headless pin and one small block of wood the 
size of a matchbox. The pin should be vertically positioned in the 
centre of the block of wood. The male is held with wings together 
between the forefinger and thumb with the legs up and the abdomen 
facing out. I don't leave the abdomen sticking out too far as they tend 
to wriggle too much. I then take the female in the other hand holding 
her the same way — both abdomens should be facing together. I then 
put the male's calipers against the pin about half way down it. The pin 
is then edged between the male's calipers. Once this has been achieved 
the male should be moved sideways a little — this will open 
the claspers and the female can be put in position with the 
male. They can then be slid up off the pin and held 
together’ for. az-couple . of 
<=) minutes until mating has 
started. When their legs have 
stopped wriggling and _ their 
bodies stopped pulsing; mating 
has usually commenced, and the 
pair can then be hung up in a cage. 
If they part within an hour mating has 
not usually been successful and I try 
again using another male. I find the best 
times are mornings and evenings or when 
the sun is not too hot and the butterflies are 
not too active. The males can be used 
several times and this method is successful 
for a number of species. 

Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Fig. 1. Ascalaphus longicornis (Spain 1995). 
Male. Wingspan 48mm. 

Fig. 2. Ascalaphus coccajus (France 1994). 
Male. Wingspan 45mm. 


Volume 55 + April 1996 36 

~ SQ 
mg @ es 
ape SDs 
ope Se SS 

rome - 
LS $F o 

= ama” , 
Tes ce aa 



€ Ugleproctophyila variegata 

Fig. 3. Deleproctophylla variegata (Greece 1995). 
Wingspan 43mm. 

“i : = = 


lie! Rigs 
” eA 

. aa & 4 ‘ 
ie ag eee... 
‘ ed 

Fig. 4. A snail-dwelling wasp? 


Fig. 5. The Yellow-winged darter 
(Sympetrum flaveolum) 


Volume 55 « April 1996 

i cpa SY 


Fig. 7. A male Lopaphus brachypterus. 


a4 Volume 55 * April 1996 79 

A rare stick-insect from Singapore: Lopaphus brachypterus 
(de Haan) 1842 with descriptions of the male and egg. 

by Francis Seow-Choen 

54 Mimosa Walk, Singapore 2880 


Paul D. Brock 

40 Thorndike Road, Slough SL2 1SR, England. 


The genus Lopaphus was first described by Westwood in 1859 when he 
wrote “. . . body long, winged in both sexes. Mesothorax very much 
elongated. Wings similar in form in both sexes, acruated, abbreviated, 
varying in length from the extremity of the metathorax to the fourth 
abdominal segment. Tegmina much smaller than the wings. Abdomen 
long in both sexes. Legs long, unarmed, or with but small lobes or 
leaflets”. The most distinctive feature, however, was the rudimentary or 
short wings or wing covers. 

Lopaphus brachypterus was first described from Sumatran specimens 
by de Haan in 1842 as Phasma brachypterum. In 1859, Westwood 
erected the genus Lopaphus and the species was called Lopaphus 
brachypterus. In 1877, Wood-Mason reported an adult and several 
nymphal females from Johor in Peninsular Malaysia and wrote a short 
paragraph on this species. Redtenbacher in 1908 referred this insect to 
the genus Candaules of Stal (1875) therefore calling it Candautles 
oracoypierus.- None of these~authors “described the male insect, 
although Wood-Mason stated that well developed organs of flight were 
present in both sexes. In 1904, Kirby designated Lopaphus brachypterus 
as the type species of the genus. 

The first author and Issac Seow-En found two males and a female 
Lopaphus brachypterus in the eastern parts of the Central Nature 
Reserve of Singapore and have now raised several generations of these 

Eggs and nymphs 

These insects are prolific egg layers and 150-200 eggs are laid per adult 
female per week. These light-bluish rounded eggs are flung several feet 
away from the mother insect in the usual manner of stick insects. 
Nymphs take from six weeks to hatch although hatching time may be 
much longer. Nymphs are generally green in overall colour. 

80 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 34 


The male is a more slender insect. The head is slightly longer than 
broad with very large eyes and very long antennae. The prothorax is 
brown with dark lines and a few small tubercles. The mesothorax is 
elongate with a number of small tubercles. The mesosternum is brown, 
the metasternum is brown with the pleura apple-green. The mesonotum 
is dark blue with three dark stripes. The abdomen is long and brown. 
The final three segments are much reduced in length and slightly 
broadened with the seventh segment being twice as long as the eighth 
segment. The hind part of the ninth segment has a pale coloured patch 
on either side. The anal segment is deeply incised in the centre. The 
subgenital plate is rounded, reaching the end of tne ninth segment, and 
the cerci are short. The elytra is oval and brown with a yellow margin. 
The coastal area of the wings and the hind wings are brown and the 
latter exceed the end of the fifth abdominal segment. The male insect 
has a very good flight. The insides of the fore-legs are green otherwise 
the fore-legs are brown with lighter brown tarsi. The middle and hind 
femora and tibiae are green with the apical areas being dark brown and 
the tarsi lighter brown. Small dark sub-apical spines are present on all 
femora and the first segments of all tarsi are very long. 

Fig. 1. A male Lopaphus brachypterus with details of the genitalia. 

The head of the adult female is longer than broad with a few 
tubercles present and possessing very long antennae. The prothorax 
and the mesothorax have smaller tubercles. The elytra and coastal area 
of the wings are in mottled shades of yellowish-brown. The hind wings 


34 Volume 55 « April 1996 81 

/ Y 
i ), 
f i 
E ,/, 
/ fy 
y SS = —— = / lf 
I, “ y 
Ry | f 
oy Ze 
/ N 

2 mm 

Fig. 2. A female Lopaphus brachypterus with a figure of the egg and genitalia. 

are brown and almost reach the end of the fourth abdominal segment 
but the female is unable to fly even when unladen with eggs. The final 
abdominal segments are slightly broadened with the anal segment 
truncate and the operculum rounded at the tip just exceeding the end 
of the anal segment. The legs are robust and greenish-brown. Dark 
broad sub-apical spines are present on all femora, being more 
conspicuous on the middle and hind femora. The first segment of the 

tarsus is elongate. 


The original adult female caught was feeding on Aidia wallichiana 
(Rubiaceae) in the wild. In captivity, these insects thrive on guava 
(Psidium guajava L. Myrtaceae). Bramble is almost always rejected and 
British and European breeders to whom I have given these insects have 
had no success in raising this species. 

82 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Typical measurements of Lopaphas brachypterus (mm) 

Male Female 

Body length 55-60 78-107 
Antennae 57-64 43-57 — 
Head 2-2.5 4.5-5 
Prothorax 2-2.5 5 
Mesothorax Alte) 19-20 
Metathorax VS 9-11 
Elytra 4-5 7-8 
Hind wings 30-34 ZO 
Abdomen and median segment 35-40 53-58 

front 18-19 20.5-24 

mid IIB IRIES) 13-14 

hind 15-16 18.5-19.5 

front 17-18.5 18.5-21 

mid 10.5-12 12-12.5 

hind 1547 17-19 


de Haan, W. (1842). Bijdragen tot de kennis der Orthoptera. In Temminck CL, 
Verhandelingen over de natuurlijke Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche overzeesche 
Bezittingen. Vol. 2. Liden 45-248. 

Kirby, W.F. (1904). A synonymic’ catalogue of Orthoptera. Vol. 1, Orthoptera, 
Euplexoptera, Cursoria, et Grescoria (Forficilidae, Hemimeridae, Blattidae, Mantidae, 
Phasmidae). Longmans & Co., London. 

Redtenbacher, J. (1908). In Brunner von Wattenwyl, K., Redtenbacher, J., Die 
Insektenfamilie der Phasmiden. Verlag Engelmann, Leipzig 

Seow-Choen, F., Tay, E.P., Brock, P.D. & Seow-En, I. Foodplants of some Stick-insects 
(Phasmida=Phasmatodea) from Singapore. Malay. Nat. J. 1994, 47: 383-0. 

Stal, C. Recensio Orthopterorum. Revie critique des Orthoptéres décrits par Linné, de Geer 
et Thunberg. Vol. 3: 4-105. P.A. Norstedt & Soner, Stockholm. 

Westwood, J.O. (1859). Catalogue of orthopterous insects in the collection of the British 
Museum. Part 1. Phasmidae. 

Wood-Mason (1877). Notes on Phasmidae. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 46: 

36 Volume 55 * April 1996 83 

Ladybird, ladybird, fly to my home! 
(or how to attract ladybirds to your garden) 

by Michael E.N. Majerus (4027) 

Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EH. 

One of the main reasons for the enduring popularity of ladybirds as a 
group is that they eat aphids and other plant pests and so are 
considered to be beneficial: This being so, one of the commonest 
questions I have been asked while running the Cambridge Ladybird 
Survey has been: “How can I encourage more ladybirds to come to, 
and stay in, my garden?” This question usually comes from people who 
are conservation minded and would prefer not to use insecticide sprays 
to rid their gardens of plant pests if there is a natural biological 
alternative. In this article I will try to answer this question, offering 
advice on what one should or should not do to encourage ladybirds to 
take up residence. My suggestions are based on fifteen years of 
observing and scrutinising ladybirds in gardens, in the Cambridge area 
and elsewhere, throughout the year. I have put this advice into practice 
over the last four years (while I have lived at my current address) with 
some success, for I have recorded over half the British ladybird species 
in my garden this year, and as I write this Gin early October), I share my 
house with over 2000 ladybirds that have moved to overwintering sites 
around window frames and in my loft. 

A personal fondness for ladybirds is not the only reason for writing 
this article. The encouragement of wildlife in domestic gardens has 
become an important conservation theme. Private gardens now cover a 
considerable area of Britain, and over the past couple of decades the 
importance of this land has gradually been recognised. This is partly 
because, as individuals have different tastes in the style of garden they 
prefer, the type of plants they want, and the amount of time they have 
to devote to their own bit of Britain, a group of domestic gardens often 
exhibits an extraordinary diversity of habitat types, and is very species 
rich. With a little care and forethought the diversity can be increased 
yet further with very little effort or expense. The result will be of 
benefit not only to ladybirds but to a diverse array of other wildlife. 

A number of general points are worth noting at the outset. First, 
different species of ladybird have different hostplant or habitat 
requirements. Some species are habitat generalists. These species may 
occur on a wide array of different plants, their main requirement being 
that the plant supports a good supply of food. This is true of the 2-spot 

84 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 34 

(Adalia  2-punctata), 7-spot (Coccinella  7-punctata),  11-spot 
(Coccinella 11-punctata), 14-spot (Propylea 14-punctata) and 22-spot 
ladybirds (Thea 22-punctata), the former four of which feed on aphids, 
while the 22-spot feeds on powdery white mildews. All of these species 
commonly occur in domestic gardens. Other species are slightly more 
specific, in that they may show a preference for a group of plants of a 
particular type. For example, the leaf-eating 24-spot (Subcoccinella 24- 
punctata) and the mildew-eating 16-spot (Tytthaspis 16-punctata) 
frequent long grass habitats, the kidney-spot (Chilocorus renipustulatus), 
10-spot (Adalia 10-punctata), cream-spot (Calvia 14-guttata) and 
orange ladybirds (Halyzia 16-guttata) are most common on deciduous 
trees, while the pine (Exochomus 4-pustulatus), striped (Myzia 
oblongoguttata), cream-streaked (Harmonia  4-punctata), larch 
(Aphidecta obliterata) and eyed ladybirds (Anatis ocellata) prefer 
needled conifers. The final group are those that are rarely found in 
gardens, because they are either very hostplant, or very habitat specific. 
The 18-spot ladybird (Myrrha 18-guttata) is found almost exclusively . 
on mature scots pine (Pinus silvestris), the water ladybird (Anisosticta 
19-punctata) is found principally on reeds and rushes, while the 
heather (Chilocorus  bipustulatus) and _ hieroglyphic — ladybirds 
(Coccinella hieroglyphica) are species of heather heathland. The scarce 
7-spot ladybird (Coccinella magnifica) and the 5-spot ladybird 
(Coccinella 5-punctata) are both found on a fairly wide array of plants, 
but in very specific habitats, the former only being found close to wood 
ants' nests, and the latter being restricted to unstable river shingles in 
Wales and Scotland. 

Second, ladybirds have different requirements at different times of the 
year. In practice, the ladybird year can be split into three periods. From 
mid-April until mid-July, most ladybirds require high-grade food for 
reproduction and development. Ladybirds are somewhat unusual 
among the insects, in that the adults and Jarvae both feed on the same 
principal food (sensu Hodek, 1973 — food that promotes reproduction 
and allows full larval development). While most species are predatory 
on aphids, coccids or adelgids, three species feed on mildews and one 
is phytophagous. The main reproductive period varies a little from 
species to species, partly as a consequence of these different food 
preferences. Two of the coccid feeders, the pine and kidney-spot 
ladybirds, may begin breeding as early as March if spring comes early. 
On the other hand, the mildew feeders rarely begin to breed until mid- 
June. In the latter part of the summer, once the new generation of 
adults has emerged from pupae, the main preoccupation of the young 

3¢ Volume 55 « April 1996 85 

adults is to build up their nutrient reserves for the winter. In doing this 
they will often feed on alternative foods (sensu Hodek, 1973 — foods 
that aid survival, but do not promote reproduction). The alternative 
foods that predatory species will take include a wide range of other 
invertebrates, whether alive or dead, and including other ladybirds, 
pollen, nectar, honey-dew and plant sap or resin. A few species, such 
as the 2-spot and the 10-spot, may breed again, producing a partial 
second generation in the middle of the summer if aphids are plentiful. 
However, these species are the exception rather than the rule, and: in 
Britain most species have a single generation in most years. The final 
and longest period of the year for ladybirds is the winter. All the British 
ladybirds pass the winter as adults. As food is generally difficult if not 
impossible to obtain, they become dormant, finding sheltered spots out 
of the worst of the winter weather. 

The different requirements of ladybirds at different times of the year 
have to be catered for if one is to encourage them to take up residence. 
While it may be inappropriate to try to ensure that one's garden has too 
many aphids in the spring and early summer — part of the idea in 
encouraging ladybirds is, after all, to get rid of aphids — much can be 
done for ladybirds in the latter part of the summer and through the 
winter, as detailed below. Furthermore, it is possible to plant some tree 
and shrub species which are likely to support aphid populations 
without obvious detriment. While we may be keen to keep our roses, 
sweet peas, cabbages and runner beans aphid free, we are less worried 
about aphids on oaks, birches, hawthorns or lime trees. Such trees can 
then support a reservoir of ladybirds which will move of their own 
volition onto other plants that become infested with aphids. 

The following advice is given in the form of a series of points. While 
it may not be possible in any particular garden to put all these points 
into practice, due to constraints of garden size, location, time 
availability and other uses the garden is put to, the value in terms of 
encouraging wildlife, and ladybirds in particular, is largely additive, so 
any action will show some return; but the more one can do, the greater 
the benefit. 


1. Do not use general chemical pesticides in the garden. If pesticides 
must be used, read the label and use brands which claim only to harm 
the target pests. Preference should also be given to brands that degrade 
rapidly. While general insecticides are the most important to avoid, 
some general fungicides and herbicides also have a detrimental effect 

86 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 3 

on ladybirds either directly or as a result of gradual build-up because 
they are taken in with food. The amount of information we currently 
have on the effects of many pesticides on specific non-target species is 
pitifully small. Usually, we simply do not know whether a particular 
pesticide is harmful to a particular ladybird. Best practice is thus to 
avoid use of chemical pesticides whenever possible, seeking alternative 
means of control. 

Spring and early summer 

2. Plant a diversity of species. Many species of aphidophagous ladybird 
move form one hostplant to another as aphid populations wax and 
wane. This is particularly true in the reproductive season. Ladybirds of 
most aphidophagous species usually lay eggs when aphid colonies are 
fairly new. This is for two reasons. First, the aim of a reproductively 
mature female is to ensure not only that there is suitable food for her 
offspring when they hatch. As neonate ladybird larvae are very small, 
the female has to ensure that there are aphids close at hand, but that 
these are of a size that the tiny larvae will be able to subdue. Young 
aphid colonies contain a high proportion of aphid nymphs in early 
instars, which are thus suitable for the young larvae. Second, because 
ladybird larvae are highly cannibalistic, and will frequently eat eggs of 
their own species if they come upon them, females avoid ovipositing 
near aphid colonies which are already being attacked by ladybird 
larvae. Rather than risk her eggs being cannibalised, a female will move 
on in search of colonies that are not already under attack. As the 
infestation of a particular type of plant by aphids during the year is 
usually fairly synchronised, this generally means moving to another 

3. Aphid food is essential for over half the British species of ladybird to 
breed successfully. This may be most easily provided without detriment 
to the flowers or vegetables in the garden if certain trees, shrubs or 
weed plants are available. Best species to plant or encourage, for the 
aphid-feeding generalists, are lime, oak, birch, goat willow, hawthorn, 
blackthorn, bramble and stinging nettle. Generally, the aphids that 
attack these trees and plants will not do serious damage to them, nor 
will they transfer to other more precious plants. 

4. Favour native species/varieties of plant and tree rather than imported 
ones. Native species usually support a greater diversity of insects. This 
is particularly true of tree species. Of the deciduous trees, the hybrid 

34 Volume 55 « April 1996 87 

lime, Tilia x europaea, is the best, followed by either of the larger 
native birches, Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Of the oaks, either 
Quercus robur or Q. petraea will support good aphid and coccid 
populations, and the evergreen oak, OQ. ilex, is also very good for 10- 
spot, 2-spot and cream-spot ladybirds. If a needled conifer is to be 
planted, Scots pine (Pinus silvestris) is by far the best, although Douglas 
fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), and Norway spruce (Picea abies) will also 
support aphid or adelgid populations. Given constraints of space, if just 
a single tree can be accommodated, I would choose the Scots pine 
because of the number of hostplant-specific ladybirds that favour this 
tree. These include the eyed, striped, cream-streaked, larch, 18-spot and 
pine ladybirds, and several of the generalists will also breed upon it, or 
use its foliage to provide overwintering sites. A useful alternative is a 
fruit tree, such as a Bramley apple or a cherry tree. Both may support 
good breeding populations of ladybirds, particularly 2-spots and 10- 
spots, and they provide shelter sites and food in the later summer. 

5. A pond is always a joy in a garden. Depending on size, reedy plants 
may be planted. Reed-mace (J/ypba spp.) and common_ reed 
(Phragmites australis) are the best plants for some _ species of 
coccinellid, but are too large and vigorous for most garden ponds. 
However, yellow flag Uris pseudacorus) is an elegant plant and may 
attract the water ladybird (Anisosticta 19-punctata) and either of the 
two small species of coccinellid belonging to the genus Coccidula. 
These three species not only breed among the foliage of reeds, rushes 
and flags, but remain upon them throughout the year, overwintering 
tucked down between the dead leaves. 

6. Leave a “weedy” area, or preferably two, somewhere in the garden. 
One may be on previously cultivated, nutrient-rich soil, which will 
often support a nettle patch. This may become host to 2-spot, 7-spot, 
10-spot, 14-spot, cream-spot and pine ladybirds. A nettle patch may 
also provide a breeding site for some of the Nymphalid butterflies such 
as Peacocks CUnadchis io), Small tortoiseshells (Aglais urticae), Red 
admirals (Vanessa datalanta) and Commas (Polygonia c-album). The 
other may be on an area of grass that gets at least some sun and which 
is only cut once a year, preferably in mid-July. The resulting long 
grassland habitat may encourage 16-spot, 22-spot and 24-spot ladybirds 
to settle, as well as some of the smaller species of coccinellid, such as 
Rhizobius litura and Nephus redtenbacheri. Alternatively, a wild area 
may be created by digging over a patch of earth and allowing natural 

88 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 3 

plant colonisation of this patch. Best results are obtained if the soil has 
not been) fertilised! intithe recent spast “Such ant arcasenceds alittle 
maintenance save for the removal of species which will overwhelm it, 
such as nettles, creeping thistle, bramble, ground elder and so on. 

Late summer 

7. Because many coccinellids augment their diet with nectar in the late 
summer, in, preparation for winter, late flowering nectar plants are 
important. Buddleia, the so-called “butterfly bush”, is useful in this 
respect and will attract several species of ladybird to its flowers (as well 
as many butterflies). To prolong the nectar supply, buddleia is best 
dead-headed every second or third day. Other useful nectar plants in 
this respect are Michaelmas daisies (Aster spp.) and ice plants (Sedum 
spectabile). In addition many types of legume attract ladybirds at this 
time of year, the ladybirds feeding on the sugary solution secreted from 
extra-floral nectaries. 

8. Do not remove foliage of plants such as spinach, hogweed 
(Heracleum sphondylium), dogwood (Swida sanguinea) or oak that is 
covered with powdery white mildew until mid-October, or later in mild 
autumns. This mildew provides food for 22-spots, 16-spots, and 
occasionally the orange ladybird, when these are feeding-up for the 
winter, and in “late” years, larvae and pupae of these species may be 
found well into September. 


9. Leave low rosettes of dead leaves on perennial plants throughout the 
winter, and clear them in the spring. These provide overwintering sites 
for many coccinellid species. In the same vein, disturb ground cover 
plants as little as possible in the winter, as these too may be used as 
winter sheltering sites by many ladybirds. Blackberry patches and 
hedges of many types should also be disturbed as little as possible, and 
pruning should be left until the spring, if this is not to the detriment of 
the plants in question. 

10. Plant some species particularly for the use of ladybirds in the 
winter. Two foreign plants, pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) and 
Cypressus x leylandii, and two native species, gorse (Ulex europaeus) 
and Scots pine, are especially notable in providing overwintering sites 
for ladybirds. The tight protective tussocks formed by pampas grass 


34 Volume 55 * April 1996 89 

attract many species which overwinter close to the ground, while the 
evergreen foliage of the other species offer many sheltered situations 
for coccinellids which overwinter higher up. 

11. If a hedge is to be planted at any time, favour a mixed deciduous 
one. A hedge comprising a mix of hawthorn, blackthorn, dog rose, 
privet, beech, and shot through with cultivated or wild brambles, is 
ideal for ladybirds. Beech, privet and bramble, while strictly deciduous, 
retain their leaves through most of the winter, and so provide good 
winter shelters for many ladybirds. Other ladybirds will overwinter in 
the leaf litter at the base of the hedge. However, the beauty of a mixed 
hedge is that it will also provide breeding sites for many species in the 


12. Some ladybirds, particularly the 2-spot, often overwinter inside 
houses. They usually do so in around or inside window frames, or in 
lofts, although some may take up residence in cool rooms. There is 
littlesthal meeds, to be done to encourage ladybirds to do this in your 
own home. If you have a house that has the right sorts of site, the 
ladybirds will find their way in. It is best if these ladybirds are left alone 
throughout the winter while they remain inactive. As many overwinter 
along the hinge edge of windows, it can be useful to check these in 
October, and if ladybirds are present there, open that window as little 
as possible, if at all, until the spring, lest the beetles are crushed. In 
early spring in-house ladybirds may require some help. At this time of 
year, they often become active on sunny days, appearing on the inside 
of windows searching for a way out. The ladybirds, having fasted for 
many months are likely to have low nutrient reserves, and they cannot 
afford to waste energy trying to find an exit. These should be put 
outside, preferably during the warmest part of the day, but at least two 
hours before sunset. 

13. If sharing one's home with hundreds of ladybirds throughout the 
winter does not sound very appealing, alternative sites can be provided 
that will divert many ladybirds from entering houses, but not drive 
them away completely. One that I have found to work particularly well 
involves the collapsible wooden trellises, available from most garden 
centres, that are commonly used to support climbing plants up the side 
of buildings; Iam particularly fond of climbers such as honeysuckle, 
wisteria and clematis, but against the side of a house these do need 
some support. Providing wooden trellises not only gives the plants 

90 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society L] 

something to climb up, but provides ladybirds with ideal overwintering 
sites between the back of the trellis and the brickwork. It is also worth 
noting that another climber, ivy, that does not usually need help in 
climbing a wall, alsc often provides shelter for ladybirds in the winter. 

Finally, watch and learn. Every garden is different and the ecological 
balance in a garden will vary from place to place and year to year. Try 
to watch ladybirds in your own garden, determine their requirements 
and act accordingly. Note which plants they breed upon, and where 
they pass the winter. Know their early stages so that eggs, larvae and 
pupae are not destroyed accidentally or in error. And try to teach the 
rest of your family and your neighbours.. Because the subject of the 
advice you give is ladybirds, and “Everyone loves a ladybird”, you may 
be surprised how open others are to good conservation practice. 


Hodek, I. (4973) Biology of Coccinellidae. Jank: The Hague; Academia: Prague. 

Sugaring plates for moths and butterflies 
by Jan Koryszko (6089) 

3 Dudley Place, Meir. Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire ST3 JAY. 

Over the years I have tried a number of sugaring methods; Mr R-H. 
Heath showed me a method he uses in his garden. This consists of a tin 
or china plate, between eight to twelve inches wide and around three 
inches deep, which is filled with soil to the rim. Treacle and syrup or 
honey is poured over the soil and rotten fruit may also be added. 
Diluted sugar water should be sprayed on the soil every couple of days 
and more treacle and syrup added. The plate should be put a few 

inches off the ground on bricks and in a sheltered spot out of the wind. 

The results are very good. A number of butterflies visit during the day: 
the Red admiral, Peacock, Comma, Small tortoiseshell and a large 
number of moths at night such as; the Large yellow underwing, Red 
underwing, Copper underwing and Old lady moth, as well as wasps, 
flies, ants, beetles, slugs and snails, not to mention frogs, toads, bats 
and hedgehogs. I recommend these plates to any entomologist. I have 
recorded the Angle shades moth (Phlogophora meticulosa) almost every 
month of the year, and some quite late Yellow underwings CVoctua 

ii a 

34 Volume 55 + April 1996 91 

Insects of the Shimba Hills National Reserve, Kenya, April 1994 
by Stuart Cole (1059) 

24 Broom Close, Broom Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 ORJ. 

There are a group of mountain ranges in north-east Tanzania that have 
an extraordinary rich diversity of animals and plants and a high level of 
endemism. This is because the coastal region of East Africa has enjoyed 
a long period of climatic stability and because the area's humid forests 
once had a connection with the central African rainforests but are now 
separated by hundreds of miles of comparatively dry country. 

The Shimba Hills in the south-east corner of Kenya are some 60 miles 
from the closest of these ranges, the Usambara Mountains. Although 
they are not as rich as the mountain localities the Shimbas have the 
advantage of being only 20 miles from Mombasa and readily accessible 
to someone on a two-week holiday on the coast and they still hold 
quite a range of large mammals including elephant, Cape buffalo, sable 
antelope and leopard. The hills were designated as a reserve primarily 
to protect the only herds of sable antelope in Kenya, where they occur 
as the sub-species Hippotragus niger roosevelti. Another attraction is 

that, unlike most game reserves in East Africa, visitors can explore on 

The average rainfall is 42 inches; most falling in the two wet seasons 
of April to June (the “long rains”) and October and November (the 
“short rains”). I visited the hills at the start of the long rains in April 
1994, fourteen years after my first visit in November 1980. 

The landscape of the Shimbas is of rolling hills, very reminiscent of 
the chalk downs of southern England, with patches of sub-humid 
tropical forest interspersed with stretches of bushed grassland; a 
vegetation sometimes referred to as savanna-forest mosaic. The forest 
resembles rainforest but rainfall is not sufficient or consistent enough to 
support true rainforest. However, it is composed of a large variety of 
different species. Few trees were identified and these were of the 
genera Combretum, Parkia, Afzelia, Ficus, Dracaena and Cono- 
pharyngia. There is little lower vegetation in the interior and this is 
mainly shrubs; herbaceous vegetation is almost absent. 

Most of my examination of the forest in the hills was in the Makadara 
Forest south of Pengo Hill on the west side of the hills. Here there is a 
large clearing known as the Picnic Site. The low herbs and grasses that 
cover the floor of the clearing teemed with small grasshoppers, mantids 

92 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society oe 

and moths of a host of different species. The biggest and most colourful 
of the grasshoppers was Eupropractis ornatus (Acrididae), a dark 
prussian blue insect with yellow stripes and red hindwings. This species 
was one of the most frequent insects in the hills and occurred in both 
forest and grassland. An abundance of insects was also found on 
foliage of shrubs around the edge of the clearing. These were mostly 
weevils, leaf beetles, bugs, bush-crickets and arachnids, such as 
harvestmen (Opiliones). The latter had small round maroon bodies 
suspended between black thread-like legs spanning five inches. Of the 
bush-crickets, the most distinctive, and the only species identified, was 
Dioncomena ornata, green with clear pale blue markings. 

A further assortment of insects was found on and under logs and 
fallen trees. They included the Longhorn beetle Zographus 
hieroglyphicus, the conspicuous black and white elaterid beetle Alaus 
tortrix, various weevils and lycid beetles and some large moths of the 
Sphingidae, Saturniidae and Noctuidae. Pseudobunaea_ tyrrhena 
maculata was a saturniid whose plain brown forewings covered a 
deeply coloured eyespot on each hindwing while the underside of the 
body and wings was pure white. The noctuids were a common species 
of Forest moth of the genus Evebus with wings intricately patterned in 
various shades of black. Beetles of the Passalidae and Prioscelis tridens 
of the Tenebrionidae lived in the rotten wood of the logs. Priscelis, a 
mainly West African genus, look like outsize Mealworm_ beetles 
(Tenebrio spp.). Beneath the logs were yellow scorpions and various 
black carabid beetles, one of them a huge individual. 

The most impressive inhabitants of the clearing and surrounding 
forest were the giant snails of the genus Achatina (Achatinidae) of 
which the biggest were A. achatina, the largest of all the world's land 
molluscs. One individual found here had a shell eight inches long. After 
rain the snails roamed over the ground but in drier weather lodged 
themselves on the stems of shrubs and retreated into their shells. Other 
outsize arthropods were giant millipedes of a number of species. The 
handsome adults of Epibolus spp. (Harpagophoridae) were six inches in 
length, black with chestnut-red legs. A larger unidentified species 
reached eight inches. The East African coastal region is particularly rich 
in millipedes and the Eastern Usambara mountains alone hold 35 
endemic species. 

Although butterflies were abundant in the Shimbas, in terms of 
species numbers East Africa has an impoverished butterfly fauna 
compared to the forests of central and West Africa. On my first visit in 

36 Volume 55 + April 1996 93 

1980 two species of Danainae clung in flocks to the branches and 
leaves of shrubs in the clearing in the Makadara Forest. These were the 
black and white Amauris niavius and Tirumala petiverana with black 
and blue wings. On my second visit in April 1994, few of either 
Amauris or Tirumala were seen but a greater variety of other butterflies 
were on the wing in the forests and grassland. One of the most 
numerous was the large black and yellow Swallowtail Papilio 
ophidicephalus. This was abundant everywhere in the area, not only in 
the hills but also on the coastal plain including Mombasa airport. 
Another common Swallowtail was P. nireus, a black species with a 
band of iridescent green across the wings. Euphaedra neophron 
littoralis (Nymphalidae) was one of the most numerous butterflies along 
forest paths. Euxanthe tiberius tiberius (Nymphalidae), an endemic of 
the east coast forests, was found once feeding at exuding gum on a tree 

In November 1980 I came upon a tree (probably belonging to the 
Araliaceae) at the forest verge with round fleshy leaves and abundant 
umbels of simple green flowers. The flowers swarmed with insects of 
around 30 species, all except one belonging to the Hymenoptera. There 
were bees, ants, ichneumon-flies, spider-hunting pompilid wasps 
including Hemipepsis sp.) and large paper wasps (Polistes sp.). The 
exceptional species among these hordes was the beetle Lycus 
terminatus in which the males have the orange and black elytra 
expanded laterally to form an almost circular shape, although the 
abdomen beneath is quite slender. In the female this expansion is much 
less pronounced. There were several of the beetles on the flowers and 
when I returned to the tree some hours later at sunset, some were still 
present while all the other insects, save for a couple of Polistes wasps, 
had deserted them. 

Insects were less varied in the bushed grasslands. Grasshoppers were 
the most abundant group and included Eupropractis and Ornithacris 
cyanea, a very large brown species with pink hindwings. Numerous 
small horseflies were a nuisance; these appeared to be of the same 
genus (Haematopota) as our clegs. I was also bitten by tsetse flies 
(Glossina spp.) in the early mornings. These fortunately were much less 
common as they are the vectors of Trypanosomiasis, though I do not 
know whether they carry the disease in this area. 

The grassland is dotted with doum palms (Hyphene compressa) and 
has many shrubs such as Tetracera, Ochna and the invasive alien 
Lantana camara. A variety of herbs include several species of the 

94 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 36 

terrestrial orchid genus Eulophia and abundant white-flowered sedges. 
Of all the grassland plants only the flowers of sedges attracted more 
than a few insect visitors. On these were small green longhorn beetles 
of the species Hypocrites obtusipennis, mylabrine beetles of the genus 
Coryna, Leucocelis elegans, a little green chafer speckled with white, 
and a number of other, unidentified, beetles. ? 

The heavy rains of April 1994 brought out hordes of winged termites, 
fluttering weakly in the air up to the height of a few yards over the 
grasslands, providing a feast for birds, especially black and white 
cuckoos (Clamator jacobinus) that flew out from bushes to snatch at 
the flying insects or to pick them up from roads when the termites 
landed and discarded their wings. Carabid beetles and slender black 
Ponerine ants also hunted the termites on the ground. The ants were 
mostly individuals searching at random but one species, Megaponera 
foetens, marched in close packed columns from fifteen inches to several 
feet in length. These were actually pillaging armies intent on plundering 
the termite nests. One party that I came upon must have been retiring 
from a raid on a termite colony as some of the three-quarter inch 
workers were carrying the bodies of some large termite species 
(probably Macrotermes) in their jaws. Megaponera are, 1 believe, 
unique among ants in being able to stridulate. As I approached to 
within a few inches of one of the columns the insects became agitated, 
milling about, and I could distinctly hear them producing a_ high- 
pitched screeching. The leaders of the formation then swerved to one 
side and led their company into the vegetation beside the track. 

Surprisingly, I saw no marching colonies of the famous driver ants 
(Dorylis spp. and Anomma spp.) here or in any other coastal locality 
during either 1980 or 1994 although they must occur, as two males 
were found at light at Likoni just south of Mombasa. 

In November 1980 I saw only one elephant in the Shimba Hills 
although their tracks were often encountered in the forests, but in April 
1994 there seemed to be elephants everywhere. This abundance of 
elephants did not necessarily reflect a general increase in these animals 
in Kenya but rather shrinking of territory in which elephants could find 
refuge. I could see that agriculture was filling the lowlands surrounding 
the hills and this would make it difficult for the elephant herds to 
follow their traditional migration routes between the hills and the 
Mkomazi Game Reserve in Tanzania. 

The high elephant population guaranteed a good dung beetle fauna 
in the Shimbas. Scarab beetles (Scarabdaeus spp.) buzzed across open 

36 Volume 55 « April 1996 95 

country homing in on the freshest heaps of dung. One pile heaved with 
black scarabs — I counted 50 just on the surface along with a few 
Sisyphus spp. and Histeridae — and there were many more beneath. 
Some heaps were half buried in mounds of freshly dug soil thrown up 
by the giant Heliocopris CH. hamadryas?) of which one adult beetle was 
found scraping away at the surface. The genus Heliocopris is found in 
tropical Africa and Asia wherever elephants still occur and contains the 
world's largest dung beetles. Catharsius rhinocerus was another large 
dull black dung beetle found and several brilliant metallic green 
Onthophagus sp. were discovered feeding, not on their usual diet of 
dung, but on some seeds that had been regurgitated on a road by some 

Although the vegetation of the Shimba Hills appears to be almost in a 
pristine state, there are plantations of alien pine trees in the north of the 
reserve near the township of Kwale. These trees, which are Pinus 
caribbea from the south-eastern USA, are tapped for their resin used in 
the pharmaceutical industry. Officially there is no further extension of 
the plantations but I found that there is still some surreptitious planting 
of pines amidst uncleared native vegetation near the existing 
plantations. Another threat to the integrity of the flora of the hills comes 
from the South American shrub Lantana which has become a pan- 
tropical weed. This rampant, untidy shrub has changed the nature of 
much of the forest verging the hills and has probably completely 
displaced some less vigorous native flora. However, the plant is not all 
bad as, wherever Lantana occurs, its flowers seem to be the favourite 
nectar source of butterflies. 

Brimstone meets drone fly 
by Stuart Pittman (9135) 

101 Old Hale Way, Hitchin, Hertfordshire SG5 1XR. 

In the late spring of 1995 I observed an interesting relationship between 
a hoverfly and a butterfly. 

A Brimstone (Gonepteryx rhamni) was basking low down on grass 
when the drone fly (Eristalis tenax) landed on the Brimstone's wings. It 
too basked for some time, both either oblivious to each other which is 
perhaps too implausible, or just another type of relationship to yet 
again surprise the entomologist! 

96 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 34 

Gypsy moth (ymantria dispar) 
by Guy Nettleton 

MAFF, Plant Health and Seeds Inspectorate, Rm 822, Market Towers, 1 Nine Elms Lane, London SW8 5NO. 

In June 1995 an outbreak of the Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) 
(Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) was found in north-east London. 
A native strain of the Gypsy moth was at one time present in wetland 
areas of eastern England but it died out in the early part of this century. 
The 1995 outbreak involved a different strain with a much wider host 
range and could, if it were to establish in the UK, become a major pest 
of forest and amenity trees. Following scientific advice on the likely 
impact of the pest in the UK the Plant Health and Seeds Inspectorate 
(PHSD, of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food took steps to 
eradicate the outbreak. 

A European strain of the Gypsy moth has caused considerable 
damage to trees in many European countries but it has not been known 
to occur in Great Britain. The PHSI and Forestry Commission had been 
aware of the potential threat posed by this pest and have remained 
vigilant during their routine inspection work. However, the inability of 
the female to fly has restricted its natural distribution. In 1993 an Asian 
strain or hybrid, indistinguishable in appearance from the European 
strain and originating in eastern Russia, was discovered in Germany. A 
key characteristic of this strain or hybrid is that the female can fly and 
so under favourable conditions extensive outbreaks can occur over 
wide areas. DNA analysis carried out on specimens found in the UK in 
1995 shows them to be similar to this Asian strain or hybrid form. 

All forms of Gypsy moths lay their eggs in clumps in July and August. 
These are composed of a spongy mass of approximately 400 eggs 
insulated by a matrix of hair shed from the moth's body. These egg 
masses are usually laid on wooden surfaces such as tree bark or fences. 
On hatching in the spring the small caterpillars produce a silk thread. 
This can be caught by air currents and, acting rather like a parachute, 
carries the larva downwind. The egg masses can also be laid on other 
surfaces such as containers and the bodywork of vehicles which are 
then transported by man. This adaption has ‘meant that man has 
become an important secondary means of dissemination of the Gypsy 
moth, sometimes moving it over considerable distances. 

We do not know the origin of this particular outbreak. It is most 
likely to have been due to an egg mass being carried into the UK ona 
vehicle or wooden material. It does though seem to be an isolated case. 

4 Volume 55 « April 1996 97 

Action taken by the PHSI with help from Redbridge Borough Council 
and in liaison with the Forestry Commission included inspections, 
localised sprays of insecticides and pheromone trapping. These activites 
should minimise the risk of any recurrence of the outbreak from this 
source in 1996. In addition to continued work in the area of the 
outbreak there will be an increase in the level of monitoring for the 
Gypsy moth on imports and at woodland sites. 

The PHSI and Forestry Commission are keen that the public are 
aware of this pest and assist the Ministry with its work by reporting any 
potential sightings. The Gypsy moth has a very distinctive larva. 
Though the background body colour can vary the caterpillar has 
characteristic warts from which hairs develop. These warts tend to be 
yellowish but the dorsal pairs on each of the first five segments behind 
the head are blue and the remaining dorsal warts are red. When mature 
the caterpillar is between 4 - 7cm long. Any entomologist who thinks 
that he or she has seen the Gypsy moth must contact his or her local 
Plant Health and Seeds Inspector. The addresses of all MAFF offices are 
available from the MAFF helpline on 0645 335577 Cocal rates). 

Since the Gypsy moth is a non-indigenous plant pest it is controlled 
under the Plant Health (Great Britain) Order 1993. This Order prohibits 
anyone from keeping live specimens of Lymantria dispar unless they 
are specially authorised to do so by MAFF. 

Wanted: The Woodhopper 

by Peter Smithers 

Dept. of Biological Science, Plymouth University, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon PL4 SAA. 

The Woodhopper, alias Arcitalitrus dorrieni, is found under flower- 
pots, household and garden waste, and also in compost heaps and 
woodland leaf-litter. It is similar in appearance to the sandhoppers that 
are found on the beach beneath piles of seaweed and is from 2 to 
10mm in length. 

If you find a colony of Woodhoppers please send a specimen to the 
address above, enclosing the following information: The habitat in 
which it was found, i.e. garden, parkland, woodland etc; the date on 
which it was first observed and an address or map reference for the 

Thank you for your assistance with this project. 

98 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 34 

Alien Empire by Christopher O'Toole. Hardback, A4, pp224 and many 
colour plates, 19957 Price 217.09: 

This book which accompanied the BBC television series recently shown 
is nothing less than you would expect from the BBC Natural History 
Unit. The book is superbly illustrated with colour photographs and 
drawings and has a very attractive format which keeps the reader 

There are. eight’ chapters, covering topics, of..desien,. senses, and 
movement of insects, how insects feed, their defences, reproduction, 
eusociality and how insects interact with Man. In fact all the basics of 
entomology are covered in an interesting and educational manner 
which makes the book an essential addition to the bookshelf of anyone 
interested in natural history. Even the more experienced entomologist 
would learn from some of the examples given. 

I personally enjoyed the final chapter on the interactions between 
Man and insects. This chapter looks at our friends, such as hornet 
larvae and pupae which are sold as a nutritious food in Thailand (yum, 
yum!) and foes such as the Tiger mosquito, Aedes spp. which benefits 
from our habit of dumping car tyres — which provide the ideal habitat 
for a mosquito to complete its life cycle in the pools of water which 
collect in them. This, of course, increases malaria transmission due to 
the increase in adult mosquitoes. 

There is much to learn in this book and I highly recommend it — the 
author and publishers deserve the success that this book will surely be. 

Wayne Jarvis 

34 Volume 55 * April 1996 99 

Diptera (True Flies) from the Kenfig National Nature Reserve, 
Glamorgan. J.C. Deeming (1995) National Museums and Galleries of 
Wales, Entomological Series No. 4. 113pp. Paperback only. £4.95 + 
p&p. For details write to: Publications Department, NMGW, Cathays 
PankenGarcitteer ly 5NP: 

Kenfig NNR is a large sand dune complex in South Wales and one of 
the best such habitats in the British Isles. This publication goes into the 
detail of the flies recorded at this site over the last century, with 956 
species listed. An introduction by Dr Jones (Kenfig Project Officer) 
gives details of the site's history and current management and the 
importance of some of the habitats therein. 

The systematic list gives a brief introduction to each family, and 
under each species distributional, status, and often biological and 
ecological information is given. There are a number of name changes 
listed, but these are put into perspective by the author, nevertheless a 
copy of the British checklist is a recommended companion. There are 
two appendices: the collecting sites of J.W. Yerbury from the region, 
from unpublished diaries held in the Hope Entomological Collections, 
Oxford; and a checklist of the Molluscs, to be used in conjunction with 
the information on the Sciomyzidae (snail-killing flies). There is also an 
index to families and genera. 

This publication is not only a useful addition to any Dipterist's 
library, but also a valuable resource for conservationists and ecologists 


Darren Mann 

Insect World International 

_ After Bugs disappeared (or has it?), I thought we had seen the last 

attempt to produce a glossy magazine on invertebrates, but no, yet 
another one has popped-up. However, much to my surprise the first 
issue Of Insect World International was in fact interesting. As the title 
suggests, this is an international magazine, so will help enthusiasts from 
around the world to keep in touch and share information. In the first 
issue aticles included: = SO you) want to keep a Tarantula?”, “An 
Introduction to Stick and Leaf Insects”, “Invertebrates in Close-Up” and 
“Breeding T~ropical Butterflies”. Although I have no interest in stick 
insects or butterflies I found the articles to be well written and 

_ delightfully mixed with colour photographs. 

100 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 3 

The magazine begins with an information page, containing snippets of 
news from the ridiculous to the scientific. The main part is taken up 
with the five articles mentioned above, and there is a section for the 
younger enthusiasts, aptly named “The Creepy Crawly Club’. A 
consultancy column gives subscribers a chance to have their questions 
answered and “What's Bugging You?” allows readers to air their 
opinions. There are also book reviews, adverts from various traders and 
an international directory of societies, although this is limited to one 

All in all, it is a well balanced mixture of good quality articles and 
notes of interest. The cartoon “Arnold's Arthropods” made up for the 
few technical errors I noticed. I imagine-anyone with an interest in 
invertebrates, especially those who delight in culturing such creatures, 
will thoroughly enjoy this magazine. 

I would like to wish the editor, Paul Kent, every success with this 
pleasingly different new publication. 

For» details: -write- to: Insect), Worlds: PO] Box > 4422 Drotmvick! 
Worcestershire WR9 8YL. Subscription rates: £16.50 per annum for 
Europe, rest of the World £35. 

Darren Mann 

The National Trust and Nature Conservation 100 years on edited by D_J. 
Bullock and H.J. Hervey, assisted by S. Mifsud. Biological Journal of the 
Linnean Society, Vol. 56 Supplement A. 4to., pp xviit 248. Academic 
Press 1995, Price not, stated. 

The previous issue of the Biological Journal had an account of Pitcairn 
and Henderson islands. Well-known as the landfall of the Bounty 
mutineers, it is not so well-known that for some 600 years they were 
inhabited by Polynesians who so degraded their environment that they 
died out. Are we perhaps going the same way? The signs are there and 
have been succinctly put by Richard Leakey in his latest book The sixth 
extinction. The appalling environmental destruction wrought on 
Twyford Down and now being inflicted on SSSIs and other amenities 
by the Newbury bypass show the utter indifference of Government to 
the effects they have been warned about. So perhaps this book offers 
us a ray of hope. National Trust property is inalienable, except that it 
could be seized by an Act of Parliament, but the outcry from its two 
million members would be so great that I doubt whether any 
Government would dare try! The Trust are one of our largest 
landowners and include many of our more useful and well-known 

36 Volume 55 « April 1996 101 

century ago. They take their responsibility seriously and this book is a 
report on a joint conference held with the Linnean Society in 1994. Five 
chapters — a whole section — are on the conservation of butterflies and 
deal with different aspects of the problem. All but two of our resident 
butterflies occur on Trust land and indeed a number of our more 
endangered species are at present fairly safe there. These include the 
Swallowtail, Glanville and Marsh fritillaries, the Adonis blue, the High 
brown fritillary and, recently, the re-introduced Large blue; there are 
indeed far more colonies of many species on Trust land than there are 
on the slightly smaller total areas of national nature reserves. 

Other chapters in this book deal with grazing as a management 
practice; Historic parks and pasture-woodlands (such as Hatfield forest); 
Habitat restoration and Conservation of bats. Now bats are primarily 
insect eaters and so in order to have a thriving colony of them one 
must ensure that not only are suitable resting and hibernation sites 
available but the surrounding habitat must be able to support a large 
population of insects, so the more the farmer or Council sprays 
insecticides and herbicides and grubs up hedges and “manages” the 
land the fewer insects will be available and hence the bat population 
will crash. So, if the land is managed with bats in mind, then this means 
making it suitable to produce as large a crop of insects as possible, with 
great benefit to the entomologist who will not begrudge the small 
percentage of insects taken as sustenance by the bats. 

While the papers here are more on conservation measures generally 
and on butterflies (rather than moths or other insects), many of the 
other papers are of relevance to insect conservation. They all show just 
how much work is being done, how efforts are being made (on, of 
course, limited resources — how handy a lottery grant would be!) to 
manage their properties and in some cases to restore environments that 
had become greatly degraded through various causes. It comes through 
very clearly that the Trust takes its responsibilities towards conservation 
seriously, is willing to both give and take advice and is already working 
in close co-operation with other bodies. Apart from the butterflies I 
wonder just how well-recorded are many of the other orders over 
Mearly ~a quarter million hectares of Trust land I-am sure that a 
responsible approach to carry out surveys or experiments on their land 
will be more than welcome. 

iiniste book isan essential read for all who are interested, in 
conservation, particularly, perhaps, of butterflies, and the work which is 
and has already been done, on National Trust properties in this 
connection. Hexadactyla 

102 =~. «= ~Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society &é 

/ Caught 
in the 

by Wayne Jarvis (9899) 

This is a new feature which we are including in the Bulletin for those 
who have access to the Internet. Increasingly, members are using the e- 
mail and Internet systems to contact us and with more and more 
people hooking up to the system all the time, I thought that it would be 
useful to look at some of the sites which can be accessed. 

One of the best UK based pages on the Web as far as insects are 
concerned is Gordon's Entomological Home Page. Gordon Ramel, a 
member of the Bug Club Committee, has devoted hours of his time to 
provide an accurate, attractive, up-to-date set of pages with links to 
many other entomological sites. Gordon has listed the various 
entomological societies (including the AES) to be found around the 
World. This is definitely a site to visit and can be found at 

One of Gordon's pages, that of the Bug Club, an organisation run for 
children that are interested in bugs and other “creepy crawlies”, has 
recently been taken over by Kieren Pitts and is under re-development. 
The look so far is superb and when fully functional this is definitely 
somewhere to point the younger entomological members of the 
Society. The pages currently include the newsletter, care sheets and 
loads of useful information. To access the Bug Club Home Page enter 
this address: 

The final site for this issue of the Bulletin is that of Butterfly 
Conservation. These pages have also been re-developed recently and 
now include information about the Society, the latest news, the articles 
found in Butterfly Conservation News and lots more. This site is found 

If you have found an interesting site please let me know and I'll be 
happy to include it next time. 


Volume 55 « April 1996 103 


BENHS British Entomological and Natural History Society. 
LNHS London Natural History Society. 

RES Royal Entomological Society of London. 
RES(QG) RES Rooms, 41 Queen's Gate, London SW7. 

I: Information from: 

To make the diary effective contributions are needed from members. 
Any relevant items should be sent to the Bulletin Editor. No charge is 
made for entries. Please allow three months advance notice. 





RES Meeting — Title to be announced. 

RES(QG) Tea 17.00hrs, Meeting 17.30hrs. A talk will be presented by a 
member of the Ecological Special Interest Group. 
I: RES 0171 584 8361. 

Entomological Livestock Group Spring Entomological Fair. 
For further details please see the advert in this edition of the Bu/letin. 

BENHS Indoor Meeting — Sex, Parasites and Venereal Disease in 

RES(QG) 18.00hrs. Talk by Dr Michael Majerus. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

104 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society Se 

5th RES Meeting —AGM & President's Address. 
RES(QG) Tea 17.00hrs, Meeting 17.30hrs. 
I: RES 0171 584 8361. 

7th AES June Council Meeting. 
Baden Powell House, Queen's Gate, Kensington at 18.30 hrs. 

10th LINHS Meeting — Invertebrate Conservation at Home and Abroad. 
At the Linnaen Society Rooms, Burlington House, Piccadilly, W1. 
18.30hrs. David Clarke, Head Keeper of Invertebrates, London Zoo is 
the speaker. 
I: Catherine Schmitt 0181 346 4359. 


3rd RES Meeting — The trouble with Psocids: A problem to control. 
RES(QG) Tea 17.00hrs, Meeting 17.30hrs. Dr B.D. Turner, Kings 
College , London. 
I: RES 0171 584 8361. 




Staines Road, Sunbury, Middlesex 

Doors open at llam e Admission £1.00 

Members free on production of pass to be issued with the 
August Bulletin. 

For further information please write to: 
The AES, PO Box 8774, London SW7 5ZG. 

Published 20th April 1996 by the Amateur Entomologist's Society 
(Registered Charity No. 267430), from 4 Steep Close, Orpington, Kent BR6 6DS. 

Major Entomological & Herpetological Show for 
Captive Bred Stock & Conservation Groups ~ 

NEW THIS YEAR ~ National Photographic Competition 

in conjunction with - Insect & Invertebrate World International Magazine 

Saturday 29th June 10.00am to 5.00pm 

Butterflies & Moths. Praying Mantids & Stick Insects. Frogs & Toads, 
Lizards. Snakes, Tarantulas,Scorpions Pree 

Snails and Beetles. Books, Specimen 

Equipment, Tanks, Microscopes, Food 

and Plants. Everything for the Keeper, 

Enthusiast or Expert. Come and buy 

or look at these fascinating creatures. 

Talk to the Experts, Society Members and Conservation Groups. 

ADULTS £2.00 
CHILDREN £ 1. 00 
FAMILY £5. 00 


Telephone 01626 332 775 

Spend the day at the show. There will be special talks and lectures in the 
afternoon. See the results of a ‘Bug Sweep’ of the racecourse. 

The Photo Competion Entry Forms are available from the Organisers: SAE 
to Creepy Crawly Photo Competition Mead Farm, Howton Road, Newton 
Abbot, Devon 1TQ12 6ND. The details are also in the current edition of 
Insect & Invertebrate World International Magazine - Issue Number 4 - 
obtain your copy of the magazine direct from the publishers by sending 
£2.75 to Insect World (Dept CCS) PO Box 44 Droitwich Worcs.WR9 8YJ 
Tel/Fax 01905 776051. 



Written in three parts at the turn of the century, this book has been reprinted 
because it still represents the most comprehensive field guide covering both 
macro and microlepidoptera. Parts I to HJ all give a month by month guide to 
which species and stages to look for and how to find them. Part II also contains 
an extensive biological account of the early stages and how to keep, rear and 
describe them. 422 pages, Hardback. (Reprinted 1994). A separate supplement 
has been prepared which cross-references old to current scientific names and the 
English names of the species covered. Total price only £21.00. 


Habitat Conservation for Insects - A Neglected Green Issue 

(Hardback 262 pages, 15 figures+ 32 pages colour plates). . ... . .£12.00 
A Lepidopterists Handbook (136 pages, 32 figs, 13 plates) . . . . . £7.50 
Breeding the British Butterflies (60 pages, 6 figures, 5 plates) . . . . £3.95 
Breeding the British and European Hawkmoths (56 pages) . . . . . £3.95 
| Practical Hints for Collecting and Studying 

Microlepidoptera (40 pages, 11 figures) . . . £3.40 
An Amateurs Guide to the Study of the Gentalia at Lepidoptera ( 16pp) £2395 
A Silkmoth Rearers Handbook (Hardback, 225pp + 32 colour 

plates showing 74 photographs of larvae and adult moths) . . . . . £13.75 
Killing, Setting and Storing Butterflies and Moths (19 pages) . . . . £2.85 
The Study of Stoneflies, Mayflies and Caddis Flies (44 pp, 10 figs.) . . £3.40 
Collecting and Studying Dragonflies (24 pages, 12 figs, 2 plates) . . . £2.35 
The Hymenopterists Handbook (226 pages, illustrated). . . . . . . £8.50 
Revised Flight Tables for the Hymenoptera (24 pages). . . . . . . £2.00 
| A Coleopterists Handbook (Hardback, 300 pages, illustrated) . . . . £15.50 
Host.plants ‘of British, Beetles (24) pages); . a. 3. a pe e200 
A Dipterists Handbook (260 pages, illustrated) . . 2950 
Rearing and Studying Stick and Leaf-Insects (73 pp. 43 fees "7 pice oe e£500 
Rearing and Studying the Praying Mantids (22 pages, 9 plates) . . . . £2.85 
Rearing Crickets in the Classroom (12 pages, 2 plates). . . . . . . £1.80 

| All the above publications sent post free to U.K. addresses. Outside U.K. please 
| add 10% to order value for postage by surface mail. For postage by air-mail 
outside Europe please add 30% to order value. 

Please make all cheques/postal orders payable to 'AES Publications’ and send to: 
AES Publications, The Hawthorns, Frating Road, Great Bromley, 
COLCHESTER CO7 7JN. Telephone 01206 251600 


Tarantula Spiders of the USA & Mexico by Andrew M. Smith. 

ISBN 09510939-9-1 

Price £30. Mail-order £25. 

This is another first from the arachnological publishing house Fitzgerald, which in 
1985, published the pioneering publication, The Tarantula ID Guide — often referred 
to as the tarantula keepers bible. In 1990, we published Baboon Spiders — the first 
volume in our highly acclaimed new series, which in 1995 was followed up with the 
second volume in this series, Tarantulas of the USA & Mexico. 

This is a hardback book, which is the largest most comprehensive book ever 
published on the subject and one which Peter Kirk, Editor of the British Tarantula 
Society Journal, has described, as “head and shoulders above the rest — the best book 
on tarantulas to date.” 

We think so too, and so will you. It is packed with over a thousand photographs, 
drawings, maps and original research, of the like of which you have not read 
elsewhere. In fact we take great pride in the fact that our photographs were taken out 
in the grasslands of Oklahoma and the deserts of Arizona, Utah, California and 
Mexico. Not only does the book include 25 new species, but also fascinating 
chapters on native American Indian folklore and on the arachnologists who described 
them. Do you know which British arachnologist, blew out his brains with a service 
revolver, with his pipe still clamped between his teeth? Or which one returned from a 
field trip, to attend his own funeral? 

Baboon Spiders (Tarantulas of Africa and the Middle East) by Andrew M. Smith. 
ISBN 09510939-7-55. 

Price £25. Mail-order £20. 

The first volume in our tarantulas of the world series and one which was 
enthusiastically reviewed by Frances Murphy of The British Arachnological Society 
— “you should buy this book — as a result of the authors research, it contains a vast 
amount of invaluable knowledge”. Phillippe de Vosjoli simply stated in his book 
Arachnomania — “this book will prove invaluable to the serious hobbyist”. A book 
which is packed with invaluable species descriptions (including eleven new species) 
and fieldwork and habitat data. 

Stick Insects of Britain, Europe and the Mediterranean by Paul Brock. 

ISBN 09510939-7-5. 

Price £15. Mail-order £10. 

“This attractively illustrated, very comprehensive and up-to-date book is a goldmine 
of information. Indispensable for anyone interested in Sticks from these areas”. — 
Review by Michael Lazenby, Phasmid Study Group. A hardback book, which is 
packed with information — including hundreds of collection sites in France, Spain, 
Portugal, Yugoslavia, Sardinia, Morocco, Turkey and Italy. Perfect for planning 

Trading Terms: No postage charges. Payments by cash, cheques, postal orders. 
Overseas payments by cash (USA $ welcomed), or sterling international bank or 
postal drafts/orders. No dollar cheques, as these cost us $10 to cash. 


Species not in Joy's practical handbook 
by Peter J. Hodge and Richard A. Jones 

There are over 650 British beetles not included in Norman Joy's Practical handbook of 
British beetles. Some are new arrivals, others have been confused or overlooked and 
many groups have undergone revision. New British beetles puts these changes into 
perspective and offers the British coleopterist a new look at Joy's book, a reference to 
the current British fauna and the changes that have taken place in the last 63 years. 

For each family, Joy's book is assessed, the most up-to-date keyworks are listed, 
together with many other helpful references. For each “new” beetle species, a short 
description is followed by extensive references. The 192-page book has a full and 
comprehensive index allowing cross-reference to all specific, generic and family names 
used including many synonyms used by Joy and others. 

Hardback (ISBN: 1-899935-002), £24 + P&P £2- 
Paperback (ISBN: 1-199935-01-0) £18 +P&P £2 

Send cheque made out to “Brit. Ent. Nat. Hist. Soc.” with order to: BENHS Sales 
Secretary, R.D. Hawkins, 30d Meadowcroft Close, Horley, Surrey RH6 9EL. 

BENHS members are eligible for special prices on this and other Society publications 
and receive the quarterly British Journal of Entomology and Natural History. For 
sample copy and Society details write to the Editor, Br.J.Ent.Nat.Hist., 13 Bellwood 
Road, Nunhead, London SE15 3DE. 


A Quarterly Journal of Palaearctic Entomology. 

Illustrated and covering all groups of Insects. 

Includes Book Reviews on a World-wide basis. 

Current Annual Subscription £20 (US$45.00) 

A sample copy can be sent on request from the publishers: 


Brightwood, Bell Lane, Brightwell-cum-Sotwell, 

Wallingford, Oxon OX10 OQD. 

Continued from back cover 

ACEO Mlall Meme eset Ne sect sen Nese any see cceasseccosseuteas cancsusuucsdesoonsatecderswduchinescsdedescesdbasphead 53 
BOOKGREVIEW SEV ANCMENINOING) Sisa0cs cess sn ace ss28 .osstis sac cauresesoedoontonsedecoesccsdveasectsenedeiuecvenst 98 
Diptera from the Kentfig National Nature Reserve, Glamorgan .......... 99 
HASCCUNVV ONG MIMLCKIMAUOMAl gaescos cee tos he cesrectasaeboewesnntncoucnsesotaceoedes cesses 99 
The National Trust and Nature Conservation, 100 years ON ..........+++- 100 
OTM UMINPMUINMN VO ferret ese Me sede .!scays ondarie sev estvanctusiie coeds saswadsodetoultasoucresatewadsettertentactoacts 102 
Dilip AID CCS rear essence Notte ats connec ei secoadvusssnbetntesdeesversensscnes sheesiesensoatrvacenebecsowsuanesse 103 


of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society 


G. Tordoff. Easter break in Norfolk (13th to 18th April 1995). ..........2----.---ss:e-eceeeeeee- 55 
M.J. Dawson: Spaitt 1995. o.oo. o- occ cncmswwcaseneh agen seuasanancectonttenctensaese nee pee ee eee 59 
R.A. Jones. Hanging around the woods: Long-leggedness in a leaf beetle. ................ 61 
Huang Hao. Notes on the genus Sinopiens in China. 22.232. -1s.-22- 2-2. as cent 67 
P. Boireau. Winning the battle against pupal parasites. .......................-.----.----s+--sss-e=- 71 
F. Seow-Choen & P. Brock. A rare stick insect from Singapore: Lopaphus 

brachypterus (de Haan) 1842 with descriptions of the male and egg. ..................-. jae 
M. Majerus. Ladybird, ladybird, fly to my home! (or how to attract ladybirds to your 

BALOGH) ooo. ones hace nous tse ee eee ee oe 83 
S. Cole. Insects of the Shimba Hills National Reserve, Kenya, April 1994. ................. 91 
Short Communications 
P. Bragg. Mantids and cockroach meeting and study group. ................::::sseeeseeeeeeeeee= 56 
M. Emmet. Unbanned pets. ....00 2.222 occ sos ate nce nce ceee 57 
G. Best. A moo-ving Expenence. 22.5 -2- 2-002 anne caneatinnnon eee ee 58 
J. Koryszko. A visit to Prees Heath and Whixhall Moss, Shropshire. ................--..--++- 58 
M. Guye. An orgy of stag beetles... os 2 eco 60 

<) 4G. Best, 595.78. 22 eee 64 

F. McCann: Marbled beauty in Glasgow. .....-.-:..--.-2-.-.<-<.-----cessesqsot eee ee 65 
J. Koryszko. How long does a Devils coach-horse live? ................c.:sesseeeseeeeeeeeeeeees 66 
j. Keryszke. Homet moth record. (-..c.2...2--c0-ccscc-c3 secocneeeescecseeeate ee ecg ee 66 
P.. Wilkins. Snail-dwelling wasp? -:.......-.---<.c-<---c---scecceeseeres—cee nscice Seven each eee 7 
B. Dickerson. A Long-tailed blue (Lampides boeticus) in Kent. ..............:..:s20ss-200000- 75 
F. Farrow. A:continental visitote 0-2). eec ee Soe 7 
M. Pitt-Payne. Hummingbird hawkmoth in Aylesbury. ..................--.:e+-ssseesseeeeeeeeeees 77 
J. Koryszko. Hummingbird hawkmoth in Staffordshire. .................:sesseesceesceeseeeneeeees 77 
R.C. Watts. Hand pairing Swallowtails.:.......-3.-- ss <cscse a iene 78 
J. Koryszko. Sugaring plates for butterflies and moths. ................:..:sccesseeessceeeseeeneeeees 90 
S. Pittman. Brimstone meets drone fly. \..:.... <3-S:.---. sg cectencnceeneeee ee 95 
G. Nettleton. Gypsy moth (Lymanitria dispar). .......-.-.-<-..2-cos:sesse-sc-t0sesopseceoen nee 96 
P. Smithers. Wanted: The Woodhopper. <1.2..5...u..5.- ee 97 

Continued on inside back cover 

© 1996. The Amateur Entomologists’ Society. 
(Registered Charity No. 267430) 
All rights reserved. 

Printed by Cravitz Printing Co. ttd., 1 Tower Hill, Brentwood, Essex CM14 4TA. 

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Volume s5 °- Number 406 


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Founded in 1935 

Where to write 
For all Society business, please write to: 

P.O. Box 8774 
London SW7 5ZG 

Officers of the Society 

President: | Richard Jones 
Secretary: Wayne Jarvis 
Treasurer: Andrew Locke 
Registrar: Nick Holford 

Bulletin Editor: 

General Editor: 

Advertising Secretary: 

Exhibitions & Meetings Secretary: 
Youth Secretary: 

ICN Editor: 

Wants & Exchange: 

Habitat Conservation Officer: 

Wayne Jarvis 
Mike Bonsall 
Rob Dyke 
Maxwell Barclay 
Darren Mann 
David Lonsdale 
Caroline Willmot 

Martin Harvey 


Advertising Rate: 

First subscription (including entrance fee) £12, or £8 under 
18. Renewals £10 or £6 under 18. Overseas members £12. 
Subcription due by the 1st January each year. 

The following charges apply to adverts in the body of the 
Bulletin. Full page £60, Half page £40, Quarter page £25. 
Insert charges available on request to Advertising Secretary, 
address as above. 


It is to be distinctly understood that all views, opinions, or theories, expressed in the pages of this Journal are solely 
those of the author(s) concerned. All announcements of meetings, financial grants offered or sought, requests for help or 
information, are accepted as bona fide. Neither the Editor, the Officers and Council of the Society, nor its Trustees, can 
be held responsible for any loss, embarrassment or injury that might be sustained by reliance thereon. 

Worldwide Butterflies 

Sherborne, Dorset, DT9 ote Tel 01935 74608 Fax 29937 


ey <aaeS Ao Catalogue 
a G7 oe of livestock 
Vat A ae | : °7 

LOGY mean» aS 

— ans in ian 

Specimens and 

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50p in stamps 
would be greatly 


on request, 
Catalogues of 
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and Exotic 
set and papered 

* Paso tnece et e eile SOR Ent 

vig Worldlife e 

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At Compton House, Nr. anchone Worldlife 
has evolved from Worldwide Butterflies. 
As well as magnificent butterfly displays, 
conservation organisations are showing what 
is being done for the environment, and 
how all can become involved. 

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Open daily Apr-Sep. Tel 01935 74608 



Antiquarian, second-hand and New books 
Special offers and forthcoming book news 
Booksearch service. Please send your “wants” list 
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3° i C er 

Our Faringdon shop has a large stock of Entomological & Natural History books and prints 


Juniper Hall, Mickleham, nr Box Hill, Dorking 
20-21 JULY. 114M- 5.30PM 

| shall be exhibiting for sale a wide selection of entomological books and prints. 
Antiquarian, second hand, reference and new books 


Further details from -DAVID DUNBAR 
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for all your printing requirements 


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Tel: (01277) 224610 Fax: (01277) 262815 

The cover of this issue of the 

The x hig. 
Bulleti n ie | Bulletin features a close-up of 
SN ge 
of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society a nest of wood ants (Formica 
Volume SS * Number 406 


Photo: Nick Holford 


BRITISH HOVERFLIES: Second supplement 
by Alan E. Stubbs 

Following the phenomenal success of British hoverflies: an illustrated identification guide, the 
BENHS is pleased to announce the publication of a second, much enlarged, supplement — 64 pages, 
over 100 line figs, attractive card covers. It absorbs the information given in the short appendix 
(compiled in 1986) and gives a single source for advances in knowledge since the parent book was 
originally published in 1983. 

The main components are: a review of advances in the biology of hoverflies; advances in 
conservation methods; identification of the 15 species added to the British list since 1983; fully 
revised illustrated keys to Platycheirus and sphaerophororia; key to female Neocnemodon (which 
could not be identified before) and improvements to many other keys; notes on the additional 
species and much extra information on distribution and biology of many more species; about 300 
new references, attractive card covers. 

Paperback (ISBN: 1-899935-02-9) £6 +P&P £0.50 (overseas £1.00) 

Send cheque made out to “Brit. Ent. Nat. Hist. Soc.” with order to: BENHS Sales Secretary, G. 
Boyd, 17 Gainsborough Close, Cambridge CB4 ISY. 

The parent book, British hoverflies: an illustrated identification guide by Alan E. Stubbs is still 
available. The most comprehensive book to be published on British hoverflies, it has extensive keys 
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of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society 

Volume 55 © Number 406 June 1996 

Little Breach Butterfly Reserve 1974-1996 
by Roger Sutton (5305) 

16 Ashford Road, Wellington, Somerset TA21 8QF. 


In 1971, my wife Linda and I had a holiday of two weeks in Greece 
offered as an alternative to a cruise which was cancelled, so it was 
quite by chance that my old interest in butterflies was rekindled as a 
result of that holiday. We spent two weeks looking at ancient Greek 
ruins and after a while this became tedious, so one spare afternoon we 
decided to explore an area off the beaten track; we took a bus and 
wandered up a mountainside and there were creatures I hadn't seen 
since my childhood — butterflies! There were Swallowtails, kinds of 
Grayling and a variety of blues. This spectacle stayed with me after we 
returned home and I started wondering where are our butterflies in 

We set about trying to find them by following public footpaths 
mainly in the Blackdown Hills, but although on one occasion we found 
a lot of dragonflies (Odonata), there were very few butterflies. Walking 
along one track signposted as a public footpath, we found a chicken 
run across the way and when we diverted to get past the run we were 
told off for trespassing. This was not the first time we had been told off. 
That did it — we decided we would buy some land and cultivate our 
own butterflies. At that time it seemed most natural habitats would be 
destroyed and I knew something of butterfly requirements from 
studying and collecting them as a child in the late 1940s. There would 
also be a lot to learn in the process. We wanted to keep bees, another 
early aspiration, and owning a small area of land would make this 

On a 1:25,000 scale map I drew a circle with a five mile radius from 
home, in the Blackdown Hills, which would be no more than ten 
minutes driving time away and wrote to all the farms in that area to see 

106 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 4 | 

if any had an odd area of land they would be prepared to sell. Most 
didn't reply and some refused politely, but one showed us two areas on 
his land he would sell. One was two or so acres, but rather exposed 
and well manured. It was very green and too rich for butterflies which 
usually like impoverished soil. The other site he showed us was just 
under an acre, unsuitable for farming, beautifully sheltered by trees on 
two sides and was completely wild, being covered with gorse (Ulex 
europaeus), heather (Calluna vulgaris) and bracken (Pteridium 
aquilinum). There were piles of stones, so it was probably a dumping 
area for stones from the adjoining fields. Also impressive was one large 
Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritima) in the lower part of it. It has 
a south-east facing slope and so becomes active for butterflies early in 
the day. 

Access is not easy however, being across the moor on the hill above 
it, along tracks which have been made deep by farm vehicles because 
the farmer who sold it to us also sold part of the moor to a 
neighbouring farmer. It is a lovely walk across the moor in any case, but 
we needed motorised access to the bees. The part of the moor he sold 
had beautiful purple heather, but since it has been used for farming one 
might think it had never been anything else than a field. I have a 
photograph of it when it was covered in heather (Plate 96I, Fig. 1). 

Some people thought we were mad. Whoever had heard of anyone 
cultivating butterflies at that time? Even the green woodpecker seemed 
to be laughing at us! By now it was early 1974 and we started a log 
book of visits to the habitat which is maintained to this day with over 
620 visits to date July 1995). 

We set out to do what we intended regardless of the weather or we 
would never have got anything achieved. 

We thought it would be nice if we could go somewhere in our old 
age to watch blues and coppers with their brilliant colours which 
illuminate a countryside which is comparatively dreary without 

The land cost no more that a new TV set and it was marvellous at 
weekends, having been in an office all week, to get out into the 
countryside and work away to try to produce something spectacular. It 
beats any sport because there is a glorious end product and it is just as 
good for keeping fit. 

Out first objective was to map it and learn what was already there. A 
lot of people said it was too small, but we have been working on the 

| Volume 55 + June 1996 107 

“honeypot” concept and in any case, in later years, we bought the small 
field adjacent to add to it (Plate 96I, Fig. 2). 

We have been working on two principles: One. To grow plants and 
introduce the relevant butterflies to them by breeding and releasing, and 
two, as with the honeypot idea, grow certain plants to attract butterflies 
from the surrounding area. Number one has failed completely as will be 
demonstrated later, but valuable knowledge and experience has been 
gleaned from it. Most importantly, wanting to know what natural 
habitats were like so we could copy them, we found excellent sites 
which had no protection and which we were subsequently able to save. 
It has proved far better to save existing sites than to try and create them 
artificially, but it all stemmed from our work on this habitat. Number 
two has succeeded admirably and in this respect we have achieved most 
of what we set out to do, except that these days there are not many 
habitats for the butterflies to move in from. 

One thing that concerned us a lot in the early days was access, as 
mentioned earlier. One useful track from the Hemyock direction had a 
trench cut across it (it is near an old ruin with buddleia B. davidii), and 
there was some contention when the owner of the moor (Blackdown 
Common), set about preventing motorised access because cars and 
motorbikes had been causing a nuisance to walkers and eroding the 
tracks. However, he was agreeable to our using the car on occasions. 
Mostly we leave the car near Purchase Farm among a lot of others 
visiting Culmstock Beacon and walk over. One snowy day, we were 
advised by the farmer there to leave it in an adjoining track. On another 
snowy occasion (1st January 1979) we thought it best to leave it again 
where advised to previously, only to find on our return that our exit 
was blocked by another vehicle. It belonged to the farm and they 
wouldn't move it because they said that I had blocked off their tractor 
shed. There was no sign of the farmer who had told us to park there on 
a previous occasion, so we still had “Wild West” encounters even with 
our own land! There are other access routes, but it is not practical to 
approach from the Somerset end of the moor, for instance, which 
means driving over seemingly miles of rough track, the habitat being 
in Devon. 

We had to think of a name for the site. It was the upper part of a 
field known as Top Pasture, but we noted in the Deeds that the old 
name for the field was Little Breach (Fig. 1), a name no longer in use, 
so that is what it had to be and hopefully not confused with the well- 
known Somerset Wildlife Trust reserve of Great Breach Wood. 

108 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 36 

In conservation it is normal to find an area containing rare wildlife 
and try to save it by purchase, lease or agreement, but this was the 
other way round. We found some land and determined to make a 
scarce wildlife area, but by far the most important aspect of this project 
is as mentioned earlier. In order to create artificial habitats we have to 
see what natural ones are like so we can copy them. When we found 
them we realised they were being destroyed mainly by becoming 
overgrown with trees. We were able to negotiate with the Forestry 
Commission who have control of them, to save them, and _ this 
coincided with a change in their policy in favour of conservation. So 
Little Breach spawned the saving of some natural habitats, one of which 
is possibly unique in England by virtue of the combination of natural 
rare species that fly together. (Duke of Burgundy, Wood white and 
Marsh fritillary). 

Over the years 

In 1974, we mainly surveyed wildlife already there, mapping and 
observing, although by summer we had cleared and burnt some of the 
gorse scrub (Ulex europdeus) and started growing special butterfly 
plants such as bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and blackthorn 
(Prunus spinosa). On 22nd June a Small pearl-bordered fritillary 
(Boloria selene) and a Common blue (Polyommatus icarus) were seen 
laying eggs. The Green hairstreak (Callophrys rubi) is a species which 
has been there all the time and we were careful not to clear the 
particular gorse it was using. Where the scrub had been cleared, 
bracken loops started and every week we nipped of the heads with a 
sickle. This continued until 1976 when the bracken had only been 
weakened by nipping and we had to resort to spraying with Asulam 
(Plate 96J, Fig. 3). In clearing, we saved an attractive patch of heather, 
but this has since been overtaken by gorse. Even so, gorse is slow to 
re-establish and there seems little need to treat the stumps. 

The two largest of the five or so dragonflies to turn up in 1974 were 
the Golden-ringed dragonfly (Cordulegaster boltonii) and the Broad- 
bodied chaser (Libellula depressa). We set up three artificial flowers 
near the Green hairstreaks comprising small bottle lids stuffed with 
cotton wool soaked in honey and sugar. Each had a different colour 
collar either yellow, white or purple. Green hairstreaks went for the 
yellow and brimstones (Gonepteryx rhamni) for the purple. Linda 
monitored the set-up. On 6th July I saw a Dark green fritillary 
(Argynnis aglaja) in the adjoining field, but none ever again. The first 

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110 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 3 

year there were also a few Marbled whites (Melanargia galathea) in the 
adjoining field which was grazed for only two weeks in the year. We 
also saw a ginger-coloured Ringlet (Aphantopus hyperantus). We had 
cleared an area of scrub by October which would hopefully be turned 
into a herb-rich meadow by liming. One and a half tons of lime were 
stored in the open and later another half a ton. 

On 28th May 1975 we set up a hive for bees (Apis mellifera) on the 
moorland as it was then, above the reserve — a small one acre triangle 
which we have since bought. It produced 29lbs of honey in the first 
season. We kept the bees for five years until butterfly work had to take 

The quarter acre meadow area (“‘downland” on the map) had 35cwt 
of lime spread on it. There were some experiments such as planting 
cross-leaved heath (Erica tetralix) from the moor and some herb-rich 
turves from near Orchard Wood (all with permission from the owners), 
but they largely failed. Scattering seed in sparse herbage seems the 
most effective way of growing wild plants if the soil is suitable. Some 
plants succeed if planted out, notably shrubs, trees and such slightly 
woody plants as rockrose (Helianthemum nummularium) and 
marjoram (Origanum vulgare). There has also been success in the long 
run with many other plants which have settled in in a haphazard way 
rather than in the disciplined plant circles we set up for them and we 
soon found that the greater the level of artificiality, the more work they 
demanded to maintain them and it doesn't look natural. Some 
blackthorn bushes died out, but three to four foot high young bushes 
succeeded admirably and have become invasive. 

In May 1976 a buzzard (Buteo buteo) nested nearby and on 23rd 
May, two released Duke of Burgundy (Hamearis lucina) were seen 
pairing from 15 Sussex pupae put down, but no eggs resulted; possibly 
the area where the cowslips (Primula veris) were growing was too 
shaded. Further attempts at introduction of the Duke of Burgundy have 
been abandoned because their plants tend to dry out on the south-east 
facing slope of greensand. The way the plants tend to go their own 
way was demonstrated by nettles (Urtica dioica). We scattered some 
nitrogen to encourage them and planted some out, but they died, yet 
others grew for a time in the meadow area and actually supported 
Peacocks Undchis io) one season. Some plants tend to come and go; it 
seemed as though Cock's-foot grass (Dactylis glomeratus) would push 
out everything else, yet it declined after a few seasons and I wonder if 
it used up all the nutrients? 

| Volume 55 * June 1996 111 

As previously noted, where scrub had been removed, bracken 
immediately took over and on 3rd July 1976 I “blitzed” it with 1fl.oz. of 
Asulox per half gallon of water, using in all, 16 half-gallon fillings of the 
sprayer. We started at 8am and finished at lpm. The following year this 
turned out to have been 90% effective. Subsequent spot treatment of 
odd fronds in key areas helped to keep it at bay for over ten years. 

On lst August 1976 at 12.30pm a male Chalkhill blue (Lysandra 
coridon) flew past, settling briefly on a buttercup (Ranunculus repens). 
It was following the contour of the hill from south-west to north-east 
and must have come from at least 20 miles away. 

In the early days we set up a weather station and this was dutifully 
monitored by Linda, but it didn't tell us much we didn't already know 
such as it being colder higher up the hill. 

On Ist January 1977 we started planting in the circles — one metre in 
diameter with stones marking them, heavily limed to a depth of 18 
inches, so much that black soil turned grey. Horseshoe vetch 
(Hippocrepis comosa) was the first and 59 plants were introduced to six 
of the circles. Wire netting covers against rabbits were fastened with ten 
inch “hairpins” pressed into the ground. 

No machinery had been used in the early years, only slasher, 
mattock, scythe, sickle, spade and fork. Most of the brash was burnt. 
Nowadays a two-stroke brush cutter is used. 

We set up 30 brick markers at the intersections of each ten metre 
square so we could plot plants and observations on the map, but this 
extremely ordered discipline was soon abandoned. Attempts to grow 
storksbill (Erodium cicutarium) in the greensand soil failed completely, 
possibly because it wasn't warm enough for it. 

On 30th July I had upset the bees, which were now on the lower 
part of the reserve because the adjacent part of the moor where they 
were previously had been sold, so I decided to enter the reserve from 
the opposite end to lessen the chances of being stung. I was about to 
place my hands on top of the bank to clamber over when a large 
brown female adder (Vipera berus) stared me in the face at eye-level on 
top of the bank. Marbled whites were by now established on the 
reserve, having transferred from Top Pasture. 

In December 1977 we dug a small pond in the south corner. Mr 
Wheeler of Pithayne Farm, from whom we bought the original habitat 
and who had been taking an interest, had divined two water courses 
converging at that point. This was so we could obtain water for new 
plants, but it only fills up in the very wettest weather. 

12 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society : sé 

During 1978 a lot of planting took place and the few of each plant 
which survived mostly exist to this day, except Garlic mustard (Alliaria 
petiolata) which has defied all attempts to introduce it to this soil. I had 
some larger plant circles which we called “Saturn” and “Jupiter”, which 
are now part of the meadow area and don't appear to be “gardened” 
(Plate 96J, Fig. 4). I have also been unable to grow kidney vetch 
(Anthyllis vulneraria) because it behaves like an annual and disappears 
after one season of flowering. | 

The part of the moor above, which we now own, was cleared in May 
1978. At about that time, one of the local beekeepers visited and said 
that my bees were weak. Another advised to gas the weak hive and he 
would sell me some strong ones, which I did, but the first bee-man said 
I had been conned into getting rid of a hive, yet he was the first to tell 
me they were no good. One's own judgement in these matters is more 
valuable than a novice might suppose of himself. 

In February 1979 we planted 15 clumps of Snowdrops (Galanthus 
nivalis) saved from Wimbleball reservoir which was under construction. 
Some survive to this day but they haven't spread. We took some spring 
honey which we believe to have been sallow (Salix spp.) with a 
distinctive taste and examination of the pollen in it bore this out. The 
only problem is if you take this early honey you have to spring feed the 
bees to replace it. In June 1979 we got the car stuck taking in some 
new bees. After unloading the bees we managed to drive up the side of 
the hill with Mr Wheeler pushing. 

Grizzled skippers (Pyrgus malvae) were seen up to this time (25th 
May 1978). Apart from the Dark green fritillary which was never proved 
to be indigenous to the site, they are the only butterfly we seem to 
have lost permanently, although the Brown hairstreak (Thecla betulae) 
and Dingy skipper (Erynnis tages) have come and gone. On lst July, 
after the ownership of the Common changed, we were requested by 
the Somerset Wildlife Trust farming adviser (acting on behalf of the 
owner) not to drive on the Common from Purchase Farm. However, 
she let us through when we explained our objectives. A common 
Orchid (Orchis sp.) appeared, one of only two since we have managed 
it; but it was damaged even though we placed a wire cover over it (7th 


Some scattered Cow-wheat (Velampyrum pratense) seed has grown 
each year since 1979, but was last seen in 1994. Ivy (Hedera helix) has 
become the dominant ground cover in its small area, also precluding 
dog violets (Viola riviniana). On 5th December 1979, a fencer planted 

L - ] Volume 55 * June 1996 113 

Lawson's cypresses (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) along the south-west 
and north-west borders to shelter the site from winds. This has proved 
very effective, but perhaps they should be trimmed to a smaller size. 
Some elm standards were planted from which only one remains which 
I think is a disease-resistant variety (Ulmus variegata). 

On 26th May 1980 we released 110 well-grown Chalkhill blue larvae. 
All they had to do was finish feeding, pupate and emerge as butterflies, 
but only one or two resulted and we were prevented from trying again 
the following year because we lost our breeding stock, possibly 
because of carnivorous slugs. In subsequent years the horseshoe vetch 
became overgrown by Cock's foot and other grasses. We did, however, 
learn how to promote sustained growth of the vetch which will be 
explained later. Quite a few small mammal droppings were found and 
they could be from the lethal predator; it must surely have been a 
predator which doesn't occur on downland, the natural home of the 
Chalkhill blue. 

On 10th July 1980 we placed out seven or eight Brown hairstreak 
pupae in a box with a slot. Thirty-seven eggs at least resulted on the 
surrounding Blackthorn. Previous years had yielded five or six eggs per 
year, but no more were seen after 65 in 1981 and tall bracken tends to 
obscure the Blackthorns up to head height. 

Plants were being grown in some quantity now, but large numbers of 
them have disappeared except for some, usually the finer specimens. 
By 21st December 1980 it was necessary to spend four hours cutting 
the gorse which had grown back following the initial clearing. Our 
friend in Sussex had sent some Emperor moth eggs (Saturnia pavonia) 
and on 19th April 1981 we successfully “assembled” a male on top of 
the moor with a female from the bred stock. Horses had been coming 
in from the moor to graze and trampling the habitat, so we set up a two 
strand barbed-wire fence round the habitat, which holds good to this 

Two building blocks were placed over one of the horseshoe vetch 
circles and on 26th May 1981 we planted two horseshoe vetch between 
the blocks and covered with wire netting. All the other horseshoe 
vetches have long since disappeared, but vetch still exists to this day 
(14 years later), between the building blocks. I think this is because the 
blocks provide a warm dry microclimate for the leafy fronds and 
prevent other plants crowding them out. Where there is_ little 
competition Rockrose has done well. The Dingy skipper appeared in 
1981 and about this time some Common blues also did well in the plant - 

114 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society t 

circles. There is a lot of trefoil for it there now and first broods appear, 
but not particularly from the sites of the original plant circles. 

Nothing much happened in 1982 when I was not well. In 1983 I 
sighted a worn Dingy skipper briefly on 5th July. By 18th July 1983 the 
site became part of the Blackdown and Sampford Commons re- 
scheduled Site of Special Scientific Interest which meant an end to 
some of the less natural experiments which had been undertaken 
Operations now had to be approved before they could be undertaken. 
We were given consent in perpetuity to spray the bracken, clear the 
birch (Betula spp.) and cut the scrub. 

The year 1984 was uneventful, but in 1985 I made over ownership to 
the British Butterfly Conservation Society for £1 with the then Chairman 
and myself as trustees and in 1993 I purchased from Mr R. Garrett of 
Pitt Farm, Culmstock the triangular piece of land above, which had 
been moorland and then farmland of one acre. It is currently willed to 
Butterfly Conservation (Plate 96K, Fig. 5). I still have a slide of it when 
the heather was in full flower, but when farmed it looked as if it had 
always been a field for livestock. It is good for butterflies as a flight 
area and favours breeding of the Small copper (Lycaena phlaeas), 
Marbled white and other Satyrine species, and the golden Skippers 
(Thymelicus sylvestris and Ochlodes venata). It is mainly grass becoming 
dense, but with some gorse and bracken, and is outside the limits of 

Between 1985 and 1993 Linda became ill with Multiple Sclerosis and 
I was her full-time carer until her death on 28th August 1993. This 
severely restricted my aspirations and ability to get out and even 
observe the site. 

Devon Branch of Butterfly Conservation published an appeal for 
help because the reserve was becoming overgrown and _ under- 
recorded. As a result, Liz Mallinson of Hemyock offered to record and 
David Hinde of Uffculme organised a work party of his colleagues to 
take out some of the scrub and spray the bracken, which they did 
effectively. David also supplied and helped to plant many young trees 
in the new area as future windbreaks, including many Alder 
buckthorns (Frangula alnus) which the Brimstones appreciate. His 
colleagues even brought in a shredder, chain-saws and brush-cutters 
and made up some new steps into the reserve as well. I also paid a 
woodman to do some of the work. The reserve badly needed this 
management and is now in good shape. David's colleagues returned in 
1995 to treat the bracken again. 

tf Volume 55 * June 1996 115 

Between 1988 and 1991, Marbled whites disappeared because they 
were attracted into the field above and then grazed out. This was one 
of the reasons for purchasing that part of the land (Plate 906K, Fig. 6). 
Some sheep found their way into the old part of the reserve and grazed 
them out of there as well. The fence between there and Top Pasture 
has now been improved. They are now back and particularly like the 
new area. 

Some planted majoram in the old area is a marvellous summer nectar 
source as are some of the others mentioned in the plant list. The site 
seems suitable for Dingy and Grizzled skippers, but perhaps their 
nearby habitats have been lost so they can't transfer so easily, although 
both exist at Buckland Wood five miles to the north-east. My colleague 
Tony Liebert also helped to clear some birches. On 28th June 1991 I 
released, with consent from English Nature, some Dark-green fritillary 
pupae, but the butterflies were never seen — because of that mysterious 
predator again? Each year I hold back the invasive purple moor grass 
(Molinia caerulea) by spraying the tussocks as they form with a garden 
applicator of “Tumbleweed” (Glyphosate), acknowledged by English 
Nature. A Cox's apple tree planted out of curiosity has survived, though 
not fruiting and a very small Crab apple persists. Golden Delicious 

I had made over 620 visits to the reserve by June 1995 and below are 
other miscellaneous comments not worked into their chronology in the 
preceding text. Linda had a bench-seat she could use to read her crime 
novels while I worked and observed the habitat. It soon went rusty and 
someone had the audacity to steal it. Also a bird nesting box appeared 
and someone else destroyed it. The hunt raced through one day with 
dogs after a deer with a terrified look on its face, there were also a deer 
poacher and one or two ramblers, but we have not often been 
bothered by other people. 

On 29th April 1982 I noted a tiny plume of smoke on the other side 
of the moor. This soon advanced on a broad front to engulf a large part 
of the moor in flames. I informed Purchase Farm but it was an hour 
before the Fire Brigade arrived. 

Between 1988 and 1991, Marbled whites disappeared because they 
were attracted into the field above and then grazed out. This was one 
of the reasons for purchasing that part of the land (Plate 96K, Fig. 6). 
Some sheep found their way into the old part of the reserve and grazed 
them out of there as well. The fence between there and Top Pasture 
has now been improved. They are now back and particularly like the 
new area. 

116 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 32 

I now have more time to observe and work on the habitat, so its near 
future, at least, is assured. None of the butterflies there now have been 
released and the meadow part in the old area is so successful because 
the more dominant plants grow thinly on the impoverished soil 
enabling more delicate larval and nectar plants to survive. Sparse false 
oat-grass (Arrhenatherum elatius) prevails in the meadow area. Coarse 
grasses invade where cutting is the main management tool (Plate 96L, 
Fig. 7). 


If cultivating butterflies can be summed up in one sentence, it is that 
the amount of maintenance necessary is directly proportional to 
divergence from the natural. Of course all habitats have to be frozen in 
a particular stage of succession because butterfly sites are transient and 
there are various well-known ways of achieving this: scrub and grass 
cutting, carefully controlled grazing by various animals including rabbits 
and chemical treatment of plants. Because some of the management 
may be deleterious in the short term, it is important to only affect a 
portion of the breeding area at any one time and create unmanaged 
holding areas by fencing, from which the butterflies can colonise when 

the surrounding area becomes suitable. This is difficult with only a 
small area, especially where grazing is concerned, so other 
means have to be applied to places like Little 
Breach as described (Plate 96L, Fig. 8). 

The butterflies 

Thymelicus sylvestris, Small skipper — Common since 

grassy areas have developed. : 

Ochlodes venata, Large skipper — Appears a couple of weeks before the 
Small skipper and is common in the grassy places. 

Pyrgus malvae, Grizzled skipper — Disappeared after a few years and 
has shown no sign of returning. There are quite a lot of wild 
strawberries (Fragaria vescd). 

Erynnis tages, Dingy skipper — Appeared when Bird's foot trefoil (Lotus 
corniculatus) was grown for it, but disappeared again after one 
successful brood. 

Colias croceus, Clouded yellow — A migrant seen occasionally. 

dé Volume 55 ° June 1996 117 

Gonepteryx rhamni, Brimstone — Successfully bred in the reserve 
following the planting of Alder buckthorns (Frangula alnus). One 
bush was there originally. 

Pieris brassicae, Large white — A common visitor. 
P. rapae, Small white — seen from time to time. 

P. napi, Green-veined white — Often seen but haven't been able to 
verify its breeding status. 

Anthocharis cardamines, Orange tip — Often lays eggs on the Lady's 
smock (Cardamine pratensis) grown specially. 

Callophrys rubi, Green hairstreak — One of the original occupants. Has 
been seen to use the Gorse (Ulex europaeus), but it is not certain 
whether it lays eggs on the Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus). Sheltered 
gorse was saved for it when clearing, during the pupal stage. 

Thecla betulae, Brown hairstreak — No eggs found recently. 

Quercusia quercus, Purple hairstreak — Seen in the early days but there 
hasn't been time to study the trees for eggs or adults recently. (One 
seen 28.7.95.) 

Satyrium w-album, White-letter hairstreak — A friend believes he saw 
one on the garden privet (ligustrum vulgare) in 1994, and the 
surviving elm (Ulmus variegata), flowered in spring 1995. 

Lycaena phlaeas, Small copper — The scarce first brood appears here 
and it is one of the regular inhabitants. 

Aricia agestis, Brown argus — One appeared on 206.8.92 and there is 
Rockrose (Helianthemum nummularium) for it. A large mint 
condition female seen 5.8.95. 

Polyommatus icarus, Common blue — Now produces a spring brood as 
well as a summer brood. 

Lysandra coridon, Chalkhill blue — The subject of an outlandish 
experiment to introduce it and its larval plant. A natural adult was 
seen in 1976. 

Celastrina argiolus, Holly blue — Seen laying on Ling (Calluna vulgaris) 
flower buds, but has disappeared during its recent nationwide 

118 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 32 

Hamearis lucina, Duke of Burgundy — There are still some Cowslips 
there but they tend to dry out on the sandy soil so an introduction 
would probably fail. | 

Vanessa atalanta, Red admiral — Likes to nectar on the reserve. 

Cynthia cardui, Painted lady — This migrant appears from time to time. 
There are thistles (Cirsium arvense) for it in the new area. 

Aglais urticae, Small tortoiseshell — Likes to nectar on the reserve. 
Inachis to, Peacock — Produced a brood one year. 

Polygonia c-album, Comma — Seen in most years. Not known if it uses 
the elm. 

Boloria selene, Small pearl-bordered fritillary — Another of the original 
occupants seen every year searched for. 

B. euphrosyne, Pearl-bordered fritillary — Only one seen, it seems to 
now be extinct in the Blackdowns. , 

Argynnis aglaja, Dark green fritillary — One seen in adjoining field on 
6.7.74, but none seen since for certain. 

A. paphia, Silver-washed fritillary -—Reckon to see this every year like 
the Small pearl-bordered. It likes to nectar on the plants provided. 

Eurodryas aurinia, Marsh fritillary - One seen on 4.6.77, but must have 
been a wanderer. Scabious (Succisa pratensis) planted in cold 
weather didn't do so well as that planted in warmer weather and 
ter torit 

Parage aegeria, Speckled wood — Appears most years perching in the 
lower woodland area. 

Lasiommata megera, Wall brown — One or two seen most years, usually 
in the second brood. 

Pyronia tithonus, Gatekeeper — Nectars on the Marjoram (Origanum 
vulgare). Watched a male and female meet, they coupled 
immediately with ceremony. Up to 50 can be seen at one time on the 

Melanargia galathea, Marbled white — Plenty nowadays, but we lost 
them when they were grazed out for a while. 

Hipparchia semele, Grayling — Comes down from the moor in ones and 
twos. Uses bristle bent grass (Agrostis setaced). 

| Volume 55 + June 1996 119 

Maniola jurtina, Meadow brown — Common. 

Aphantopus hyperantus, Ringlet — Usually well apparent. 

Coenonympha pamphilus, Small heath — Usually one or two. One year 
they did well on a dry stony patch, but it is not known why. 

Callimorpha dominula — Moths have not been trapped, but a Scarlet 

tiger appeared on 23.7.94. 

The plants 

e =introduced ? = origin unsure, may have self-seeded. 

Achillea millefolium 
Agrostis setacea 

A. capillaris 

Ajuga reptans 
Arrhenatherum elatius 
Barbarea vulgaris 
Betula pendula 
Blechnum spicant 
Buddleja davidii 
Calluna vulgaris 
Cardamine pratensis 
Centaurea nigra 
Cerastium fontanum 
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum 
Cirsium arvense 

C.. palustre 

C.. vulgare 

Cotoneaster integerrimus 
Corylus avellana 
Crataegus monogynda 


bristle bent grass 
common bent grass 

false oat grass 

winter cress 

silver birch tree 

hard fern 

buddleia, butterfly bush 
ling heather 

lady's smock, cuckoo flower 
knapweed, hardheads 

Lawson's cypress tree 
ox-eye daisy 
creeping thistle 

marsh thistle 

spear thistle 



120 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Dactylis glomerata 
Digitalis purpurea 
Dipsacus fullonum 
Erica cinerea 
Eupatorium cannabinum 
Fagus sylvatica 
Fragaria vesca 
Frangula alnus 
Galanthus nivalis 
Galium mollugo 

G. verum 

Hedera helix 
Helianthemum nummularium 
Hippocrepis comosa 
Holcus lanatus 

H. mollis 

Ilex aquifolium 
Lathyrus pratensis 
Ligustrum sp. 

Lonicera periclymenum 
Lotus corniculatus 

L. uliginosus 

Luzula multiflora 
Lychnis flos-cuculi 
Malus sp. 

Malus sp. 

Melampyrum pratense 
Molinia caerulea 

Myosotis sp. 

cock's-foot grass 

wild teasel 

bell heather 

hemp agrimony 
beech tree 

wild strawberry 
alder buckthorn shrub 

hedge bedstraw 
lady's bedstraw 

wild rockrose 
horseshoe vetch 
yorkshire fog grass 
creeping soft-grass 
holly tree 

meadow vetchling 
garden privet bush 

bird's foot trefoil 
greater bird's foot trefoil 
heath woodrush 
ragged robin 

Cox's apple 

tiny apple 

purple moor-grass 


Orchis sp. 2 appeared after clearing (not seen since) 

Origanum vulgare 
Pinus nigra 

Primula veris 

wild marjoram 
Corsican pine tree 


we Volume 55 + June 1996 121 

P. vulgaris © primrose 
Prunella vulgaris e self-heal 
Prunus spinosa e blackthorn bush 

Pteridium aquilinum 
Quercus robur 
Ranunculus repens 

Rubus fruticosus 
Rumex acetosella 
Salix caprea 

S. cinerea 

Senecio jacobaea 
Silene dioica 
Stachys officinalis 
Succisa pratensis 
Teucrium scorodonia 
Ulex europaeus 
Ulmus variegata 
Urtica dioica 
Vaccinium myrtillus 
Viola riviniana 


pedunculate oak 
creeping buttercup 


sheep's sorrel 

goat willow, pussy willow tree 
common sallow tree 

red campion 

devil's-bit scabious 
wood sage 


elm tree 

stinging nettle 

dog violet 

An uncommon moth at Park Hall Country Park, Staffordshire 
by Jan Koryszko (6089) 

3 Dudley Place, Meir, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire ST3 7AY. 

In July 1995, in the company of Mr Derek Heath, I visited Park Hall 
Country Park, Staffordshire. We were beating gorse bushes when I 
captured a Grass emerald (Pseudoterpna pruinata atropunctaria, 
Walker). This is only the second Grass emerald I have taken here, the 
other was during 1992 in almost the same spot. It is a very local and 
uncommon moth in Staffordshire. I have also recorded this species, 
again in very small numbers, at Barlaston Rough Close Common, during 
the 1980s. Other Staffordshire records are from Burnt Wood, Forton, 
Cannock Chase, Churnet Valley and Swynnerton. 

122 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society tf 

Eggs found in a gynandromorph of the Malayan jungle nymph, 
Heteropteryx dilatata (Phasmida) 

=a} hea cacnnad incect qeccmhen ace n > oied : =- 
nympn. The second insect described has now died and posi mortem 

or the eggs were tully developed and microscopic mspection 

4 ee! fe OE. Pon bee ee ee eee ees pA Ee ee 
gia not reveal any adiierence petrween these cges anGd CZes faiG@ Dy 
ripe = = pal E bs ee Cggos oe ea ee eek Se 
normal females. A scale drawing oi this second inseci is also included 
nere together wiih a Grawing oi ihe very aDnommnal geniiaha present 



aw . 
a eal 2 Bebo vdisegm 

4 iS = SS 
~ = rat —_— shh < = Py Herm tat onan onenamnrnh —- Shc oe ots = 
ocale C V oC e second Heieropien iMaigia & ancgromorip anG itS genitalia 

Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Fig. 2. The same area, but in 1995. Note the Marbled white on the thistle in the centre. 

PLATE 906] 

Volume 55 « June 1996 34 

Fig. 4. With the gorse and bracken under control, limed plant circles were set up (1978). 

This shows horseshoe vetch and bird's-foot trefoil in flower and cowslips in the left 

PLATE 96] 

Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Fig. 5. This is the field situated above the original field in 1977, part of which (not featured), 
we bought in 1993 to extend the reserve (see Fig. 8). 

Fig. 6. This is the same view but in 1984. 


+ June 1996 

Volume 55 

rene | 



ad Volume 55 * June 1996 123 

Some notes on butterflies in Cambridge during 1995 

by Brian Gardiner (225) 

2 Highfield Avenue, Cambridge CB4 2AL. 

Last year was one of the best I have seen in my Cambridge garden for 
many a year. In particular I was both pleased and surprised at the 
numbers of the spring and summer species that appeared in my garden, 
including one species not previously seen, even nearby. The autumn 
species were, however, on the low side. 

The year started well with the usual appearance of Brimstones 
(Gonepteryx rhamni), Peacocks Unachis io) and Small tortoiseshells 
(Aglais urticae) coming out of hibernation. They were followed by 
Orange-tips (Anthocharis cardamines) which. regularly breed in my 
garden. Exceptionally common were two of the whites, the Green- 
veined (Pieris napi) being very abundant during spring and early 
summer, with a sprinkling of Small whites (P. rapae) among them and 
as the Green-veined faded away they were replaced by more and more 
of the Small whites which continued into the autumn and quite clearly 
had gone through three generations. At any time of day, from May to 
September, with reasonable weather, one could not go into, nor look 
out of, a window onto the garden without spotting several specimens 
which sometimes went into double figures. They were accompanied by 
other species, although always as singletons and only from time to time 
for any one of them except the Vanessids which where much more 
regularly seen. These species were Small tortoiseshells, Peacocks, Red 
admirals (Vanessa atalanta) Small or Large skippers (7hymelicus 
sylvestris and  Ochlodes venata), Small heaths (Coenonympha 
pamphilus), Gatekeepers (Pyronia tithonus) and Meadow browns 
(Maniola jurtina). A curious habit of these last was to fly into the 
house which a few of the Small whites also did but none of the other 
species. A very surprising scarcity was that of the Large white (Pieris 
brassicae) of which I only recollect seeing two 
examples. Normally it is as common as the 
Small white and for the first time there was a 
complete absence of any eggs having been laid 
on my nasturtiums. 

Holly blues (Celastrina argiolus) which for 
many years have bred regularly in the garden 
but were not sighted in 1994, returned in force, 
particularly in the second brood and were also 

124 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society oe 

seen on Cambridge market. The most surprising sighting of one, 
however, was in the grounds of Pembroke College on 13th October, 
which surely must have been a third brood example brought about by 
the extremely hot weather we had experienced. 

One newcomer to my garden, a single sighting, was of a Common 
blue (Polyommatus icarus). The autumn Nymphalids, however, were 
few and far between, there rarely being more than a couple or so on 
the buddleia at any one time. In some previous years I have counted 
over forty Small tortoiseshells alone. The last sighting of a Red admiral 
was on 28th November, to be followed by the earliest sighting of 1996 
which was of one on the fine sunny day of 4th January. 

Help wanted in Kent 
by John Maddocks 

26 Edgewood Drive, Orpington, Kent BRO 6LQ. 

The Kent branch of Butterfly Conservation is currently working on a 
project called “Butterflies for the New Millennium”, which aims to 
produce a report and atlas of the current state and distribution of all of 
this country's butterflies in the year 2000. 

This report is intended to provide the basis for our efforts in the 
conservation of butterflies for the next century. 

As we are a relatively small group we are in need of some help from 
members of other similar groups to help us with some of the recording. 
I would be very grateful if members could send me any details of 
butterfly sightings that they make in Kent and south-east London, either 
in 1996 or during the coming years. I would also be interested in any 
sightings that you have for 1995. 

Turkey and butterfly identification 
by Matthew Rowlings (9108) 
87 School Road, Stretford, Manchester M32 8DL. 

I am spending a week in Turkey in mid-July this summer and there 
appear to be no affordable identification guides on the market. (The 
German title, Die Tagfalter Der Ttirkei by Hesselbarth, Van Oorschot 
and Wagener is way beyond my means). Could anyone suggest any 
books or papers that may be of help in this part of the world, that is, 
after all, very close to Europe? 

ae Volume 55 + June 1996 125 

New British Beetles: Species not in Joy's 
practical handbook. by Peter J. Hodge 
and Richard A. Jones. British 
Entomological and Natural History Society 
(BEHNS) 1995, 192pp. Hardback: ISBN 1-899935-00-2 

Paperback: ISBN 1-899935-00-2). 

Essential is the first word that comes to mind when one considers this 
book. Joy's A Practical Handbook of British Beetles is the standard text 
most coleopterists use in their identifications, and is currently the only 
work easily obtainable that covers all the British families. However, 
since this book was published in 1932, with a reprint in 1976 (without 
revision) the nomenclature is out-dated and there are many species not 
included, which figure, according to Hodge & Jones, is a staggering 650 
species. It is not that all these species have been added to the British 
list since the publication of Joy, but rather that Joy, in order to make his 
book “practical”, omitted very rare and doubtfully British species, a 
practice unacceptable by today's standards. 

“How to use this book” — what better way to start? Examples are 
given of how to find the most up-to-date key for each family, how to 
deal with a problem specimen and checking an_ identification. 
Information on checklists, recent books, relevant journals and recording 
schemes is given. The book proper follows the recent classification and 
nomenclature (although a few irregularities were noticed). Each family 
(where relevant) is given an introduction to and information on Joy's 
keys, including errors. A list of the most recent works, and useful 
references covering that family, is given. 

Under each family there is a list of the species and variations omitted 

from Joy. The latter are included to help determine aberrant specimens. 

_ A brief discussion, including description, recognition from closely 

related species, identification and references is given for each of the 

species. References are organised by date, which allows the reader to 
pick out the most recent works. 

126 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society a4 

One point that I did find an annoyance, was that name changes have 
not been referenced, so one could not look up how, why and when 
these changes came into practice. Saying that, this book is not intended 
to be a catalogue or checklist, so such omission is understandable. At 
least a few papers which I have found to be of great help in 
identification of “difficult” species are not listed. 

This book is affordable, helpful and easy to use and, although a 
complete revision of Joy is one of the things I dream of, pipe dreams I 
know, (this: book -is~ thes next-best thing. > Let quspeuepe. teat 
Hymenopterists, Dipterists and other specialists follow suit and produce 
such a useful book for each of their groups. 

Darren Mann 

Microlepidoptera of Europe. Edited by P. Huemer, O. Karsholt and L. 
Lyneborg: Volume 1: Pterophoridae by Cees Géielis. 8vo. pp222 
including 16 coloured and 49 plain plates. ISBN 87-88757-360-6. Apollo 
Books, Kirkeby Sand, DK-5771 Stenstrup, Denmark 1996. Price DK 
350,00 plus postage (approx. £40). 

Here at last we have a comprehensive work devoted entirely to the 
Pterophoridae. Not before time, the last being the rather brief account 
included with the Pyrales in Beirne's British Pyralid and Plume Moths, 
now 45 years old and before that only Tutt's Pterophorina of Britain, 
(Natural History of the British Lepidoptera, Vol. 5) now very out of date 
after 90 years. In view of the fact that some six new Lepidoptera 
species per year have turned up in Britain over the past half-century, 
then a book that deals with all the European species is to be applauded 
as not only do many of us collect abroad these days but we need to be 
able to identify the Continental species when they turn up here. Not to 
mention vice-versa. Beirne, for instance, quotes Oxyptilus (now 
Capperia) britaniodactylas as being confined to England. Here it is 
stated to be distributed in western and central Europe. 

Europe is treated in the broadest sense to include the Atlantic islands 
and the southern Mediterranean littoral. Most of the Palaearctic region 
in fact. 

The book commences with a historical account of, and then a 
general account of, the Pterophoridae which is followed by a chapter 
on how to collect them and then how to prepare slides of the genitalia. 
There follows a key to the genera and then a check list of all 138 
species described in the book with their full synonymy. The account of 


3 Volume 55 * June 1996 127 

the species (precluded by salient points of the genera) that follow are 
concise and to the point and are laid out under the headings:- 
Diagnosis; male genitalia; female genitalia; distribution; biology; 
remarks. Almost all species are illustrated in colour, as well as a 
number of the early stages, and the genitalia of both sexes as line 
drawings. Where the early stages and/or the foodplant is unknown this 
is so stated. Neither as verbose as Tutt nor as detailed on the bionomics 
as Beirne, the data given is concise and very much to the point and 
since full references are given those who wish can consult the original 

In 1887 Leech listed 29 British plumes; Beirne in 1952 had 35 while 
Emmet & Heath in 1952 list 42 species. All of them appear in this book, 
although two, Stenoptilia picardi and S. scabiodactylus, are of doubtful 
status requiring further investigation as they may well be synonyms of 
S. dridus and S. bipunctdactyla respectively. 

This book is extremely well laid out and printed. The colour plates, 
which include a number of the early stages, are excellent, although I 
personally think a magnification of x2 would have been better than the 
x2'2 used here. The reference list is very thorough, occupying no less 
than 13 pages and it is quite clear from this that the author has gone 
back to check all original descriptions. There is an index to all names 
quoted in the text and a separate index to the foodplants. There is a 
table showing the distribution by country of all the species dealt with. 
In such a difficult group as the plumes this can be very useful when 

_ dealing with a possible doubtful species, for if its known area is, say, 

_ 400 miles from where your doubtful specimen came from, then it is 

unlikely (although perhaps not impossible) that it is a new record so far 

_ from its base. 

Cees Gielis laid the groundwork for this book in his 1993 paper 
“Generic revision of the superfamily Pterophoroidea” (Zoologische 
Verhandelingen Leiden 290: 1-139). There are, therefore, a number of 
changes to the nomenclature given in our most recent book, viz Emmet 
& Heath's (1992) Moths & Butterflies of Great Britain & Ireland Vol. 
7(2). It is worth pointing these out. In particular the genus Pterophorus 
has been substantially split up, leaving but two species in it, one of 
which is our familiar white plume moth. The genus Leioptilus is now 
Hellinsia with the same five species retained in it; Platyptilia 
pallidactyla = Helinsia pallidactyla; P. ocrodactyla = Gilmeria 

_ tetradactyla; Stenoptilia saxifragae = S. millieridactyla; S. scabiodactylus 

= S. bipunctidactyla; Oxyptilus distans = Crombrughia distans; O. laetus 

128 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society yd 

= C. laetus; Pterophorus tridactyla = Merrifieldia tridactyla; P. 
fuscoclimbatus = M. tridactyla; P. baliodactylus = M. baliodactylus; P. 
galactodactyla = Porritia galactodactyla; P. spilodactylus = Wheeleria 
spilodactylus; Agdistis staticis = A. meridionalis. 

This is the first volume of a projected series on the Microlepidoptera 
of Europe and the publishers are offering a 10% discount to subscribers 
to the series. The aim is to provide a brief and concise identification 
guide which will fill the gap between extensive, revisional and very 
expensive Microlepidoptera Palaearctica and local guides. As such, in 
view of its wide-ranging coverage, from the North Cape to the Canary 
Islands; from Dingle Bay to the Urals, distribution and times of 
appearance cannot be but generalisations and local conditions of 
latitude and longitude must be taken into account and it may well be, 
as is known with many other species, that the further south (warmer!) 
we go the greater the possibility of two or more generations. Indeed it 
is the southern parts of the area covered where the Microlepidoptera, 
particularly their bionomics, are least known. As is pointed out in the 
text some species have been so confused (and still are!) that records are 
unreliable. This book should ensure that accurate determinations, from 
anywhere in Europe can now be made. The Editors and Publisher are 
to be congratulated for initiating these series. I understand that the next 
volume will deal with the Scythrididae, and in preparation are volumes 
on three further groups of the Pyraloidea; the Crambinae, Evergestinae 
and Scopariinae. 

This is the first book since Tutt 90 years ago to deal solely with the 
plume moths and I am sure it will give a temendous boost to the study 
of this fascinating and difficult group. My one regret is that it does not 
include the twenty-plume moth, traditionally placed with the plumes for 
convenience and in whose genus (A/ucita) a number of them have 
existed happily in the past. 


Hawkmoth larvae on Birch 

by Bernard Page (0584) 
Whilst cleaning out a batch of American moon moth larvae feeding on 
silver birch, I came across a very small hawkmoth larva. I reared this up 
to full size using birch and it turned out to be a Lime hawk. This moth 
is quite common around Enfield, where I live, on lime trees, but I have 
never found one on birch before. The larva has now pupated. 

3 Volume 55 * June 1996 129 

My first holiday abroad 
by Matthew Rowlings (9108) 

87 School Road, Stretford, Manchester M32 8DL. 

My first trip abroad was in August 1984 when my interest in 
Lepidoptera was just beginning to consolidate itself as number one over 
train spotting. We were visiting relatives in Brussels, Belgium for a 
week or so. During this time we got into the countryside on several 
occasions. Unfortunately my notes of these excursions are lost Gf, at 13 
years old and just starting out, I actually made any notes!) so I have to 
rely on memory and the selective notes my father Peter took. 

I caught my very first foreign butterfly just outside Brussels. Memory 
says I captured it at the bottom of the “Lion on the Hill” memorial at 
Waterloo, site of Napoleon's last battle. It was a copper and I excitedly 
fished it out of the bottom of my home-made over-long heavy green 
muslin net. Not knowing what to expect we trawled through Higgins 
and Riley and other field guides and could only conclude that it was a 
Small copper (Lycaena phlaeas). Disappointing, but rather than numb 
our enthusiasm it spurred us on to find some of the unknown things 
that were supposed to fly in these parts. 

Our first success was to come a few days later. We had just been to 
the canal at Ronquiere to see the tremendous lock — two vast counter- 
balanced tubs of water each holding several large barges are pulled 
up/down a steep ramp perhaps 500 metres long. We stopped at a 
sunny corner in the nearby wooded countryside. Flying around were 
three or four very small White admirals — or so we thought. Closer 
inspection revealed the second generation Map butterfly (Araschnia 
levana f. prorsa) resembling the White admiral on the uppers but with 
a unique map-like underwing pattern. I took one back to the house 
and put it in the fridge . . . and then got into trouble with our hostess! 

Later we spent two days in the picturesque south of the country in 
the mountainous limestone Ardennes. As we entered the region we 
stopped. at the edge of a wood next to a grazed field. Within seconds 
what looked like a large dark fritillary “buzzed” over our heads. 
Another followed shortly. In the process of catching one of these beasts 
I managed to electrocute myself in the hurry to clamber over the fence 
that kept cattle in the grazed field. Once in the open field my chance 
came and after a mighty struggle Ihad caught myself a powerful 

handsome Large tortoiseshell (Vymphalis polychloros) — not a fritillary 

after all. 

130 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society — 2 

Here in the Ardennes one site in particular will be held responsible 
for stimulating my now strong interest in European butterflies. It was a 
road-side spot near the village of Belvaux. It had a small grassy area, a 
very steep hillside with open vegetation, a densely vegetated wet 
stream-side border and a mixture of deciduous trees and, I think, 
conifers. Chalk hill blues (Zysandra coridon) were the first excitement 
shorily followed by a fully-grown final instar Swallowtail (/apilio 
machaon) larva tumbling down the hillside. On the trunk of a road-side 
poplar a perfect Large tortoiseshell alighted. Lesser marbled fritillaries 
(Brenibis ino) were flying amongst the stream-side plants. I think we 
also found the Pearly heath (Coenonympba arcania) here, or certainly 
within a few miles. Down in the irickling stream a stunning Lesser 
purple emperor (Apaiura ilia) was taking liquid from a moist stone. 
Near the conifers a Scoich argus (Erebia aethiops) was fluttering along 
the road-side verge. During this time a Belgian lepidopterist from the 
north pulled up in his car and started asking us about our butterfly 
watching successes. He introduced us to the harsh reality that knowing 
your Latin names really does help — sadly my proficiency is_ still 
somewhat lacking! Then we witnessed a terrible spectacle. He started 
catching and killing everything in sight with no regard for our 
enjoyment or for the quality of the specimens he took. It really was an 
unpleasant act to waich. Anyway he left shortly after and so did we. 
Pulling away we hadn't even got into third gear when Peter slammed 
on the brakes and shouted “Swallowitail!”. The unmistakable creature, 
larger than our brifannicus, whizzed past us and was gone. 

A few miles further on we stopped in a clearing in the forest which 
contained several refuse skips. Three gorgeous Lesser purple emperors 
circled the skips, presumably attracted by the rotting organic matter. I 
don't remember seeing anything else in the opening. 

The next day (or perhaps the same day) we moved 20 miles on to a 
nature reserve called Lesse et Lomme. It is primarily an area of 
marshland and we hoped to find some different butterflies there. We 
weren't disappointed and found good numbers of well-wom Pupple- 
edged coppers (Lycaena hippothoe). Sadly that was all the weather and 
good fortune allowed as clouds came along and the wind picked up 
and other sites we visited proved poor. 

From these small beginnings I have now travelled abroad at least ten 
times, each time with an eye open for butterflies. I have seen many 
hundreds of species now but I will always remember Belvaux and the ~ 
Ardennes as the place where it really began. 

3 Volume 55 * June 1996 131 

Etymology not entomology 
by Gareth King 

22 Stoney Meade, Slough, Berkshire SL1 2YT. 

When an entomologist is faced with a species not bred before in 
captivity, as in the case of Dr Roy (Bulletin, February 1996) and his 
three Brazilian Saturniid caterpillars, how do you go about choosing 
what to feed the larvae on? 

One of the moths detailed, Copaxa canella Walker, should have 
made the guessing easier, simply by looking at the specific name — 
canella, it might suggest the foodplant in the wild Canella winterana, 
or white cinnamon which belongs to the whole family Canellaceae. 
Now, unless one knows the staff at Kew Gardens intimately, the chance 
of getting hold of the plant is all but remote, but there are related plant 
families which might make things simpler: Magnoliaceae (Magnolias 
and Tulip trees), for example. Easier still, canela is Spanish for 
cinnamon (Cinnamomum), in the family Lauraceae which contains the 
genus Laurus, plants not favoured by the Lepidoptera, but this may 
lead us to try Prunus laurocerasus Git contains the same aromatic oils), 
or even other roseaceous plants, especially almond (Prunus sulcis) or 
other Prunus species. 

Some of the southern European moths enjoy descriptive names 
which tell us something about the species, in much the same way that 
we understand that both the specific name Cigustri), and the generic 
name (Sphinx), inform us about what the Privet hawk feeds upon, and 
in what position the larvae rest; or that Ourapteryx sambucaria eats 
Sambucus (elder). 

A Geometrid, Pseudoterpna coronillaria Hubner, has quite distinctive 
larvae and we can guess in what manner, by its specific name 
coronillaria. In Spanish the word coronilla means “crown”, and yes, the 
caterpillar does have a rather elegant finish to its head. 

Another moth in the same family as the aforementioned, Adalbertia 
castiliaria Staudinger, does not leave much to the imagination, and is 
indeed a Spanish endemic, occurring, although not exclusively, on the 
Castillian meseta. 

A more widely distributed Geometrid, Campaea margaritata L., can 
only be described after a daisy, which is what it is, margarita means 
precisely that in Spanish. 

132 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society L 

Tephronia sepiaria Hufnagel, is a very interesting Geometrid whose 
larvae feed upon lichens that grow upon juniper, but its specific name 
tells us instead about the caterpillar's appearance, but only in Spanish. 
Sepia is the word for “cuttlefish”, the larva does have chalky 
excrescences which could just possibly conjure up an idea: of budgie 

A final example is provided by Peribatodes umbraria Hubner, which 
takes advantage of the subtleties of light and shade, as it rests against 
the trunk of a tree, and we get a hint of meaning in its name; 
umbratico, umbroso, umbrio are used in Spanish to denote shadow. 

Gardiner, B.O.C. (1982). A Silkmoth rearers's handbook, The Amateur Entomologists' 
Society. ; 
Gomez de Aizptrua, C. (1989). Biologia y Morfologia de las orugas, tomo VII. MAPA, 
Heyward, V.H. (1993). Flowering Plants of the World. Batsford Ltd., London. 

Exploding treacle 
by Graham Best (7928) 

12 Hortham Lane, Almondsbury, Bristol BS12 4JH. 

Some time ago there were reports of tins of black treacle exploding 
violently on grocers' shelves. Sugar acts as preservative because the 
osmotic pressure prevents moulds, yeasts and bacteria from growing. 
As the temperature fluctuated in the shops so some of the treacle 
evaporated and condensed back as a weak sugar solution capable of 
supporting growth of yeasts leading to fermentation and a gas build-up. 
There are obvious risks to anyone storing their “sugar” in glass jars in a 
store cupboard and apart from the danger the contents of a store 
cupboard covered in black treacle is hardly likely to be conducive to 
domestic harmony. 

Saturday 5th October 1996 
at Kempton Park Racecourse. 


|] Volume 55 * June 1996 133 

Nervous butterflies in north-eastern USA 

by Matthew Rowlings (9108) 
87 School Road, Stretford, Manchester M32 SDL. 

I spent two weeks in the north-eastern United States in early August 
1995. I had two objectives on visiting the USA — the primary one was to 
meet family and friends and the secondary one was to enjoy the local 
insect wildlife. My main comment concerns the abundance of butterflies 
and first impressions of butterfly life in the New England and New 
Jersey areas of the north-east USA — not, I now appreciate, noted for its 

The entire area is apparently naturally forested with salty marshes 
near the coast and bogland interspersed throughout. Open meadows 
(i.e. of the non-mown variety) to suit butterflies are extremely hard to 
find. The only one I found of any note, or size (at perhaps 30 acres) 
was within 15 miles of the city centre of Boston at the Blue Hills State 
Park — the only State Park I happened upon that showed any outward 
awareness of insects and their ecological requirements. 

The butterflies I encountered throughout the region were hard to find 
and, in general, very hard to net. I had had plenty of practice with the 
net earlier in the year, in the UK and Europe, so my netting technique 
was well polished. Despite this Ihad very serious trouble catching 
many of the butterflies I found. 

Particular examples include the capture of the American painted lady 
(Cynthia virginiensis) which took extreme measures in the 300-acre 
meadow I described above. Dropping my body below the four-foot 
vegetation I had to stalk the feeding butterfly incredibly slowly, keeping 
my head and net low and inching towards the host flower head. Then I 
had to snap my net upwards with all the speed I could muster, being 
particularly careful to avoid the flower stem before hitting the flower 
head. Even with these precautions it took me five attempts and the 
regrettable destruction of several flowers to capture one of these lovely 
insects and confirm its suspected identification. Another group I had 
surprising trouble with were the Pearl crescents (family Nymphalidae, 
genus Phyciodes). Although more easily caught than the lady, the 
slowish low-flying butterflies (somewhat like the European fritillaries) 
always reacted with such unexpected speed and manoeuvrabilty that I 
never really learnt to catch them “at will’. This deceptive ability was 
evident in most species but notably the other Nymphalids such as the 
Buckeye (Junonia coenia), and Hop merchant (Polygonia comma) and 
the hairstreaks (especially the Red-banded hairstreak (Calycopis cecrops) 
— fairly common in central and southern New Jersey). My notes record 

134 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 3é 

that a settled Hop merchant could not be approached to within six feet! 
(The only one I caught took me a full 45 minutes of stalking it up and 
down the shady ride it was patrolling.) Even the larger Papilionids were 
very swift off the starting blocks and rarely slowed down once on the 
wing. | 

By my last day in the States I had evidently begun to learn my lesson 
that the non-aggressive approach to butterfly capture usually led to 
failure and disappointment. Four hours before my flight home from 
Boston I was reluctantly leaving the 300-acre meadow for the second 
time when something landed on the other side of an exposed sapling. 
My interest was inexplicably alerted and rather than edge my way 
around the bush to locate the butterfly I knew I had to strike fast and 
with the minimum of warning. I assessed the best angle to strike the 
bush from behind and committed myself to an all-or-nothing attack. 
Luckily I was successful this time, but I believe my odds of success had 
been significantly increased by not taking my time. The Gray hairstreak 
(Strymon melinus) | caught was the only one I saw so I was. pleased-as- 
punch by this last skirmish with the North American lepidoptera. 

There were exceptions to this widespread sensitivity. The skippers 
(which I used to think were hard to catch!) had behaviour similar to the 
European skippers and were relatively easy to net, an exception being 
the fiercely territorial Zabulon skipper (Poanes zabulon) that would 
fearlessly attack any intruder, including me, before invariably returning 
to its chosen lookout spot. This habit inevitably led to the handsome 
insect's ultimate capture and identification. 

Most of the species common with Europe were also relatively easy to 
catch. These include the Cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae = Small white), 
Little copper (Lycaena phlaeas = Small copper), Spring azure 
(Celastrina argiolus = Holly blue), Silver-bordered fritillary (Soloria 
selene = Small-pearl bordered fritillary), Ringlet (Coenonympha tullia = 
Large heath) and others. One or two of the non-European species were 
naturally slow fliers and could be caught easily, but if the first strike 
should miss they would instantly disappear. The widespread Least 
skipper (Ancyloxypha numitor) is a master at this! 

The overall scarcity of butterflies and the alertness of those I found 
prompted me to believe their environment may not be as amicable to 
them as less extensively forested Europe. It may be shortage of habitat 
Or pressures from daytime predators, perhaps birds or the numerous 
dragonflies. Anyway, I learnt to approach every butterfly with a degree 
of stealth that I have never before had to do. 

| Volume 55 * June 1996 135 

Some observations on breeding Moon moths 
(Lepidoptera: Attacidae). Part 1 

by Michel Lamour 

Les Vallées, Rue de Grands Terrages, 85100 Le Chateau d'Olonne, France. 

Moon moths are moths which comprise the genera Actias, Argema and 
Graellsia. With the exception of Graellsia isabellae and Actias luna, 
they all inhabit tropical or equatorial countries. 

In this article I should like to give an account of some of the 
particularities noted when breeding Moon moths. I shall be most 
grateful if any breeder will get in touch with me if his findings differ 
from mine, or otherwise publish them, to assist other amateurs and 
extend our knowledge of the habitats of these moths. 

Genus Actias 

I have had experience on breeding the following species: A. selene, A. 
sinensis and A. luna, either on isolated occasions or for several years, 
as and when eggs have been available. 

Actias selene 

Over four years I have bred several hundred A. selene. It seems to 
thrive best on weeping willow (Salix babylonica) especially during the 
first three instars. 

Indeed, when eggs were deposited on other species of willow (S. 
matsudana (species of willow from northern China, Manchuria and 
Korea), S. alba, S. viminalis, S. caprea) the larvae refused to feed and 
starved to death. 

This is also the case where other foodplants of this species are 
concerned (Malus, Pyrus, Prunus, etc), however, this possibly depends 
on the stocks which I was able to obtain. 

On the other hand, the larval foodplant can easily be changed, 
without any apparent ill-effects, as from the third instar and even the 
second. During the winter, I have even satisfactorily transferred the 
larvae from Prunus laurocerasus (cherry laurel) to Quercus ilex, due to 
lack of food. However, as I was breeding indoors, a few larvae were 
attacked by disease, but apparently this was not caused by the change 
in foodplant. 

136 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society es 

Pairing and egg-laying appear to be straightforward, provided several 
pairs are placed in a square cage, each side measuring 50cms. After 
inbreeding for a maximum of three broods, moths become weakened, 
show signs of degeneration and are somewhat reluctant to pair. This 
occurrence is most certainly of a genetic nature. I have obtained very 
satisfactory results when breeding a second brood outdoors, late in the 
season (October-November) direct on trees in full growth, even at 
temperatures down to 5°C. On the other hand, I have never been able 
to achieve satisfactory results when breeding indoors using cut 
branches standing in water. This is probably because Salix babylonica 
does not keep well under these conditions. An attempt has probably 
been made using other plants, such as Rhododendron. I would be 
happy to know the results. 

I would also be happy to know whether this easily-bred species has 
been bred on artificial food, together with the results and the 
ingredients of the artificial food if it does exist. 

Contrary to a widely-held view, spun-up pupae of Actias selene often 
enter diapause. After having started breeding in May, the second brood 
was bred in August-September; the pupae entered diapause normally in 
a dark cellar at a temperature of 12-13°C, and the cocoons were lightly 
sprinkled with cold water every month. 

The following year the cocoons were transferred to enclosed 
premises and kept under humid conditions and the temperature of 
22°C; diapause was broken in April-May. Perfectly formed imagines 
emerged eight to ten days later. All the imagines resulting from larvae 
bred on weeping willow were of the usual size — males measured 120- 
130mm and females 150-160mm, with a difference of under 10% in 
several cases. 

Several dozen larvae can easily be kept together in the sleeves; the 
only problem is that the larvae consume a very large amount of food. 
The sleeves must therefore be transferred to fresh branches every other 
day, without removing the larvae from their support. Were this to be 
done, they would be torn in the process, such is the force with which 
they cling to the foodplant. The twig to which the larva is attached 
must be cut, using secateurs, the sleeve is transferred onto a leafy 
branch, and the twigs to which the larvae are clinging-are then dropped 
into the sleeve. They will easily make their way of their own accord 
onto the fresh foliage. 

Great care must be taken to protect the larvae from being attacked by 
tits and wasps (this must be done whenever breeding outdoors and I 


t <4 Volume 55 * June 1996 127 

have suffered the consequences with Argema mittrei). Often a double 
sleeve is required to prevent predators from seeing the larvae. I have 
never experienced any attacks by mycosis, virus or bacterial diseases 
when breeding this species outdoors. On the other hand, whenever 
breeding indoors, the larvae have been attacked by various diseases. 

Actias sinensis 

Unlike A. selene where there is little sexual dimorphism, males and 
females of A. sinensis seem to belong to different species. 

The male resembles a small-scale Argema mittrei, on account of its 
coloration, while having the shape of a small Actias selene. However, 
the female is pale blue and its shape very much resembles that of A. 
selene. Both males and females are smaller than A. selene: males 
measure 90-100mm and females 100-110mm. 

Although I have only one year's breeding experience with this 
species, I reared several hundreds. In the spring of 1984 I received 
about twenty eggs from a friend of mine. He told me this species could 
very easily be bred on liquidambar. [Liquidambar or American sweet 
gum (Liquidambar styracifluda) is a tree which comes from the east of 
the United States, belonging to the family Hamamelidaceae.] I very 
easily reared the first brood. In July, I then had one male and five 
females. I put them all together in a cage, which was placed outside 
about 10pm (22.00hrs). The weather was very mild with a light wind. 
The following morning the moths were considerably damaged. 

I placed the females in a cardboard box for them to lay. I collected 
about one thousand eggs, and thought that many would be infertile, 
considering the excess number of females in relation to the single male. 
As a matter of fact, the male had paired with all of the five females and 
all the eggs hatched. These were split up and placed on about ten 
liquidambars; as a result my trees were completely stripped when the 
larvae reached their third instar. I collected all the larvae with the help 
of my daughter and a friend of hers (the jumbled mixture of larvae in 
the polystyrene box weighed about 1kg). I then went to a nurseryman 
friend of mine who had some very fine liquidambar. He was at first 
amazed, but after some discussion, he allowed me to install my sleeves 
on his trees. 

I installed three or four large sleeves on the liquidambars and then 
introduced all the larvae into the sleeves. Ten minutes later the larvae 
were dispersed among the foliage. Had it not been for the tits and the 

138 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 3 

wasps, I would have had at least 800 moths. In actual fact, by October I 
only managed to obtain half that amount, due to heavy losses caused 
by predators (holes in sleeves, sleeves pecked to remove pupae from 

In spite of all my attempts I have never succeeded in getting Actias 
sinensis to enter diapause, using a cellar, refrigerator, light and 
darkness. Indeed, this species appears to be so hardy that.I have had 
perfect specimens emerge in the refrigerator at 4°C. The larvae, too, 
seem to thrive outdoors, despite temperatures close to freezing. 
However, the fact that I bred just one stock must be borne in mind 
when evaluating the above findings. 

I tried to rear larvae on several occasions on various Eucalyptus, 
willows, walnut and different species of Prunus, however, Actias 
sinensis seems strictly monophagous in these parts and only accepts 
liquidambar at all larval instars. 

The cocoon is very different from that of Actias selene and resembles 
those from the genus Argema. 

The first-instar larvae very much resembles that of Actias selene but is 
similar to that of A. /una in later instars. 

It should be noted that the males of Actias sinensis are very restless 
and very fast, just like those of A. selene. For this reason, skill is needed 
to catch them without causing any damage. 

A. sinensis is even easier to breed than A. selene, however, it is 
absolutely essential to have some liquidambars, but unfortunately these 
are very expensive. 

As A. sinensis can withstand poor weather conditions, I have never 
tried to breed it indoors. 

As with A. selene, and despite the large number of larvae, there were 
no cases of disease when breeding this species. 

Actias luna 
Here again, I bred several hundred larvae. 

I noticed there were two forms of this species. The first form is of 
reduced size, males measuring 80mm and females 100mm, the wings 
are thin, semi-transparent and deep greenish-yellow in colour. The 

L 4 Volume 55 * June 1996 139 

second form is larger: males measure 120mm and females 130mm; the 
wings are thick, opaque and light-green in colour. 

According to information Ihave been able to gather regarding the 
origin of the eggs received, it would appear that the first form is the 
type occurring in northern USA, while the second is that which occurs 
in the south. However, this may not be the general rule. As I did not 
receive both forms at the same time, I was unfortunately unable to 
Carry Out any cross-pairings. 

According to Gardiner, the larvae of this species will feed on a wide 
range of trees: birch, chestnut, aspen, various species of Juglandaceae 
(walnut), willows, efc. 

Personally, I have only bred it on liquidambar, without any 
trouble; this foodplant is not mentioned by Gardiner, The imagines 
were of the usual size, in accordance with the forms mentioned 

Actias luna seems to be less vigorous than the two species 
mentioned above, but it is not so easy to secure pairings. This could 
possibly depend upon the stocks which I bred. The cocoon is more 
fragile than that of Actias selene and quite different from that of A. 
sinensis. Pupation often occurs at the base of the sleeve and this can be 
a drawback, due to attacks by predators. 

On the other hand, the success rate was similar to that achieved 
when breeding the species mentioned above. 

Considering its distribution, I believe A. Juna could be introduced 
into Europe, at least with stocks from east-central USA. It may be worth 
while carrying out such an experiment, as it appears that this species is 
under threat in its original habitat. This risk would then be reduced, by 
artificially extending its geographical range. Besides, it is not a potential 
pest to agriculture or forestry, on account of its rate of reproduction. 
We do not have many beautiful butterflies and moths in this country, 
especially among the moths, and it would be interesting to see whether 
A. luna can thrive in France. 

The experiment was a success with Samia cynthia, and yet this was 

_ completely unintentional! 

However, before trying out the experiment, it is obvious that far- 
reaching ecological research would have to be carried out and this 

could only be done with the authorisation of the (French) Ministry for 

140 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 3 

Hybridisation between Actias luna and A. sinensis. 

The following observations are made for what they are worth. One day 
I received about fifty eggs which very much resembled those of Actias 
sinensis; they had been sent by a friend of mine with a note stating 
“Hybrid A. luna x A. sinensis, to be reared on liquidambar.” I deposited 
them on some liquidambar. They hatched a few days later during the 
month of June. 

During their first instar, the larvae were no different from those of A. 
luna. During the following instars, they became paler. I obtained 
cocoons typical of A. Juna, which are quite different from those of A. 
sinensis. The imagines very much resembled A. /Juna, however, the tails 
were twisted just like the females of A. sinensis, and they were of a 
very pale-bluish colour, instead of rich green, as in A. /una. These 
imagines comprised both sexes. It was easy to secure pairings, 
however, the eggs were infertile. Were these hybrids or not? I was 
unable to supply an answer, and an amateur is unable to carry out 
cytological and chromosomic analyses. I sent half the cocoons to my 
supplier so that I could have his opinion. He telephoned and told me 
they probably were not hybrids. The breeding stock could have been 
the source of the infertility and yet it seemed to be very healthy. 
Unfortunately I have not bred any other species of Actias, particularly 
A. maenas and A. truncatipennis. 1 am impatient to do so, but it is far 
from easy to get eggs of these species. 

The genera Argema and Graellsia will be dealt with in the next issue. 

Samia cynthia Drury 1773, is native to India, Malaysia, China, Japan, 
Indochina, the Philippines and most parts of Indonesia. It was 
introduced into Italy in 1856 and in 1857 into France by Guérin- 
Ménéville so that it could be bred on account of its silk. The silk is 
strong, but coarser than that produced by the silkworm. After breeding 
had been abandoned P. cynthia managed to survive in urban districts 
where its Chinese foodplant Ailanthus glandulosa had been planted. 
Under these conditions the larva manages to escape from its predators. 

(See also R. Coutin (1978). Bull. Soc. Vers. Sc. Nat. 5(3): 78-80.) 

Note: According to present legislation in force in most countries, 
extensive scientific research must first be carried out before any new 
species is introduced, showing the benefits which can accrue from 
these introductions, and that they will not harm local ecosystems. Such 
a proposal with regard to Actias luna in Europe would obviously meet 
with strong opposition from scientists and the authorities; the protection 

6h Volume 55 « June 1996 141 

of a species in a certain region is not solved by introducing it into an 
ecosystem which does not suit it, and where it has litthe chance of 
finding a niche, to the prejudice of local species which already occupy 
that niche. 

[Translated from Insectes, no. 85: 17-19 (1992) and reproduced with 
permission from the author and OPIE.] 

Admiral blown off course 

by Leigh Plester (2968) 

BioFilm Ltd, Ylad-Muuratjdrvi, FIN-41800, Finland. 

I was pleased to see Mike Pennington's article 
on Red admirals in the Shetlands, as I have 
been wondering how commonly the 
species is encountered there. From 10th 
to 15th July 1995 I was in the Lerwick 
area (Mainland), having been press- 
ganged there to do some filming with 
my colleague Nick Marsh (nobody 
else wanted to go ... . too wet and 
cold and -soron -.....). Ihe sun shone 
brightly every single day. 

On 14th July, having purchased 
some sandwich “makings” and cans of cider, we 
parked at the edge of a low cliff overlooking the sea, 
with a brisk wind blowing. In front of us there was a 
fat clump of nettles threshing wildly about on the cliff face and round 
this a determined Red admiral spent several minutes trying, as far as | 
could see, to lay eggs on the leaves. It was continually beaten back by 

the wind but doggedly returned several times. Judging by the time 

spent more or less inside the clump it seems likely that the butterfly 
actually succeeded in laying an egg or two. You may be the sort of 
person to have waded in regardless with hand lens and forceps — well, 
some people squat on ant hills stark naked and they too have my 
blessing: I sat in the car guzzling my cider. 

Incidentally, we were continually told by the local inhabitants that in 
no circumstances were we to show the film on television. Six days of 
solid sunshine was felt to create the wrong impression of the climate 
and the Shetlanders place great weight on integrity! 

142 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ae 

Reduvius personatus 
by Keith C. Lewis (3680) 

108 Park View Road, Welling Kent DA16 1Sj. 

With regard to the notes by Maxwell Barclay, Bulletin Vol. 55 page 45 
“Bug unmasked”, I have found this bug Reduvius personatus not 
uncommon where I live. 

During the past twelve years I have found eight specimens (only two 
taken on 14th June 1984 and 10th May 1986). All were found in the 
same place on curtains in the bathroom facing downwards as observed 
by Mr Barclay. 

I also found one dead specimen together with a dead Longhorn 
beetle, Rbagium mordax (De Geer). Both were enclosed in a silk-like 
shroud of mould and were found at least four inches deep inside a 
larval gallery of a silver birch log, Chalk Wood, 2nd March 1994. 

It was not until I cleaned the two specimens that I then found one to 
be R. personatus. One other interesting find was a single mandible 
which was lodged between the eyes of the beetle. The mandible was 
sent to Mr A.A. Allen who kindly informed me that it was probably 
from the beetle Abax parallelepipedus (Villers). 

After cleaning, both insects were found to be in quite good condition 
and were subsequently set side by side as found. 

Addition to correspondence on Swallowtail foodplants 
by Leigh Plester (2968) 

BioFilm Ltd, Yla-Muuratjdrvi, FIN-41800, Finland. 

May I add to Brian Gardiner's note on the foodplants of Swallowtail 
larvae that the subspecies inhabiting Fennoscandia (Finland, Norway, 
Sweden) is generally given as P. machaon machaon. This was 
presumably the form first described by Linnaeus who was, of course, a 
Swede. Some of Brian's comments on P. m. gorganus are obviously 
intended to include this northern subspecies. 

Help wanted! 
One of the Defence Estate Organisation's sites in Berkshire is being 
surveyed in the near future for its entomological fauna. Any interested 
volunteers should contact Keri Tucker at the DEO 0n°0181-391 3202. 

Published 20th June 1996 by the Amateur Entomologists' Society 
(Registered Charity No. 207430), from PO Box 8774, London SW7 5ZG. 

Why not give a years subscription to 
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because it still represents the most comprehensive field guide covering both 
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Saturday, 5th October 
11 a.m. to 5 p.m. 


ACCESSIBILITY: The Racecourse is easy to reach by road and rail, and 
there is adequate free car parking. The M25 is very near and is linked 
to Kempton Park by the M3, which is less than a mile away. Sunbury 
Railway Station with trains from Waterloo, is a short walk away. The 
site is served by two bus routes, Green Line No. 290, and Red bus No. 
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Keep all entrances clear. 

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The AES, PO Box 8774, London SW7 52ZG. 


of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society 


R. Sutton. Little Breach Butterfly Reserve. 1974-96) -...-.2.....-+.0ceesecccssetcerndeeeetenee--te- 105 
M. Rowlings. My first holiday abroad. ..00.....0....3 1 secs.ececeicceocseaccteenet eases Tee ed cade 129 
M. Rowlings. Nervous butterflies in north-eastern USA. ........ vas borane oie a tere eee ee 133 
M. Lamour. Some observations on breeding Moon moths (Lepidoptera: Attacidae). 

PAGE Do cscs noeotve sae seqacesoieseessnestn-asnchuncusensssvaceeess socedtcosnoirs dare ssUsceues 2. ae ceeeeres ate eens 135 
Short Communications 
J. Koryszko. An uncommon moth at Park Hall Country Park, Staffordshire. .............. 121 
F. Seow-Choen. Eggs found in a gynandromorph of the Malayan jungle nymph, 

Fleteropteryx dilatata (Phasimida). <.2...2¢.5.5).. ee. ieee ere 22 
B. Gardiner. Some notes on butterflies in Cambridge during 1995. ............:eeee 123 
J. Maddocks. Help wanted in Kent. ....... Hod coderececasGeuencéesseess taeda cule, deseetee cse aemmee eee 124 
M. Rowlings. Turkey and butterfly identification. ..............ceeeesseeeseceeeceecenecenseeeneeenees 124 
B; Page. Hawkmoth lapvaeion binchy 22.082... o<.0-c-1- 0c). cote eee 128 
G. King. Etymology not entomology. 220/002 .cc8 secs scee ese 131 
G. Best. Exploding treacle. 0c). e.). ce eee cn cote ace ee ec occosne es ee 132 
L. Plester. Admiral: blOWnm Off COUNSE. <<. .j2:c0s2ecd:c.201-cdece: ete sc ceeekec asset cern: eee 141 
K. LEWIS REGUVIUS PETSONACUS.\ o.0. fects ite ne aoccetaneteyonetdeneqee | oath 142 
L. Plester. Addition to correspondence on Swallowtail foodplants. ................::e0ee 142 
Help: Wanted. ...sicosiies ctl Si lo ctes tant cecpeay seth sGeecksacvaceceeshc cate oes Meee eens eee ae 142 
Book Reviews — New British Beetles not in Joy's practical handbook. ................0:00++ 125 

Microlepidoptera of Europe. Volume 1: Pterophoridae.  .........4..+.+++ 126 

© 1996. The Amateur Entomologists' Society. 
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All rights reserved. 

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August 1996 


itech eeeaeenmmeeiiac eller hie ae = 


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Bu i Hl etin ee Bulletin features the 

of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society Woodland grasshopper 

(Omocestus rufipes). 

Photo: Nick Holford 

oS ters. 



L the Amateur Entomologists’ Society 

Volume 55 * Number 407 August 1996 

Unusual/Rare species seen in South Oxfordshire 
by Chris Raper (7540) 
22 Beech Road, Purley-on-Thames, Reading, Berkshire RG8 8DS. 

The following species were seen on Hartslock SSSI, a nature reserve 
owned by the local Wildlife Trust, BBONT. The nature reserve is an 11 
acre, south facing, unimproved chalk downland slope surrounded by 
dense scrub hedge and yew, beech and ash woodland. The hill 
overlooks the Thames near Goring and the Thames towpath runs along 
one of the boundaries. 

The site is primarily noted for its plant-life but, as a volunteer 
warden, I run regular moth traps throughout the spring/summer and 
collate sightings for the other insect orders to maintain species lists that 
enable us to plan management work. 

The following species have either “Notable B” or Red Data Book 
status (as defined by the JNCC). This list comprises species seen in 1995 
and does not include species seen in previous years. The listed date to 
the side of each species is not necessarily the only date the species was 
seen as some species are very common at Hartslock. Where possible I 
have given the status of each species. 

30.4.95 Agrotis cinerea (Light feathered rustic) — This species is 
common on Hartslock and is seen every year. It is usually very 
variable in colour — often ranging from pale straw through to 
dark brown with black markings. Status: Notable B. 

10.6.95. Gomphus vulgatisimus (Club-tailed dragonfly) — This species 
was seen again this year flying over the reserve. Every year | 
find about the same amount of shed skin-cases on the foliage 
near the Thames tow-path. The adults use Hartslock as a 
hunting area and they can often be seen sunning themselves 
on the hedges. Status: Notable B. (Plate 96M, Figure 1) 



Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society |] 

Fannia nidica (Muscid fly) — Caught by Adrian Pont in the 
lane that runs to the reserve. Larval stage lives in bird's nest. 
Status: Provisional RDB3. 

Apamea sublustris (Reddish light arches) — This is another 
common species on Hartslock and is seen every year in 
varying numbers and often outnumbers the Light.arches. This 
year was a particularly good year. Status: Notable B. 

Scotopteryx bipunctata (Chalk carpet) — This delicate, grey 
Geometrid moth is present every year in varying numbers. Its 
favoured habitat is chalk grassland. Status: Notable B. 

Odontius armiger — A small “Rhinoceros” beetle. Found in the 
bottom of the m.v. trap after all the moths had been removed. 
The species is very local and is restricted to chalk downland 
habitats. It is thought to be closely associated with rabbit 
burrows and underground fungi (truffles). This was also seen 
for the first time at the Warburg reserve. Status: unknown 
(possibly Nb). 

Lampyris noctiluca (Glow-worm) — Males were caught 
throughout the flight period in the m.v.trap, though we didn't 
catch any more than one at any one time. Females were also 
seen on slope one and in the lane outside the reserve. In one 
sweep of the field 10-12 females were seen in the grass — at 
least one of which was paired up. This species is seen every 
year at Hartslock. Status: unknown (possibly Nb). 

Callimorpha dominula (Scarlet tiger) — This species has been 
found in quite large numbers nearby along the Pang and 
Kennet rivers but it was new to this reserve in 1995. Single 
examples were seen flying on slope four and along the tow- 
path during daytime and twice at m.v. in the same week. The 
species seems to fly for no more than ten days and doesn't 
stray far from water. The larvae prefer Comfrey (which grows 
in abundance along the Thames) but will take other 
commoner plants. Status: Notable B. 

Ephemera lineata (a large mayfly) — This species swarms in 
large numbers near water and lives in very localised colonies. 
During the week they were flying they were strongly attracted 



2 728.95 


Volume 55 + August 1996 145 

to the m.v. lights. The close proximity of the Thames explains 
the species presence at Hartslock. Status: Provisional RDB2. 

Gomphocerippus rufus (Rufous grasshopper) — This species is 
a common grasshopper on Hartslock but is very localised in 
the UK. It is easily identified by the clubs on its antennae. It 
prefers warm, chalk downland slopes with patches of scrub. 
Status: Notable B. (Plate 96M, Figure 2) 

Eupithecia expallidata (Bleached pug) — Foodplant is the 
flowers of “golden rod” (Solidago virgaurea). One specimen 
came to Martin Harvey's light trap. Status: Notable B. 

Mecyna flavalis — A small, yellow, semi day-flying Pyralid 
mon Vitis 1S, a- very. fare species= It is restricted to chalk 
downland and it is usually only found in the southern coastal 
counties and Wiltshire and Norfolk. The species has been seen 
two years running and it is hoped that we have a permanent, 
breeding colony. With the help of our resident summer 
warden I hope to do some monitoring of the moths to try to 
find out more about its life-cycle. Status: Provisional RDB2. 

Asilus crabroniformis (a large robber fly) — Britain's largest 
fly. This is a great rarity that was last seen on the reserve 
over five years ago. It is insectivorous and requires a high air 
temperature to enable it to hunt. It is suspected that the 
larval stage is parasitic on dung beetle larvae. I suspect that 
the fly is usually present in low numbers in the area but 
because the summer was so dry and hot it had a particularly 
good year. It was also seen in a meadow in Cholsey in quite 
large numbers (30+ per transect). Status: unknown. (Plate 
9ON, Figures 3 & 4). 

If anyone can help by visiting the reserve and recording species, 
his/her sightings would be very gratefully received. We attempt to 
record as many orders as possible but we must rely on the help of 
specialists. If you would like any more information you can contact me 
at the above address, my work email ( or 
though BBONT, the local wildlife trust. 

146 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society a 

Exhibition Report for 1995 
(Sth October) 

The day started with the weather 
looking as though it was going to 
rain, but the forecast had said that 
we should have clear periods and 
that is indeed what we finished up 
with. By around 10.30am_ the 
promised better weather started to 
appear and we actually had some 
sunshine in patches. A good queue 
formed prior to opening and Colin 
Penney and Paul Sokoloff sold entry badges and programmes to ease 
the rush when we opened the doors. 

Around 1200 people paid to get in and with the dealers and 
exhibitors we must have had about 1700 persons present; quite a good 
showing. The Exhibition had 64 dealers doing business with six stands 
occupied by other Natural History Societies and there were the usual 
AES stands which included our own Conservation Section and 

I would like to thank the following people who helped me set-up on 
the Friday night and assisted me in clearing up on Saturday evening. 
Friday: David Young, Colin Hart, Roger Morris, Dennis O'Keeffe, 
Graham Collins and John Muggleton. Saturday: David Lonsdale, David 
Young, Graham Collins, Roger Morris, John Muggleton, Mike Simmons 
and Andrew Halstead. I also thank the helpers who worked as entry 
marshals, tending to our stalls and the various other jobs that help 
make our Exhibition a success. I give a special thank you to Rob Dyke 
who has taken on the job of Exhibits Co-ordinator for as many years as 
I can remember; the Exhibition Organiser has no time to attend to 
peripheral duties like this. As a final thought, our Exhibition would not 
function without this valuable source of free help which is so willingly 

The number of exhibitors this year was abysmal, with only a possible 
36 people either exhibiting or intending to exhibit. I had 23 
applications with a report, nine gave a report but did not apply for 
space and I had four applications that gave no report; a few of the one 

ag Volume 55 + August 1996 147 

who gave a report with no application did make arrangements with me 
over the phone or by letter. I hope that the new organiser has a better 
response than IJ have had over the years. I think the most exhibits that I 
had one year was 50, but even this is not good when you consider that 
there are around 1800 members in the Amateur Entomologists' Society. 
Come on all you so-called members, where are you? It is time to 
support your Society and present a members exhibit at your Exhibition. 

Exhibitors at the 1995 Exhibition 

Paul Brock (4792) — A selection of dead stick-insects (Phasmida), as 
follows: four species of Timema from California, USA, along with a 
small series of photographs showing the localities. These are the 
smallest phasmids in the world, measuring from under 12mm. 

A range of colourful winged species from Peninsular Malaysia, 
belonging to the subfamily Necrosciinae: Calvisia  clarissima 
Redtenbacher, C. coerulescens Redtenbacher, Centrophasma spinosum 
(Saussure), Diesbachia tamyris (Westwood), Marmessoidea cerycon 
(Westwood), M. rosea (Fabricius), Necroscia marginata (Gray), N. 
punctata (Gray), N. annulipes (Gray), N. roseipennis Audinet-Serville, N. 
inflata (Redtenbacher), Orthonecroscia  filum | (Westwood), 
Phaenopharos  struthioneus (Westwood), Tagesoidea nigrofasciata 

Gynandromorph specimens reared by members of the Phasmid Study 
Group (rearers! names in brackets), Eurycantha sp. [Michael Lazenby 
and Frances Holloway], Heteropteryx dilatata (Parkinson) [James 
Penhall], Oreophoetes peruana (Saussure) [Gordon Ramel]. 

Steve Button (7647) — The application stated that aberrations of British 
butterflies would be shown but there was no exhibit report. 

Pat Cordell (8782) — Pyralidae taken at Nutfield, Surrey during 1995. 
Species of note were: 

Pyrausta cespitalis (D. & S.) — four walked up from the short dead grass 
on the landfill site on 27th and 28th August. No first brood were noted 
in May/June. 

Dioryctria schuetzeella (Fuchs) — one to m.v. light on 10th July. Species 
first noted in 1980 near Hamstreet, Kent, taken again in 1981, and also 
at Playden, Sussex. 

148 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society a¢ 

All species taken at a garden m.v. light and in the surrounding 
countryside at Nutfield and their relative abundance. Numbers and 

dates are given where less than six were recorded: 

Chrysoteuchia culmella (Linn.) 
Crambus pascuella (Linn.) 

C. lathoniellus (Zinck.) 

C’. perlella (Scop.) 

Agriphila selasella (Hiibn.) 

A. straminella (D. & S.) 

A. tristella (D. & S.) 

A. latistria Haw.) 

A. geniculea (Haw. ) 
Catoptria pinella (Linn.) 

C. falsella (D. & S.) 

Scoparia pyralella (D. & S.) 

S. ambigualis (Treit.) 

S. basistrigadlis (Knaggs) 
Dipleurina lacustrata (Panz.) 
Eudonia truncicolella (Staint.) 
E. angustea (Curtis) 

E. mercurella (Linn.) 
Evergestis forficalis (Linn.) 

E. pallidata (Hufn.) 

Pyrausta aurata (Scop.) 

P. purpuralis (Linn.) 

P. cespitalis (D. & S.) 

Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubn.) 
Eurrhypara hortulata (Linn.) 
Phlyctaenia coronata (Hufn.) 
Opsibotys fuscalis (D. & S.) 
Udea lutealis ubn.) 

U. prunalis (D. & S.) 

U. olivalis (D. & S.) 

U. ferrugalis (Hubn.) 
Nomophila noctuella (D. & S.) 
Pleuroptya ruralis (Scop.) 
Hypsopygia costalis (Fab.) 
Orthopygia glaucinalis (Linn.) 
Pyralis farinalis (Linn.) 

Endotricha flammealis (D. & S.) 

Galleria mellonella (Linn.) 
Aphomia sociella (Linn.) 
Phycita roborella (D. & S.) 
Pempelia formosa (Haw.) 








Three on 14.8, 23.8, 24.8 







Four on 23.8(2), 24.8, 26.8 


Four, on 18.70923.7, 247-2677, 


Four on 27.8(3), 28.8 
Oneson, 2,7; 


Four onl 7:7,°9 7-year 
One on 26.6 

Five on 30.7,°2.8, 4.8; 8.8) 12:3 
One on 16.7 

Four 0n.26.6,°4.7. 5.7, 1017 
Three on 17.8, 21.8, 24.8 
Four on 25.8(2), 26.8, 27.8 



One on 16.7 





Dwovon 6:7, 3.7 

a4 Volume 55 + August 1996 149 
Dioryctria abietella (D. & S.) Four on 28.6(2), 19.7, 26.7 
D. schuetzeella (Fuchs) OnesonelOy 

Acrobasis consociella (Hubn.) Abundant 

Numonia suavella (Zinck) Common 

N. advenella (Zinck) Abundant 

Myelois cribrella (Hubn.) Common 

Euzophera pinguis (Haw.) Common 

Phycitodes maritima (Teng.) One on 28.7 

P. binaevella (Hubn.) Common 

Ephestia elutella (Hubn. ) Two on 2.8, 15.8 

Tony Davis (8931) — Display showing progress so far with the Pyralid 
and Plume Recording Scheme. 

Emma Day (10423) — The application stated that amateur photographs 
of insects and Arachnids found in mid-Glamorgan dunes would be 
shown but there was no exhibit report. 

C.J. Gardiner — A small selection of moths from the East Midlands from 
the 1995 season. The main records to note are Pine hawk Hyloicus 
Dinas, weheveds to be the) first Leicestershire record, Coronet 
Craniophora ligustri, the only Northamptonshire record since 1957, Buff 
ermine Spilosoma luteum ab. intermedia. 

Martin Gascoigne-Pees (7468) — Exhibited butterflies from the Greek 
island of Samos which is situated in the northern Agean Sea, a few 
kilometres from the Turkish coast; its surface area is 486 square 
kilometres and it boasts some 65 species of butterfly, 48 of which were 
recorded between 28th May to 11th June 1995. The only new species to 
be recorded during his stay was Pieris krueperi, a fresh second 
generation male. Species shown were: 

T. sylvestris, T. hyrax, T. acteon, G. pumilio, P. thrax, E. marloyi, C. 
alceae, C. orientalis, S. orbifer, Z. cerisyi, P. machaon, P. alexanor, I. 
podalirius, L. sinapsis, C. croceus, G. cleopatra, A. crataegi, P. brassicae, 
P. rapae, P. krueperi, E. ausonia, S. ledereri, L. phlaeas, S. pirithous, L. 
boeticus, C. argiolus, K. eurypilus, A. agestis, P. thersites, P. icarus, L. 
reducta, N. polychloros, V. atalanta, V. cardui, P. egea, A. pandora, M. 
didyma, M. trivia, H. syriaca, H. mersina, H. aristaeus, P. anthelea, M. 
telmessia, P. aegeria, L. megera, L. maeraand K. roxelana. 

N.M. Hall — Showed three species of “Shark” Cucullia bred from larvae 
found feeding together on hoary mullein, Verbascum pulverulentum in 

150 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ad 

Arlazan, Burgos, Spain. The species were C. lychnitis, C. verbasciand C. 
reisseri. Further species exhibited which were bred from England were: 
C. lychnitis, Striped lychnis from Buckinghamshire and C. rubiginea, 
Dotted chestnut from Berkshire. Also shown were Portuguese fox 
moths, Macrothylacia digramma; the last three species had notes for 

Andrew Halstead (6346) — Amber insects in the making — a piece of 
Scots pine trunk from a tree hacked down by vandals earlier during the 
summer about one metre above soil level. The tree produced copious 
quantities of resin from the cut surfaces and this trapped a variety of 
small flies, beetles, parasitic wasps and other insects. Under suitable 
conditions, and the passage of a few million years, this resin will be 
transformed into its fossilised form known as amber. Invertebrate 
animals, such as insects, mites, spiders, millipedes and centipedes, 
trapped within amber remain perfectly preserved, allowing 
palaeoentomologists to record and describe long-extinct species. 

Colin Hart (3845) — Exhibited a specimen of the Comma, Polygonia 
c-album which was caught in his garden at Buckland, Surrey on 16th 
July 1995, which approaches ab. suffusa Frohawk, and an almost 
immaculate form of the Buff ermine, Spilosoma luteum which came to 
light at Dawlish Warren, Devon in June 1995. 

Industrial Nature Conservation Association. Displayed a words and 
picture exhibit that showed a couple of projects being carried out by 
this group. The first showed the results of a three-year monitoring 
project that studied the colonisation of insects, mainly Coleoptera, of a 
man-made Phragmites reedbed designed to treat chemical plant 
effluents. The other was a proactive conservation project on a chemical 
company site to create and manage dragonfly and damselfly habitat. 
Over a number of years 12 species have been recorded with some of 
them being regular visitors or breeders; it was hoped that this would be 
appreciated as a very good total of species for a north-east locality of 
this nature. 

Alex Kolaj (9194) — Showed a two-part exhibit. The first part was 
moths taken in western Ireland in May and included the Grey, A. caesia 
typical and ab.; the Pod lover, H. perplexa, ssp. capsophila; Striped 
twin-spot carpet, N. silicata and the netted pug, &. venosatad, ssp. 
plumbea. These were all from Doolin, County Clare on a rare, still 

a  — —— 
ESS —E—— 

oe Volume 55 + August 1996 151 

night. Also shown in this section were specimens of the Irish annulet, 
G. dumitata from the Burren. The second section of the exhibit showed 
interesting moths taken in England. These included a migrant Oak 
processionary moth, 7. processionea taken at Sea Palling, Norfolk along 
with a Great brocade, E. occulta on 12.8.95, the first night of a family 
holiday; Webb’s wainscot, A. sparganii and a Rush wainscot, A. algae 
both reared from pupae found in reeds at Ansty, Sussex on 6.8.95; 
Scarce forester, A. globlariae taken at m.v. light in Wiltshire on 1.7.95, 
and an aberration of the Common wave, C. exanthemata taken at Sea 
Palling, Norfolk. 

Robin James (5005) — The application stated that British Macro- 
lepidoptera would be shown but no exhibit report was handed in. 

Neil Jones (8037) — Exhibited some photographs of Ecuadorian 
Lepidoptera and cuttings from the British local and national press which 
covered a story that has become known as the “Battle of the 
Butterflies”. This was about the first obliteration of an SSSI in the UK at 
Selar in the Neath Valley of South Wales. 

David Keen (3309) — The exhibit consisted of two parts: 

1. A series of workers of the wasp Dolichovespula media (Retzius) 
taken in my Banbury, Oxon, garden in July 1995. They were captured 
whilst seeking aphids on a Victoria plum tree. Worker Vespula vulgaris 
was shown for comparison. 

Ze oeesclection Or, mostly unnamed, insects collected in the 
neighbourhood of a villa in Sesmarias, Algarve, Portugal in May 1995. 
Photographs accompanied the exhibit to give an indication of the 

Of particular interest were a Striped hawk, Hyles lineata livornica 
Esper; American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linn.); ant-lions 
(Myrmeleontidae); lacewings (Neuroptora) taken from a swimming pool; 
bee-flies (Bombyliidae); velvet ant, Mutilla europaea Linn.; brightly 
coloured ruby-tailed wasps (Chrysididae),; paper wasps, Polistes gallicus 
Linn., various beetles including one covered in spines; longhorn beetles 
(Cerambycidae) fished from a pool and brightly- coloured Buprestids. 

Gareth King — Malacosoma castrensis L. 1758. In Britain this lasio- 
campid is restricted to the Kent and Essex coasts, being regarded in the 
UK as a RDB3 status rarity. Therefore, it was with some surprise that I 

152 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 36 

came across larvae of this moth on the Devon coast in Seaton in June 
1995. My record was left with David Bolton of Exeter Museum and Roy 
McCormick, the Lepidoptera recorder for Devon. 

I do have previous experience with the Ground lackey in Spain 
where it is much more widely distributed. I found larvae in Orduna 
(Vizcaya) in June 1990 at an elevation of about 800m, and on the Costa 
de Luz in the extreme south-west of the country in Isla Canela, Huelva 
in 1991. This genus is represented by five species in the afore- 
mentioned country: M. neustria L., M. castrensis L., M. alpicola Staud., 
M. franconica Esp. and M. laurae Lajonquiere. The last-mentioned was 
only recently discovered, being found in but one place, Isla de Bacuta 
in the mouth of the river Tinto in Huelva. 

Arctornis I-nigrum Muller 1764 (Lep.: Lymantriidae). The larvae 
exhibited here are from eastern France, the moth being only rarely 
recorded in the UK, the last British record being from 1960 (Skinner). 
This particular brood, which has been in the larval stage since early 
July, divided up into those in third instar which have gone into 
hibernation, and the remainder which have continued to feed; four to 
date have pupated but only over a period of several weeks. The larvae 
exhibit a quite unique behavioural pattern, which is_ especially 
pronounced when they have recently hatched; they have the capacity 
to spring! 

Hemithea aestivaria Hbn. 1779. The larvae shown here are the progeny 
of a female captured in July in Eaton Wick, Berkshire. Although the 
species is ostensibly single-brooded, three larvae have pupated this 
year and produced imagines which are exhibited here. The moth is 
thought by some authors to be double-brooded in northern Spain, as 
moths are also seen on occasion in the first two weeks of September 
(Gomez de Aizpurua). 

Rhodometra sacraria L. 1767. This little moth is a known and regular 
immigrant to Britain, but the adults here are from two females found in 
Serantes, Asturias, northern Spain in August. This generation, the F., 
developed from ova to produce imagines in only 17 days, the larvae 
pupating after a mere eight days, in a plant propagator at approx. 25 C. 

Keith C. Lewis (3080) — The exhibit consisted of two parts: 

1. Coleoptéres de France. Examples of French, Spanish and North 
African Carabidae. From Urepel, Besses Pyrénées, Las Illas, Les Dourbes 
Digne, Gizer, Foret de Detain, Besses Pyrenees Urt near Biarritz, Mont 

a Volume 55 « August 1996 153 

Arradoy, Mont Canigou Orientale Pyrenees Rousillon Province, Mount 
Morond, Millau, Col de Lachau, Foret de Gesse, Caussols Col de Ferrier, 
Chateau Pignon, Foret de Saou, France; St. Hilari Sacalen, Catalonia, 
Spain; and Gabes, Tunisia, North Africa. 

2. Watkins and Doncaster, a water-colour painting by Colin J. Ashford. 
Many members will remember visiting the old premises of Watkins and 
Doncaster at 110 Park View Road, Welling, Kent. The building is now 
sadly demolished. The painting depicts how it looked in the 1960s. 
Colin Ashford is a local artist. 

Helen Marcan (3763) — A series of photographs was shown of 
butterflies at the Stratford-upon-Avon Butterfly House. Similarly to other 
butterfly farms in the UK, the inhabitants are raised by captive breeding 
programmes in the countries of origin: Central and South America, 
Costa Rica, the Philippines, Thailand, Taiwan, without depletion of wild 
stocks, and providing local employment to under-developed areas. 
Those species shown in the photographs included, among the 
Nymphalidae: Metamorpha stelenes (the Malachite), Neptis nandina (the 
Common sailor), Junonia almana; and among the Heliconiinae, an 
entirely Neotropical family exhibiting variation and mimetic forms: 
Heliconius ismenius, H. charitonia (the Zebra). 

Also exhibited was a small selection of specimens obtained via 
Transworld Butterflies of Costa Rica. Some of these may also be seen at 
the butterfly farms depending upon the time of year: Hebomoia 
glaucippe, Delias hyparete (the Jezebel) (Pieridae), Cyrestis themire, 
Rhinopalpa _polynice —_ (Nymphalidae), Graphium eurypylus 
(Papilionidae). The specimens are obtained variously from Malaysia, 
Taiwan, the Philippines and South Asia. 

Roy McCormick (3375) — New, bred, unusual, variations of species 
seen in 1995. 

938 Agepta zoegana Linn. 
A form ferrugana caught at Great Haldon, Devon on 10.7.95 along with a 
normal specimen. 

988 Aphelia viburnana D. & S. Bilberry tortrix 
Bred ex-larva from North Devon coast and seen at light at Hartland Point 
and also caught at Hurley, Nr. Fernworthy Reservoir, Dartmoor. 

989 A. paleana Hb. Timothy tortrix 
Bred ex-larva from North Devon coast and seen at light at Hartland Point 
and also caught at Hurley, Nr. Fernworthy Reservoir, Dartmoor. 














Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society a¢ 

A. unitana Hb. 
Bred ex-larva from North Devon coast and seen at light at Hartland Point. 

Eudonia alpina Cutt. 

Several specimens of this species were found in a boggy area on the un- 
grazed section of Grannish Moor, Aviemore, Scotland on 28.5.95; they 
were first discovered by Peter Baker while we were looking for 
carbonaria Cl. Netted mountain moth. The lowland specimens are greyer 
than the mountain ones and the postmedian fascia does not have the 
“bend back” as it meets the bottom edge of the forewing and they are 
smaller; a pair of the mountain specimens are put in for comparison. 

Eurrbypara terrealis Treit. 
Seen abundantly to light in Hartland Point and Shipload Bay, North 
Devon on.1-7.95: A species new: to me: 

Udea decrepitalis H.-S. 
Seen in several locations along the coast of Loch Arkaig on 30.- and 
31.5.95. A species new to me. 

Platyptilia calodactyla D. & S. 
Caught as larvae in one location in North Devon and then seen at light in 
another location, again in North Devon. A species new to me. 

Leioptilus tephradactyla Hb. 
Caught as larvae in one location in North Devon and then seen at light in 
another location, again in North Devon. A species new to me. 

Malacasoma castrensis Linn. Ground lackey 

Seen by three people as larvae at Axmouth/Seaton, on the shingle spit 
and on the saltings; caught commonly at light on the saltings at Axmouth 
on 31.7.95. A couple of Kent specimens shown alongside these as a 

Lampropteryx suffumata D. & S. Water carpet 
A couple of the extreme variations of this moth seen at Feshiebridge, 
Scotland; end of May 1995. 

L. otregiata Metc. Devon carpet 

A bred specimen from eggs obtained from a female caught at Holne 
Chase, Dartmoor, Devon; the larva of this specimen to be figured in the 
new larvae book. 

Thera obeliscata Hb. Grey pine carpet 

This specimen caught in my garden trap on 31.8.95. The moth made a bid 
for freedom at the wrong moment, hence the scale-less strip across the 
right wing. 

Hydriomena ruberata Freyer. Ruddy highflyer 

Specimens bred from larvae caught at Trinafour, Scotland in September, 

Eupitheca abietaria Goeze. Cloaked pug 
Specimens of this discovered in a local collector's collection, caught in 











Volume 55 + August 1996 155 

and 1986 at Great Haldon, Devon; a follow-up produced a worn specimen 
of this species at Bellever Forest in the middle of Dartmoor, Devon on 

Hydrelia sylvata D. & S. Waved carpet 
Several locations for this species were discovered in and around 
Dartmoor, Devon during 1995. A species new to me. 

Trichopteryx carpinata Borkh. Early tooth-striped 
Bred from eggs obtained from a female caught at Feshiebridge, Scotland 

Semiothisa carbonaria Cl. Netted mountain moth 

Caught on the un-grazed area of Grannish Moor, Aviemore, Scotland on 
28.5.95; the moths were fairly common one day but could not be seen a 
day or two afterwards despite it being sporadically sunny. A species new 
to me. 

Hyles gallii Rott. Bedstraw hawk 
Specimen caught at Prawle Point on 12.8.95. A new species to me. 

Agrotis ripae Hb. Sand dart 
This specimen was captured at Hartland Point on 1.7.95 although there is 
no sand-type locality for miles; an unusual but well-marked moth to be 
seen on this type of terrain. 

Anarta melanopa Thunb. Broad-bordered white underwing 

Seen commonly on the slopes at Lecht, Tomintoul, Scotland on 1.6.95; the 
specimen came readily to sprigs of bird cherry laid on the ground. A 
species new to me. 

Hadena confusa Hufn. Marbled coronet 

A couple of unusual variations of this moth that were caught at light at 
Hartland Point, Devon on 1.7.95; one of these is almost ab. obliterae 
which is usually seen in the Shetland Isles. (Skinner, Moths of the British 

Enargia paleacea Esp. Angle-striped sallow 
Specimens of this species caught at light on Budby Common, 
Nottinghamshire on 19th and 22nd August 1995. A species new to me. 

Macdunnoughia confusa Steph. Dewick's plusia 

This specimen came to an interested person's trap in Plymouth on 
10.8.95; the moth laid several eggs but they were all infertile. A species 
new to me. 

An entomological curiosity 


Agrotis segetum D. & S. Turnip moth 

This extra large specimen was caught in my garden at Teignmouth, 
Devon on 8.10.94; I thought it might be something more exotic but 
nevertheless it is a remarkably large Turnip moth measuring 40mm from 
wing tip to wing tip; normal size (Skinner, Moths of the British Isles) is 32- 
42mm. A normal size specimen was put in for comparison. 

156 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ae 

Adam Muncer (10006J) — Exhibited spiders and a scorpion from 

Shown were: Poecilotheria regalis, P. formosa, P. ornata, P. metallica, 
P. fascita, Avicularia spp., Theraphosa leblondi, Grammostula cala, 
Ceratogyrus darlingi, Ceratogyrus spp., Phormictopus cancerides, 
Brachypelma_ albopilosa, B. vagans, B. mirinus, Psalmopoeus 
cambridgei and an Emperor scorpion with young. 

David Oram (7127) — Showed South African butterflies caught during 
April/May 1995, from coastal bush and around Durban, Natal. Exhibited 
were: Charaxes brutus natalensis, C. varanes, C. candiope, Danaus 
chrysippus daegyptius, Princeps demodocus, Belenois gidica, Colotis 
regina, Eronia cleodora, Acraea esebria, Bematistes aganice and Appias 
epaphia contracta; also shown was a butterfly trap used to catch 
“Charaxes’ in a Durban suburb. 

Rob Parker (5247) — A weekend in Serbia. During one weekend in one 
locality I found 70 species of butterfly. Predrag Jaksic took me to the 
ancient relict area of Topli Do (Warm Valley) in the Stara Planina (Old 
Mountain) massif of the border between Serbia and Bulgaria. 

We took voucher specimens of all species encountered, and the 
exhibit comprises 47 of these. Some specimens were on loan, others 
were retained by Jaksic, and the balance are common species. For the 
sake of completeness, labels were inserted, even for the missing 

The locality covered the valley from 750m, up through the village 
(800m) and above it to about 1000m. The biome was mainly deciduous 
foothills and montane woodlands, of a southern European character. 

We have produced a paper covering a wider range of ten localities in 
the same general area, and this will be published shortly. 

John Payne (5923) — Exhibited a rare aberration of the Small heath, 
from a garden in Northamptonshire in 1960, and a Painted lady V. 
cardui ab. rogeri Melham; bred in 1995 from a pupa given shock 

Colin Penney — Interesting moths taken in the last twelve months. 

Z. lotiD. & S. taken during the day on the Isle of Mull. NV. nymphaeatia 
Linn. dark form taken at the Rothamsted site in Culzean Castle, 
Scotland. T. cognata Thunb. taken as larvae on juniper in Aviemore, 

é Volume 55 * August 1996 157 

Scotland. H. ruberata Freyer taken as larvae on sallow in Trinafour, 
Scotland. C. lapidata Hb. taken at light in Trinafour, Scotland. O. 
bidentata Cl. unmarked dark form taken at light in Peterculter, 
Scotland. L. solidaginis Hb. taken at light in Trinafour, Scotland. £. 
Hevenecamioe Tesular visitor to light since the early eighties: at 
Chelmsford, Essex. H. obsitalis Hb. taken as larvae in Devon. 

Tony & Cathy Pickles (5225) — Hadena caesia (D. & S.) ssp. mananii 
Grey. Two female specimens bred from Skye. This species was bred 
from sea campion Silene maritima growing well up the cliffside. Only 
Hadena confusa was present in the campion which grew abundantly at 
the base of the cliffs on the shore. 

Hadena confusa (Hufn.) Marbled coronet. Specimens, bred from 
various localities, showing the range of variation. Darker and more 
obscure forms predominate in the north and west, but it is noticeable 
that there is little difference between those from Cornwall and Argyll. 
Specimens from Unst in the Shetlands do not appear markedly darker 
than those from North Devon, even after allowing for fading of these 
tiitty-yeat-old imsects, On the other hand those from Skye are 
decidedly blackish. 

With the exception of the insect from Surrey all are bred from larvae 
collected in the flowers and pods of sea campion Silene maritima 
growing in coastal and cliff localities in the following places: Kent, 
Surrey, South Cornwall, North Cornwall, North Devon, West Argyll, Isle 
of Skye and Unst, Shetland. 

Peter J.C. Russell (8977) — A case of butterflies from the Greek island 
of Crete was shown. All the endemic species: Zerynthia cretica, 
Kretania psylorita, Hipparchia cretica and Coenonympha thyrsis were 
included. Carcharodus alceae and Coenonympha thysris were reared 
from females brought back to this country and Nymphalis polychloros 
was reared from wild larvae, which were totally unparasitised. 
Libythea celtis, which was first recorded from Crete in 1991, was also 

A display of butterflies from the Canary Islands of Gran Canaria, 
ienenic elas ealmae la Gomera and El bietro was also, exhibited: 
Pseudotergumia wyssii wyssii from Tenerife was compared with P. 
wyssit gomera from Gomera. The examples of Pontia daplidice, 
Catopsilia florella, Lampides boeticus and Danaus plexippus were reared 
from wild larvae; some of the P. daplidice and L. boeticus but none of 

158 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ae 

the C. florella and D. plexippus produced parasites. Cyclyrius webbianus 
was reared from wild ova and Zizeeria knysna from a female brought 
to this country. 

The similarity of wing patterns in Maniola jurtina from the eastern 
and western extremities of its range were exemplified by M. jurtina 
janira from Crete and M. jurtina fortunata from La Palma. Also Pontia 
daplidice daplidice from El Hierro could be compared with P. daplidice 
edusa from Crete, as could the closely related Avicia sp.: A. cramera 
from La Gomera and A. agestis from Crete. 

The difference between Gonepteryx cleobule from Tenerife and G. 
eversi from La Gomera was exemplified photographically by the ultra- 
violet reflectivity of the uppersides of the forewings and to a lesser 
extent the hindwings of the female G. cleobule whilst that of G. eversi 
did not reflect. An article from New Scientist was included which 
suggested a possible use of these ultra-violet reflections by butterflies 
in mate selection. 

Bernard Skinner & Sean Clancy — Bred specimens of Peribatodes 
manuelaria H.-S. from a female taken at Lydd, Kent on 4th August 1994 
by K. Redshaw emerging both in 1994 and 1995. The display also 
included photographs of the larvae in different instars, the pupa and 
living adult. 

Bernard Skinner — Bred specimens of Phlyctaenia stachydalis Germar 
from larvae collected in Devon together with photographs of half- 
grown and full-grown larvae. 

Aberrant example of macrolepidoptera taken or bred in 1995: 

Tetheella fluctuosa Hb. f. albilinea Cockayne from Loch Arkaig, 
Argyllshire, on 

Heavily banded form of Semiothisa liturata Cl. from Windsor Forest, 
28th July. 

Weakly marked form of Eupithecia pulchellata Steph. from Loch Arkaig, 
26th June. 

A pale form of Peribatodes rhomboidaria D. & S. from Sandwich, Kent, 
12th August. 

Specimens of Entephria flavicinctata Hb. bred from larvae collected in 
Co. Antrim, Ireland in May together with examples of the paler ssp. 
flavicinctata Hb. from Yorkshire and the darker ssp. ruficinctata from 

Bé Volume 55 « August 1996 159 

On behalf of Lynn Hurst: a male Thaumetopoea processionea L. taken in 
her garden light trap at Sholdon, Kent on 11th August 1995. 


Specimens of the dark form of Scoparia ambigualis Treit. from Malham 
Tarn, Yorkshire on 29th June 1995. 

Two melanic examples of Dioryctria mutatella Fuchs from Windsor 
Forest on 21st July 1995. 

Matthew Smith (5866) — Exhibited Canadian Bumble bee from 
southern Quebec collected by Mr Jean Brodeur as part of a specimen 
exchange. Queens of ten Bombus and two Psithyrus were shown, 
including Bombus borealis, B. fervidus, B. rufocinctus and Psithyrus 
citrinus. B. rufocinctus is a polymorphic species and exhibits a range of 
colour variation; specimens of both the red and black morphs were 

Graham R. Smith (4950) — The exhibit was in two parts: 

Part 1. The first consisted of three photographic enlargements of adult 
Purple emperors (Apatura iris) taken during 1995. Two were of wild 
females in Wiltshire and one of a reared male in full display. 

Some 1995 views and a few notes 
of the Purple emperor (Apatura iris). 

How one normally sees iris. On a hot Sunday afternoon of the 23rd July 
a somewhat worn female basks about 30 feet up an oak in between 
feeding from sap running from the same tree, in a rather little known 
Wiltshire haunt for this species. As the day cooled she descended to 
much lower levels and repeatedly skimmed back and forth along the 
woodland paths. 

If you are lucky iris can be seen at much closer quarters. A visitor to a 
rather well-known reserve near Salisbury did not slip up here as this 
rather undersized female was attracted to a somewhat unlikely form of 
bait that they had placed earlier — a fresh banana skin placed on an oak 

How one very rarely sees iris—a male in full splendour. If you haven't 
already guessed this is a shot of a posed reared specimen. This species 
is easy enough to rear in captivity although it is essential that the larvae 
are sleeved out of doors. One problem I have encountered, due to the 
lack of tree canopy, urban surroundings and the higher temperature 
within the sleeve, is that the butterflies usually emerge a couple of 
weeks earlier than in the wild. 

160 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society tf 

Part 2. This served to demonstrate the similarities and differences 
between three species of Buck eye butterfly found in Florida, 
accompanied by a few notes on their haunts, habits, life history and 
distribution. The specimens included Common buck eye (Junonia 
coenia), Black mangrove buck eye (/. evarete) and Caribbean buck-eye 
(J. genoveva), all taken in Florida during August 1993 and August 1995. 

Buck eyes from the State of Florida, USA 

There are three species of Buck eye (Nymphalidae) found in the Florida 
Peninsula. They are highly territorial butterflies and are usually very 
difficult to approach. The insects get their name from the large 
eyespots on all four wings, which affords them some protection against 
predators such as birds in a similar manner to our own Peacock 
(Inachis io). The Buck-eyes are still often classified in the genus Precis, 
which contains Old World species noted for extreme forms of seasonal 
variation. This exhibit serves to demonstrate the similarities and 
differences between them, as often more than one species are found 
together. In flight they resemble the Red admiral (Vanessa atalania) in 

Common buck eye (Junonia coenia) 

As its name implies this is the commonest of the buck eyes and can be 
found in the drier grassy areas, often in large numbers. The larvae feed 
on plants of the Scrophulariaceae family in south Florida but plantains, 
(Plantago ssp.), foxglove and snapdragons are used further north. The 
very large eye-spots on the hindwings and the spot on the upperside 
forewing, which is ringed with white, enables it to be distinguished 
from other buck eyes. There is considerable individual variation of the 
darker markings on the underside. The winter (or dry season form) is 
also marked more heavily. 

Black mangrove buck eye (/. evarete) 

This species is restricted to the coastal areas of the Florida Peninsula 
where mangrove occurs. The adults perch on the leaves of the larval 
foodplant, black mangrove, Avicennia germinans. It is often locally 
abundant as it was near Card Sound, Northern Key Largo on 15th 
August 1995. Despite being a very wary insect, sadly, many of these 
Buck eyes were being hit by passing vehicles and my wife and I 
removed several injured and dead insects, together with the fast-flying 
Mangrove skipper (Phocides pigmalion), from the road surface. Many 
were being quickly discovered by swarms of ants. Evarete is larger than 
coenia but the forewing eye-spot is ringed with orange and the 
hindwing eye-spots do not exceed the size of the forewing eye-spot. 


a Volume 55 + August 1996 161 

The underside is more uniform and paler than coenia but the markings 
are heavier in the dry season. 

Caribbean buck eye (J. genoveva) 

Found only in the extreme south of the state, this species apparently 
only temporarily colonises the area. At times it has been seen in 
abundance but usually it occurs rather sporadically. The larvae feed on 
plants of the Verbenaceae family. Although it resembles coenia, the 
hindwing spots are much smaller and the forewing eye-spot is edged 
with white but only on the outermost side. The underside is quite 
contrastingly marked. In the past there was much confusion between 
evarete and genoveva because of seasonal variation. At one time they 
were simply referred to as species A and species B, where their ranges 

St. Ivo School (Henry Berman) — This enthusiastic master and _ his 
equally keen junior Homo sapiens exhibited all things furry and scaly; 
there were good displays which included various snakes wrapped 
around exuberant necks and other parts of children's anatomy. 

Tony Steele (4106) — Some Pieridae of North America. 

Many of the butterflies of North America are very similar to those found 
in Great Britain and Europe, and this includes their foodplants. The 
specimens in this exhibit showed some of the similarities. Space 
precluded showing the corresponding British examples. 

Colias eurytheme, Orange sulphur: also called the Alfalfa butterfly, it is 
a serious pest of alfalfa crops. There are several broods each year. 
Ranges from Canada to Mexico. 

C.. cesonia, Southern dog face: the name is derived from the poodle-like 
markings. It is double-brooded with the larvae feeding on indigo and 
clovers. Found in the south from California to Florida. 

C. philodice, Clouded sulphur: very common, can be found swarming 
around puddles and other moist places. There are several broods each 
yearmeanad tne foodplant is” clovers., Al percentage of ‘females’ are 

Anthocharis midea, Falcate orange tip: preferred habitat is along the 
margins of damp woods, where it flies close to the ground. Larvae feed 
on crucifers. Found in the south-eastern states of North America. 

Pieris protodice, Checkered white: also known as the Common white, 
very common all over North America. This also feeds on crucifers, and 
produces three broods a year. 

162 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society o> 

Phoebis sennae, Cloudless sulphur: another name is the Giant sulphur. 
Found mainly in the southern states in two broods with the adults 
overwintering. Foodplant is wild senna. 

P. philea, Orange-barred sulphur: very common along the Gulf of 
Mexico and occasionally in the middle and mid-western states, in two 
broods. The larvae feeds on legumes. 

Raymond Thompson (9301) and Kay Medlock — Promoted the 
British Dragonfly Society with their usual high quality display that we 
have become used to. A wonderful sequence of A4 colour prints 
illustrated in Macro the drama and magic of the emergence of the 
Broad-bodied chaser, Libellula depressa. In addition a panel of excellent 
photographs illustrated the nationally rare Norfolk hawker, Aeshna 
isosceles, its distribution and notes on the threat to its survival. Kay 
Medlock had used modern digital technology to produce these 
photographs by using laser colour copies taken directly from 35mm 
slides and laminating to protect them; much cheaper than Cibachromes! 
Raymond Thompson's videos were playing constantly, showing much 
of entomological interest such as eggs hatching, larval development, 
prolarval phase of dragonfly emergence etc. Kay Medlock's excellent 
slides of dragonflies were constantly on view in an automated slide 
presentation. Many BDS members in addition to many AES members 
visited the stand during the day. This exhibit has become a well- 
established rendezvous for the dragonfly enthusiast on AES Exhibition 

Paul Waring (4220) — Display boards and a display case entitled: News 
from some projects on British moths in 1995 featuring moth projects for 
JNCC, CCW, EN and SNH, Butterfly Conservation and the BENHS, and 
the results of a visit to Poland. 

The Silurian Eriopygodes imbecilla 

The Silurian Eriopygodes imbecilla was investigated in its haunts in 
Monmouthshire, as part of a project commissioned by the Countryside 
Council for Wales (CCW). It was found to be more widespread than the 
single gully in which it was discovered in 1972, and extends over an 
area at least 4km x 1km and probably more. 

The Slender-striped rufous Coenocalpe lapidata 

The Slender-striped rufous Coenocalpe lapidata was reared from eggs 
laid by females caught in Sutherland last September (1994) during a 
project for Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH). The moth inhabits rush 

a Volume 55 + August 1996 163 

flushes in open moorland. The larvae hatched in March from eggs 
hibernated in plastic pots under shelter outdoors. The larvae were 
reared indoors and produced adults in late June and early July, 
suggesting that they could have two generations per year in warmer 
climates than those in Scotland. The larval foodplant in the wild is 
unknown. Some larvae were reared on the leaves of buttercup 
Ranunculus acris Which occurs on the breeding site) and others on 
Clematis montanum (which does not). This moth is probably much 
more widespread than records suggest, and I believe many colonies 
have been overlooked. Habitat like that shown is plentiful. The moth 
can be seen by day in hot sunny weather and adults and probably 
larvae can be found by searching with a torch after dark. 

The Black-veined moth Siona lineata 

A third colony of the endangered Black-veined moth Siona lineata was 
found in Kent on private land during work for English Nature's Species 
Recovery Programme. Most of its habitat has been ploughed up at this 
site recently and only a hectare remains but hopefully this last piece 
can be saved permanently and adjacent land brought back into 
condition for the moth, which continues to do well on its other two 

The Reddish buff moth Acosmetia caliginosa 

The Reddish buff moth Acosmetia caliginosa flew again on mainland 
Britain in 1995, for the first time since it was lost in the early 1960s. Last 
year 100 adults reared in captivity from stock originally from the Isle of 
Wight were released into a site prepared for them in Hampshire, as part 
of English Nature's Species Recovery Programme. The adults seen this 
year confirm that eggs were laid in the wild and that the site is suitable 
for the full life-cycle. The colony will continue to be monitored to see if 
it is successful in the long term. 

Crimson underwing survey 

A survey of Light and Dark crimson underwings Catocala promissa and 
C. sponsa took place on 12th August 1995 in the New Forest, 
Hampshire, as part of a joint field meeting between the British 
Entomological & Natural History Society and Butterfly Conservation. We 
were delighted to find both species at five different places in the central 
and eastern parts of the Forest, and the Light crimson underwing at a 
sixth. Previously there had been concerns that the Dark crimson 
underwing in particular had become much more localised within the 
Forest. The meeting was filmed by a crew from the BBC and shown on 
3rd September as part of the Nature Detectives series. 

164 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ae 

Atlas of the scarce and threatened macro-moths of Great Britain 

This project was started in the winter of 1992-93, following formation of 
a national recording network for the rarer moths in 1991. The first draft 
of maps was issued to all county recorders and record centres in 1992, 
since when many further records and much new information has been 
added. The text and maps are continually being updated on computer 
and accounts of individual species are frequently being sent to 
lepidopterists and conservation organisations. Editing for publication is 
due to take place this winter with publication by the Joint Nature 
Conservation Committee (JNCC) in 1996. The recording network will 
continue to be serviced and the computer data-base kept up to date as 
part of a joint project between BC and JNCC. Up to date national 
distribution maps of fourteen species which have been demoted from 
the Atlas because, fortunately, they have been found to be too 
widespread and common to qualify, are being submitted for publication 
in a paper for the Entomologist’s Record to make the information 
available. For some of these species, such as the Sloe pug Chloroclystis 
chloerata, there are no previous published maps. For others it is 
interesting to compare the results with previous versions. While 
recording has improved in some areas, it is clear that there have also 
been real changes in moth distribution in the last two decades, with 
increases as well as declines. 

Larva of Sloe pug Chloroclystis chloerata feeding in blackthorn blossom 
Prunus spinosa 

This is one of the species dropped from the Atlas of the rarer macro- 
moths because it is now known from more than 100 of the 10km 
squares in Britain. The distribution map is the first to be prepared for 
this species and will be published in the entomological press, along 
with those of other species demoted from the Atlas, so that the 
information is readily available. 

Moth recording visit to Poland 

For 15 years I have had the ambition to visit the only remaining 
undisturbed primeval forest left in Europe, which is at Bialowieza on 
the far eastern border of Poland, and to run a Robinson light trap there 
for comparison with moth catches in Britain. This year, with the kind 
assistance of Professor Jaroslav Buscko of Copernicus University, that 
ambition was realised. The full results will be published in due course. 
In addition to Bialowieza, where we saw Light and Dark crimson 
underwings as in the New Forest, we visited the Biebrza Marshes, a 
large area of wetlands with a population of European cranes Grus grus. 

3 Volume 55 + August 1996 165 

There we saw the Rosy underwing Catocala electa and another species, 
Catacala pacta, which has a red abdomen as well as red hindwings. C. 
pacta is considered rare in Europe and only occurs in the extreme east. 
It may have been lost from Finland, so our discovery of a strong colony 
at Biebrza Marshes is good news. It inhabits sallow carr Salix spp. and 
we saw 27 in one night at the place shown in the accompanying 

The Viper's bugloss moth Hadena irregularis 

While in Poland we also saw larvae of the Viper's bugloss moth 
Hadena irregualris which is now considered extinct in Britain. The 
larvae were feeding on Spanish catchfly Silene otites and also on 
Gypsophila fastigiata, both growing in the dry sandy Breckland type of 
habitat in which the moth used to be found in Britain. It appears that 
the moth was last seen in Britain as larvae in 1977. Searches for larvae 
took place at all known Spanish catchfly sites in 1988, with the largest 
colonies of the plant being searched again in 1989, but no larvae were 
found. They were easy to see on the plants by day in Poland and in 
view of this experience I am confident they would have been found 
during the surveys in Britain if they had been present. 

Dr Rachel Thomas. — Showed a display illustrating the steps English 
Heritage are taking to preserve wildlife on their holdings. 

Len Winokur (8070) — Exhibited five examples of wing shape and 
pattern pathology in Lepidoptera. The value of such _ teratological 
aberrations (Russwurm, A.D.A. 1975. Aberrations of British Butterflies, 
Classey) lies in what they tell us about development and evolution. 
Shown were: 

Speckled wood, Pararge aegeria Linn.; Male subjected to pupal chilling 
at -20°C for 96 hours commencing 5-12 hours post pupation, with the 
left hindwing present only as a stump bearing scales but no pattern. 

Clouded buff, Diacrisia sannio Linn., Male reared ex. egg at 30°C, with 
the left hindwing undeveloped and the right hindwing present as a 
stump divided into an anterior and smaller posterior part each bearing 
scales but no pattern. 

Small white, Pieris rapae Linn.,; Male Snowe indentation of the left 
_ forewing at the posterior margin. 

_ Chalk-hill blue, Zysandra coridon Poda.; Female subjected to pupal 
| chilling at -20°C for 96 hours commencing 5-12 hours post pupation, 

166 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ae 

showing failure of wing expansion and an absence of wing membrane 
from the discal cell of each hindwing. 

Cinnabar, Tyria jacobaeae Linn.; Female subjected to pupal chilling at 
-20°C for for 96 hours commencing 5-12 hours post pupation, with the 
upper and undersides of both hindwings showing paler ground colour 
toward the anterior wing spaces. 

The compiler of these notes is not responsible for errors or claims made 
by the exhibitors. However, an effort has been made to be as accurate 
as possible. 7 

Roy McCormick, FRES 



t | Volume 55 + August 1996 167 

The Small white in Australia 
by Tony Morton (8820) 

32 Chatsworth Road, Prahran, Victoria, Australia 3181. 

I was interested in Phil Grey's comments on Pieris brassicae in Cape 
Town, and feel he is right in forecasting a plague of these insects there 
before long. 

The appearance in Australia in 1937 (some say 1939), of Pieris 
(Artogeia) rapdae rapae (Linnaeus) via New Zealand, where it had 
presumably been accidentally introduced from Europe, caused some 
annoyance, especially to those with vegetable gardens. First seen 
around Melbourne and in the gardens and fields to the east of that city, 
the butterfly, often known as the Cabbage moth, had reached 
Tasmania, South Australia and New South Wales by 1940. By 1942 it 
was reported from Queensland, and it is now very common in most 
settled areas throughout Australia wherever its introduced foodplant 
grows. It is even met with not infrequently miles from “civilisation” in 
forest and scrubland. I imagine that the story is the same in North 
America, where the butterfly was introduced accidentally in 1800. In 
Australia, perhaps partly because of the War, little was done to control 
the insect until the fifties, when the authorities brought in several of its 
predators (Apanteles spp. amongst others) from Europe. A friend of 
mine tells me that, as a boy in the mid-fifties, market gardeners would 
pay him a shilling a hundred for those “Cabbage moths”, and that he 
could earn ten bob in a couple of hours! Gradually the predators 
brought the numbers down, but the butterfly is still the commonest 
species in Melbourne, being the first to fly in spring and the last to be 
seen in autumn. It doesn't seem particularly fond of cabbage, for in my 
garden it prefers nasturtium. Apart from these and Brassica spp, in 
general, larvae are reported to be able to develop on mignonette and 
Cleome spp. as well as a common weed called peppercress 
(Lepidium hyssopifolium). The butterfly 
looks exacily the same as English 
specimens I have seen, though recent 
studies have shown “major genetically 
based behavioural differences from their 
English conspecies.” However, this is not 
unknown amongst human immigrants! 

168 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society a¢ 

Cruel death for Peck's skipper while the Harvester is collected 
nearby. Cheesequake State Park, New Jersey, USA. 
10th August 1995 

by Matthew Rowlings (9108) 
87 School Road, Stretford, Manchester M32 8DL. 

During a two-week visit to the north-east United States in early August 
1995, I spent a pleasant afternoon in the Cheesequake State Park of 
north-eastern New Jersey. In the limited time available and with little 
knowledge of the insect life in the Park I chose to follow the longest 
and most diverse marked trail — the Green Trail. With warm but cloudy 
weather and a typically dense, still forest there were odd spots 
containing, atypically (in my experience of the north-east), reasonable 
numbers of butterflies. The following is a combined general and 
lepidopteran description of one of these spots. 

The Green Trail had just taken me across a board-walk through an 
amazing white cedar swamp. The darkness and _ stillness were 
oppressive combined with the humidity and the entirely brown 
surroundings. Weird creepers added an eerie perspective. Beyond, in 
the more typical hardwood forest the ground dropped down onto a 
flood plain that, to my eyes, contained no river, stream or puddle, but 
did contain a dense 12-foot-high herbaceous forest — a North American 
equivalent of a giant hogweed epidemic. As the trail emerged from this 
dense growth a small but rarely encountered zone of ground-level 
sunlight existed. Something batted past my face and, being starved of 
butterfly action but having had enough practice over the summer to 
have toned my reflexes, to my surprise I caught the insect. It was a 
Harvester (Feniseca tarquinius) — the only one I managed to find 
during my two-week stay. A member of the Lycaenidae, of the 
subfamily Miletinae, I don't think it has any close relatives in Europe 
but it can be imagined as a cross between the Moroccan hairstreak 
(Tomares mauretanicus) and the Canary blue (Cyclirius webbianus). 
The subfamily is particularly interesting in the larval stage. As 
youngsters these butterflies are predatory or parasitic on Homopteran 
hosts, usually aphids. Sometimes ants are exploited much as they are 
by larvae of the Large blue (Maculinea arion) and others in Europe. 
The Harvester is no exception, feeding on woolly aphids of genera 
Schizoneura and Pemphigus, particularly if the aphid colony is feeding 
on alder. By way of camouflage from their larger predators the larvae 
drape themselves in the remains and secretions of their victims. A web 

Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Fig. 1. Gomphus vulgatisimus (Club-tailed dragonfly) resting on dead wood by the Thames 
near Hartslock SSSI on 19th May 1993. 

Photographed on Hartslock SSSI on 5th September 1993. 


Volume 55 « August 1996 

Fig. 3. Asilus crabroniformis (2) feeding on a large field grasshopper. 
Photographed on 26th August 1995 at a site in Cholsey, Oxfordshire. 

Fig. 4. Asilus crabroniformis (@ ) feeding on a large field grasshopper. 

Photographed on 26th August 1995 at a site in Cholsey, Oxfordshire. 


Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Fig. 5. Another Red admiral basking place! 

PLATE 960 

Volume 55 * August 1996 3 

Fig. 6. Some Emperor moths of the southem Sudan. 
P.Waring. Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc. 54: (403) 255-200. 
See facing page for legend. 


to ] Volume 55 + August 1996 169 

is spun to protect them from the attentions of ants that tend and defend 
the aphids from most predators. The larval stage lasts only a very short 
time —10/11 days and three moults — this further reduces exposure to 
attacks by ants, although this very rapid growth may be a result of the 
highly nutritious animal food. 

However, this time the Harvester became harvested and the insect is 
now treasured as part of my select collection. Oddly the adult does not 
feed on flowers, it feeds on honeydew from the aphids its larvae feed 
on. Doesn't this contradict the whole point of metamorphosis i.e. that 
adult and larval interests do not overlap? Perhaps something for the 
learned lepidopterist to comment on, but I warrant that other instances 
of this non-conformance can be thought of, or maybe explained. 

A very short walk through the ever nearby forest and a rare patch of 
natural open grass (unfortunately of the leg-scratching type!) somehow 
managed to resist the encroaching trees. A nearby stream kept it damp. 
Although it was very small (perhaps 20m x 10m) it harboured several 
butterflies of interest. The ubiquitous forest's odorous undercover 
(sweet pepper bushes which fill the still air with a very heavy, sickly, 
privet-like scent that made even my usually insensitive nose twitch) 
formed a narrow border around the clearing and provided the fuel for 
the adult butterflies that made it home. Several very smart Red-banded 
hairstreaks (Calycopis cecrops) (the commonest butterfly I found in New 
Jersey) were found here in very good condition feeding on the sweet 
pepper. A single stunning White-M hairstreak (Parrhasius m-album) 
was also feeding — it has an unmistakable white M Cike the white W of 
the White-letter hairstreak (Strymonidia w-album)) and a big blue spot 
at the base of the hindwing tails with shining deep blue flashes of the 
upperwings. Several American Silver-spotted skippers (Epargyreus 
clarus), easily as big as our Small tortoiseshell (Aglais urticae), were 
showing off their golden-spotted upperwings and single large silver 
streak of the underside. A Sachem (a skipper) (Atalopedes campestris), 
like a giant Large skipper (Ochlodes venata), also fed in the meadow. A 
lovely black Spicebush swallowtail (Papilio troilus) passed through — a 
species that likes sunshine but is by no means averse to spending its 
afternoons in the dark forest undergrowth. 

In the middle of this scene a titanic struggle was being fought. A 
most unfortunate Peck's skipper (Polites peckius) was suffering a slow 

Fig. 6. Some Emperor moths of the southern Sudan. L-R: Epiphora bauhiniae (Nyany and 
Juba, Imbrasia hectate (Nyany, Kopp, Juba), Bunea alcinoe (Nyany and Panyagor), 
Pseudaphelia apollinaris form simplex (Nyany), Usta terpsichore (Juba). 

170 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society og 

fate in the clutches of two large praying mantids (each a full four inches 
in length) similar to those I've seen in southern Europe. The mantids, 
preoccupied by the question of who should get the meal, had forgotten 
to kill their prey. I watched them as they fought strategically clutching 
first the skipper then each other, always with one forearm gripping the 
dying skipper. They occasionally lurched trying to gain the advantage. 
After several minutes I turned away to watch about five Appalachian 
eyed browns (Satyrodes appalachia) feeding in a shaded part of the 
meadow. On returning to my ringside position, the jury were still 
divided as to who would win the trophy and earn a good, fresh but 
squashed meal! I left with the result still undecided. 


Opler, P.A. and Malikul, V. (1992). A field guide to Eastern Butterflies (The Peterson Field 
Guide Series). Houghton Mifflin Company. 

Ordish, G., Crozat et Saint- Justh, F., and Barber, N. (1969). Butterflies and Moths: 
learning with colour. Paul Hamlyn. 

Sbordoni, V. and Forestiero, S. (1985). The World of Butterflies, an illustrated 
encyclopaedia. Guild Publishing. 

Higgins, L.G. and Riley, N.D. (1980). A field guide to the butterflies of Britain and Europe. 
4th Edition. Collins. 

Pyle, R.M. Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies. 1st edition. A.A. 
Knopf (New York). 

Klots, A.B. A Field Guide to the Butterflies of North America, East of the Great Plains. 1st 

Out of season Tortricoid 
by Alan Emmerson (10487) 

As it was mild on 11th February I decided to run a trap, but rain was 
forecast so I put it on our covered porch. Next morning it yielded a 
solitary Chestnut (Conistra vaccinii), but on the inside of the window 
overlooking the porch I found a beautiful Tortricoid. After some time I 
concluded it was either Spilonota ocellana (the favourite), Cydia 
succedana or C. splendana. | live in Surrey but work in Aberdeen, and 
took the specimen north when I returned a couple of days later. My 
micro guru, Dr Bob Palmer, soon identified it as C. splendana — at least 
I had been close! C. splendana flies in July to August so what was one 
doing in my house in February? On reference to British Tortricoid Moths 
we discovered that the fully-fed larva leaves acorns or sweet chestnuts 
soon after they have fallen and then constructs a cocoon in which it 
overwinters, pupating in the spring. I had collected chestnuts in a small 
wood near my home in November and must have brought a larva into 
the house. This in turn must have pupated early and hatched in the 
warmth of my living room. Any other theories? 

ae Volume 55 * August 1996 171 


Insects and flowers, a biological partnership by John Brackenbury. 4to, 
hdbk. pp.160, 161 colour photos. ISBN 07137 2491 9. Blandford Press 
OD we ree-32):00. 

This is yet another display of this author's photographic art, first 
exemplified in his earlier book, /nsects in flight. 1 do, however, cavil at 
the presentation of them in this book. In the previous book the 
photographs were, with but a couple of exceptions, printed on a page 
and with an inner margin. Here they are far too often printed both 
without an inner margin and partly running over the page so as to 
occupy two pages, which, since this is not a book that opens dead flat, 
gives a distorted view of the subject. It is also my opinion that a 
number of them suffer from too great an enlargement and could well 
have given a better visual impact by being printed half the size they 
have been. In particular I find the large photographs containing pink, 
red and purple flowers — and there are rather a lot of them — very 
visually overpowering. At least one photograph of the Peacock butterfly 
is shown in duplicate but different in size, one photograph, No. 50, 
which on half a page is the one I prefer, and the same spread over two 
Cun-numbered) pages (48/49 by inference). A number of the 
photographs would seem to have been included because they were 
available in lieu of actual insect ones. These show flowers and scenery 
of which better photographs are available in a number of other books. 

Turning to the text, this is a simple and non-technical account of the 
inter-relationship between the insects and the flowers they visit. The 
various chapters take us through the process: the flower as a food 
source; the market for pollen; types of flowers and how they are 
pollinated; how the world looks to an insect. Here I would have liked 
to see some photographs taken by ultra-violet light, for the colours we 
see on flowers are not those seen by the insects with their visual range 
shifted into the ultra-violet end of the spectrum and lack of seeing 

VAi2 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society &¢é 

many of the reds. Be it noted, however, that many of these red colours 
reflect ultra-violet. I noticed a few mis-statements, such as “Regular 
hibernators such as the Red admiral... ”. Still a very controversial issue 
and rare occurrence! There are a number of other errors. For instance 
the Small skipper should be 7hymelicus sylvestris not T. flavus Cwhich it 
has never been); the Dark-green fritillary has not been in the genus 
Mesoacidalia for many years and should be Argynnis. There ‘are also 
errors in the indexing. No trace of the Marbled white on page 101 for 
instance and the Scarce swallowtail is depicted on illustration 141 not 
144 as stated in the index. Sheer carelessness and spotted errors such as 
these must cast a cloud over the accuracy of the text as a whole. 
Although well-printed and bound the publishers could not make up 
their minds whether to justify the text or not;-it is a mix of right justified 
and ragged! 

I would have liked to see a more extensive bibliography. It consists 
of only eight titles, but perhaps it is as sparse as this for a very good 
reason that this specialised subject really has such a limited literature, 
although further references — to papers rather than books — are of 
course to be found in the titles quoted, the two classic texts on the 
subject, those of Faegri & Van der Pijl and of Proctor & Yoe, are now 
getting on in years and much new information is now available but 

As in his previous books, I find the pagination confusing; although 
most of the pictures are numbered, some are not, neither are all the 
pages foliated and it is off-putting to see page “107” following page 108 
as well as “page” 120 apparently following page 118, until one realises 
that the “107” and “120” are actually the colour photo numbers. 

This is a colourful book containing useful information on the subject, 
but sadly marred by the flaws mentioned above, although I believe the 
textual information may be more accurate than the naming, indexing 
and foliation. At a price that compares with many books without any 
colour illustrations &20 is not unreasonable. However, I have noticed 
that many books of this ilk, including those of this author and 
publisher, are remaindered at about a third of the published price 
within a couple of years — two indeed within six months — of 
publication and I would recommend looking at this book in a library 
before making up your mind and then if you want it on your shelves, 
wait for the price to drop, which it might even have done by the time 
this review appears. 

Brian Gardiner 

L] Volume 55 + August 1996 173 

J.R. Eagles 

I have been looking for a Mr J.R. Eagles who served in the Royal Navy 
in 1943. Mr Eagles, nicknamed “Bugs”, was a keen entomologist, and I 
believe that his father was the editor of an entomological publication. 
Several of my naval colleagues are gathering this year to wallow in 
nostalgia, but Mr Eagles is missing. I believe he once resided in north 

Anyone with information should contact Eric Maclean at 8 Telford 
Terrace, Pimlico, London SW1V 3AE or the Bulletin editor. 

Saturday 5th October 1996 

Kempton Park Racecourse 
Staines Road, Sunbury, Middlesex 

Doors open at 1lam 

Admission &1.00 
Members free on production of pass issued with the August Bu/letin 
For further information, please write to: 

Amateur Entomologists' Society 
| PO Box 8774, London SW7 5ZG 

174 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 34 

Inter-generic courtship 

by Matthew Rowlings (9108) 
87 School Road, Stretford, Manchester M32 8DL. Wye mee = 

Having recently re-read WJ. Tennent's article on’ inter-generic mating 
behaviour in Lepidoptera (Bull. Amat. Ent. Soe-54-394): pp. 107) I am 
prompted into reporting a striking instance of inter-generic courtship. 
One warm August night, some time in the mid-1980s, I was walking 
around one of the many flowering Buddleia bushes in our garden in 
Cambridgeshire an hour or so after dusk. With a torch in hand I was 
searching, profitably, for nectaring moths. One flower was the chosen 
roosting spot for a quiescent female Large white (Pieris brassicae. 
Several minutes later my torch beam touched upon the Large white 
again, but this time there -happened to be a male Yellow shell 
(Camptogramma  bilineata) fluttering by. The butterfly twitched its 
wings and the moth was in love! It flew at the butterfly much like a 
lusty male Large white would have done in daylight. The butterfly took 
the approach seriously but was definitely not in the mood. She 
responded in the characteristic rejection posture of slowly flapping 
wings with abdomen raised. This had no effect on the moth who kept 
making approaches. After several seconds it occurred to me that it 
might be my torch beam that was causing this social intercourse, so I 
switched it off briefly. Switching back on revealed a quiescent roosting 
Large white and no Yellow shell. 

The whole scenario was, I think, the result of confusion caused by 
my artificial torch light. Moving into the realms of speculation, the 
diurnal butterfly was probably responding to the visual stimulus of the 
nearby illuminated moth and saw it as a small, yellowy male butterfly 
with romantic intentions. The Geometridae family to which the Yellow 
shell belongs is probably the most (superficially at least) similar moth 
family to the butterflies in size, shape and flight. So the confusion on 
the part of the female is perhaps understandable. The male's interest in 
her on the other hand is more of a puzzle. Quite unaccustomed to 
courting in daylight it can be suggested that he found some 
pheromonal stimulus from the large butterfly, or perhaps the bright 
whiteness fascinated him (although the torch itself didn't attract him). 
The former is plausible because it is not usual for the Yellow shell to be 
sexually active during day light hours and the female Large white 
would not normally flap her wings after dark — my torch light may have 
merged daylight and night time in an unnatural way causing this 
strange interaction between butterfly and moth. 


36 Volume 55 + August 1996 175 

Pieris mannii and other animals on Corfu in May 1995 

by Rob Parker 

203 Washington Street, Beck Row, Suffolk IP28 8EX. 

My visit to Corfu (9th - 23rd May 1995) was partly inspired by Gerald 
Durrell's “My Family and Other Animals”, but the foundations of my 
expectations concerning the butterfly fauna were laid by Russell 
Bretherton, whose listing (Baldock & Bretherton, 1981) identified a total 
of 79 species recorded from the island — 63 with certainty, and 16 
requiring confirmation. Corfu is the greenest of the Greek islands and 
this, with its proximity to the Albanian coast, give it a greater diversity 
of flora and fauna than the other islands of the Ionian/Aegean. None of 
the works I consulted before my visit led me to expect the Eastern 
orange tip, Anthocharis damone Boisduval 1836 on the island, or 
indeed, the Southern small white, Pieris mannii Mayer 1851. 

My wife chose an attractive-looking hotel from the Horizon holiday 
brochure and I approved its location along the north-eastern coastline, 
on the cliffs below Mount Pantokrator, and well away from the over- 
developed tourist resorts that now sadly spoil the island's natural 
beauty. The habitat is essentially rough Mediterranean garrigue on a 
steep hillside above cultivated olive groves down to the sea, without a 
significant coastal belt, but with a wonderful variety of wild plants. At 
Barbati, we were close to the area in which Baldock collected 
(Baldock & Bretherton, 1981) and to a number of sites described by 
the Durrells. 

My first foray was a short walk at 10am on 10th May 1995, and within 
200 metres of the hotel the first butterfly we saw was a wonderful 
surprise - a bright yellow male Anthocharis damone that eventually 
settled obligingly at the side of the path to allow positive identification. 
I subsequently took a few males and one female, and found them quite 
typical. For three days they were common in this location, though 
worn, but thereafter they were scarce, though I did find one straggler 
there on 20th May. The only other site on the island at which A. 
damone was noted was just five kilometres away, but higher up the 
slopes of Pantokrator, at about 400 metres, on the footpath from Nissaki 
towards the deserted village of Sinies and (eventually) the summit. As it 
turned out, this was not a new record for Corfu, as I had been beaten 
to it by Showler (1984) and Bernhard (Tolman & Bernhard, 1994). Both 
of these collectors had taken it along the same strip of the north-eastern 
coastal hillside. 

176 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 34 

The second butterfly that morning was also an unfamiliar delight, in 
the form of the Southern swallowtail, Papilio alexanor. In the same 
locality this was also quite common, being very mobile between the 
open glades on the hillside, and often flying in groups of three or four. 
Individual insects were quite variable in size and colour, from dwarf 
forms “too small for a Swallowtail” to large faded specimens that could 
easily be mistaken for the Scarce swallowtail, /. podalirius, which was 
also on the wing in increasing numbers towards the end of our stay. In 
flight the difference was quiet noticeable, with P. alexanor behaving 
more like a fluttering mini-machaon than with the easy-gliding 
elegance of I. podalirius. Whilst the normal Swallowtail, P. machaon is 
found on Corfu, I did not identify any with certainty, although the 
fennel shot up from 10 centimetres to an astonishing two metres during 
our stay. 

My first day's tally counted out at 21 species, although a couple of 
these took several repeat visits to confirm. As the days went by we 
visited other localities, watched while new species emerged and found 
a few lucky singletons, generally adding one or two species to the list 
each day. In all, I reached a count of 42 — a very satisfactory 57% of the 
known total. We made car excursions to the northern and southern tips 
of the island, to Lake Korission and to the summit of Mount Pantokrator 
(900 metres). The weather seemed to conspire to deny us satisfactory 
collecting opportunities on these excursions, with wind or cloud 
limiting what was on the wing so we saw the range of habitat the 
island has to offer without finding anywhere to beat Barbati for 
butterfly diversity. ‘The ‘species ‘recorded in Table .1- were, alli tound 
within a five kilometre walk of Barbati, except where specifically noted. 

The Whites needed to be watched with care, they did in 
Cyprus (Parker, 1983). Neither the Large white P. brassicae nor the 
Small white P. rapae were at all common, but both were flying in small 
numbers. Also present were the Green-veined white P. napi, the Wood 
white L. sinapis, the Bath white P. daplidice and the Dappled white 
Euchloe ausonia. See Cribb (991) for an explanation of the past 
misuse of E. simplonia. In May I found both the first brood and the 
much larger second brood specimens flying together. 

Two female Southern small whites Pieris mannii (Mayer 1851) were 
taken on the hillside above Barbati at about 300 metres on 22nd May 
1995. At the time, I did not appreciate the significance of this catch, and 
only on returning home did I realise that P. mannii is a new record for 
Corfu. It is hardly surprising though, as the type locality for P. mannii is 

4 Volume 55 + August 1996 ay 

to Italy 
65 miles 

Ag. Spiridon 





eee: Barbati 
Ag. Giorgios 



Vido ls. 


Mon Repos 


Val di Ropa Potamos 

Ag. Gordios ponlsen 

Ag. Mattheos 
Cape Lelkimo 
SKETCH MAP Lake Korisson 
10 Miles 
| aa 

just along the Adriatic coast at Split, and the insect is known from Sicily 
as well as the Greek mainland. 

Another good find amongst the Pieridae was Krueper's small white P. 
krueperi, a new species for me. Its heavy hindwing markings made it 
look large in flight, but I had only taken one until the last day, when I 
netted a clumsy flier which turned out to be a pair of P. kruepari in 
cop. They remained paired for at least 30 minutes in captivity and I 
decided to bring them home with me. Regrettably the female turned up 
her nose at the Suffolk substitute for sunshine, and refused to lay on 
the potted alyssum I had offered. 

178 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society Lo 

The excellent Windrush Island Guide to Corfu (Coleman & Mewton, 
1991) gives useful biogeographic guidance with some notes on flora, 
birdlife and reptiles and helped me to choose where to go. Future 
visitors might like to note some possibilities: 

Mount Pantokrator (914 metres). The summit, with its monastery 
spoiled by tall communications masts, is on the tourist trail and can 
be approached on a metalled road via the villages of Strinilas or 
Petalia. The last four kilometres or about 100 metres vertically, is 
better suited to four-wheel-drive or walking; the terrain becomes 
more open above the market garden patchwork near the villages. 
This area is unique on the island, but was not productive in May. 

Ag Deka (576 metres). The more southern range of hills is less 
rugged and more verdant than Pantokrator. The Achillion palace lies 
in its foothills and its garden is often mentioned in records. This area 
could present good collecting later in the season. 

Corfu town. There are two notable gardens in Corfu town that are 
worth a visit. The first is the British Cemetery, a well-tended, heavily 
wooded garden with an interesting selection of orchids and 
headstones amongst which I saw the only Red admiral Vanessa 
dtalanta noted. Mon Repos, birthplace of the Duke of Edinburgh, is 
set in an extensive public garden where admission is free for those 
who can find the gate. Although the palace is in a sad state of 
repair, the coastal setting and the three ancient Greek temples are 
worth a look. Most of the gardens are in the heavy shade of tall 
conifers, and this was the only location in which Ifound the 
Speckled wood Pararge aegeria despite keeping my eyes open in 
many apparently suitable habitats elsewhere. 

Ag Spiridon. The Andinioti lagoon and the adjacent beach of Ag 
Spiridon with its sand lillies were a favourite haunt for the Durrell 
family. The northernmost tip of Corfu lies nearby and presents a 
low-lying rocky coastal habitat rather different to other rocky shores. 
Here I found the Balkan marbled white Melanargia larissa in some 
numbers and a single Grayling. 

Coastal footpath. A clifftop footpath runs from Nissaki to Kassiopi 
and passes through a variety of habitat and productive collecting 
localities. I saw my only Hipparchia syriaca amongst pines beside 
the path and my only Gegenes pumilio on the rough hillside nearby. 

od Volume 55 + August 1996 179 

A large tortoise shared the path with us through the olive groves, 
and expecting to find another when we investigated noises in the 
adjacent undergrowth, we were surprised to find a very long snake! 
Higher up the cliffside I later identified a Balkan whip snake of 
about two metres, basking in the sun. Conveniently, the bus route 
from Corfu to Kassiopi follows a similar route, so it is possible to get 
off the bus so as to use the coastal footpath in convenient segments. 
A special memory of this route is the lingering aroma of herbs 
crushed underfoot and wonderful views of the coastline and 
adjacent Albania. 

Above Nissaki. A stiff climb through the villas comprising Viglatsouri, 
the hamlet at the southern end of Nissaki, gives access to some 
serious long-distance walking routes through National Park area, up 
to the deserted village of Sinies, beyond through the foothills and up 
eventually the summit of Mount Pantokrator. We covered about 18 
kilometres from Barbati to Sinies and back and found it agreeable in 
May, though it would be extremely hot in high summer. Spanish 
broom and diverse wildflowers at the edge of the track (passable by 
4WD/motorbike) attract a good variety of butterflies from the 
surrounding meadows, and the route gives a good transect through 
typical 200-400 metre biotope (and up to 914 metres for those with 
stamina). On the sun-baked stone path we found bees and wasps 
congregating in large numbers and got a close look at the 
(poisonous) Sand viper, which is only about 15 centimetres long, 
but clearly marked. It was able to move swiftly and smoothly across 
the rocks and up a vertical sandstone cliff! 

Lake Korission. Divided from the sea by a barrier of sand dunes, 
Lake Korission is set in a wild and undisturbed area of marshy 
sandlings that proved fruitful for diptera (McLean, 1983) and could 
well repay further exploration. 

One special delight in May is the spectacle of the Fireflies. They 
become active (or visible?) just after dusk and fly at a constant 
height, flashing regularly like mini airliners with anti-collision 
beacons. They fly mostly in straight lines, so they are easy to net 
and to fetch indoors for inspection. They continued to emit and sat 
at our bedside flashing like electronic alarm clocks. We saw 
relatively few moths, but enjoyed one daytime sighting of a Striped 
hawkmoth Celerio livornica, hovering and feeding just an 
armslength away. Another attractive insect seen was the ascalaphid — 

180 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 4 

a colourful relative of the larger ant-lions; I am familiar with the 
yellow winged Ascalaphus macaronius, but at Ag Spiridion I also 
saw one with pale purple markings, and very attractive it was too. 

Species List 

Alain Olivier has put a great deal of work into the butterflies of the 
Greek Islands (eg. Olivier 1987, 1993) and he has updated the species 
list in Bretherton & Baldock, 1981. His present listing for Corfu (Olivier 
1995) is reproduced here with his approval, as a baseline for showing 
the species I found in May 1995 (See Table 1). Additions to the Corfu 
list since 1981 include Pyrgus malvae (McLean 1983), Anthocharis 
damone (Showler 1984) and the migratory Danaus chrysippus 
(Vanholder 1993). In addition, a single Hyponephale lupina was taken 
by Dr Roger Dennis in an olive grove at Ag Stefanos, north of Agnitsini 
in August 1990. The specimen has been identified by Olivier and is 
now held in his collection. This information has not yet been published 
elsewhere, and thus comprises a new record for Corfu. 

Olivier has made a number of nomenclatural rationalisations to the 
list, and some provisional deletions. His listing of doubtful species is 
therefore included for the sake ‘of completeness. Some further 
taxonomic adjustments have been incorporated at the suggestion of 
Roger Dennis. The checklist of confirmed records runs to 74 species 
and I consider I did well to find over half of them (42) during a 
fortnight stay. 

Records for September 

By good chance, colleague Tony Dobson (AHD) visited the very same 
locality later the same season. Staying at Nissaki, he recorded 24 species 
during the period 16th - 22nd September 1995, and these are annotated 
“s” on the table. The September records add Papilio machaon, 
Muschampia proto and Lampides boeticus to my May (m) sightings, but 
otherwise reflect mainly common multiple brooded or enduring 
species. Pieris mannii was not amongst the whites found in September, 
but AHD was close to sea level, and did not get into the higher ground 
where I found it. Iam grateful for consent to publish on his behalf. 

The genus Hipparchia deserves a special mention here, since past 
records include too many species. Firstly there are the Rock grayling 
group which I saw and of which AHD took three examples. Two of 

= I I 


3 Volume 55 + August 1996 181 

these were sent to Kudrna and were positively determined as males of 
the Eastern rock grayling H. syriaca, and this is in line with earlier 
records. These specimens are now lodged in Kudrna's collection. I also 
took one Grayling (or Southern grayling) which presents an 
identification problem. Olivier is satisfied that H. volgensis is found on 
Corfu (pers. comm.), whilst Kudrna is equally satisfied with H. semele 
(pers. comm., updating Kudrna, 1977). Quite possibly both are right, 
and both are agreed that past records of H. aristaeus senthes should be 
considered invalid. Additionally there are past records of the Tree 
grayling Hipparchia statilinus, which we did not take. This makes at 
least three species of Grayling, and highlights the need for future 
visitors to Corfu to bring some males back for positive identification. 

A number of additional unconfirmed records have been submitted 

Lycaena thersammon by Peter Taylor (unpublished). 

Neptis rivularis, Thymelicus lineola, Gegenes nostrodamus by David 
Withrington (1995). 

These have not been included in the main checklist pending 
confirmation. Indeed, in the two years since his visit, Withrington has 
reconsidered and now believes that his record of N. rivularis should be 
discounted (pers. comm.). T. lineola he identified in the field, unaware 
that it had not previously been recorded. He did take one specimen of 
“G. nostrodamus’ and J took the opportunity to compare this very worn 
female with some of my G. pumilio from Cyprus and found it larger 
and distinct; quite possibly both G. pumilio and G. nostrodamus are 
found on Corfu, as on Crete (Coutsis & Olivier, 1993). 


I am grateful for the close co-operation of many colleagues in the 
production of this article, which has progressed from an account of my 
holiday to a well-researched species list which should be of value to 
future visitors to Corfu. In particular, thanks are due to Roger Dennis, 
Tony Dobson and Peter Taylor, who have allowed me to reproduce 
their otherwise unpublished records, to David Withrington for access to 
his specimens, to Otakar Kudrna for identification and advice on the 
genus Hipparchia, and above all to Alain Olivier whose painstaking 
research created this updated species list for Corfu. 

182 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Checklist of the 
butterflies of Corfu 
RP, May 1995 = m 
AHD, September 1995 = s 

Thymelicus sylvestris (Poda, 1761) 
m T. acteon (Rottemburg, 1775) 
m s_ Ochlodes venatus (Bremer & Grey, 1853) 
m s  Gengenes pumilio Hoffmannsegg, 1804) 
Erynnis marloyi (Boisduval, [1834]) 
m s_ Carcharodus alceae (Esper, 1780) 
m C. orientalis (Reverdin, 1913) 
m Spialia orbifer Hubner, [1823]) 
s Muschampia proto (Ochsenheimer, 1808) 
Pyrgus malvae (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Zerynthia polyxena ((Denis & Schiffermiuller], 
s Papilio machaon (Linnaeus, 1758) 
m P. alexanor (Esper, [1800] 
m s__ Iphiclides podalirius (Linnaeus, 1758) 
m s_ Leptidea sinapis (Linnaeus, 1758) 
m s_ Colias crocea (Geoffroy in Fourcroy, 1785) 
m s_ Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767) 
G. rhamni (Linnaeus, 1758) 


m Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758) 
m s_ P. rapae (Linnaeus, 1758) 

m P. mannii (Mayer, 1851) 

m P. napi (Linnaeus, 1758) 

m s_ P. krueperi (Staudinger, 1860) 
m Pontia edusa (Fabricius, 1777) 

m Anthochanis cardamines (Linnaeus, 1758) 


2 5 


Volume 55 + August 1996 183 

A. damone (Boisduval, 1836) 
Euchloe ausonia (Hubner, [1804]) 
Callophrys rubi (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Satyrium spini ([Denis & Schiffermuller], 1775) 

S. ilicus (Esper, 1779) 

Lycaena phlaeas (Linnaeus, 1761) 

L. ottomana (Lefebvre, 1830) 

L. alciphron (Rottemburg, 1775) 

Tarucus balkanicus (Freyer, |1844]) 

Leptotes pirithous (Linnaeus, 1767) 

Lampides boeticus (Linnaeus, 1767) 

Cupido minimus (Fuessly, 1775) 

Celastrina argiolus (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Pseudophilotes vicrama (Moore, 1805) 
Glaucopsyche alexis (Poda, 1761) 

Plebejus argus (Linnaeus, 1758) 

Aricia agestis (Denis & Schiffermuller], 1775) 
Polyommatus thersites (Cantener, 1835) 

P. icarus (Rottemburg, 1775) 

Libythea celtis (Laicharting, 1782) 

Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758) 

Charaxes jasius (Linnaeus, 1767) 

Limenitis reducta (Staudinger, 1901) 

Nymphalis antiopa (Linnaeus, 1758) 

N. polychloros (Linnaeus, 1758) 

Inachis io (Linnaeus, 1758) 

Vanessa atalanta (Linnaeus, 1758) 

Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus, 1758) 

Aglais urticae (Linnaeus, 1758) 

Polygonia c-album (Linnaeus, 1758) 

P. egea (Cramer, [1775]) 

Argynnis pandora ((Denis & Schiffermtller], 1775) 
A. paphia (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Issoria lathonia (Linnaeus, 1758) 


aR Artic | 

YN Oh fi, pp WPI 
Sl ‘ 7] vip 

184 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society a 

Some observations on the pairing and egg-laying habits of the 
Saturniid moth Dictyoploca simla Westwood 

by Mark Pickup (5749) 

42 Dean Street, Derby DE22 3PS. 

Late in the autumn of 1994 several cocoons of the attractive Indian 
silkmoth Dictyoploca simla started to hatch. Originally I obtained these 
as Ova at an entomological fair earlier in the year. The resultant larvae 
were reared on hawthorn (in my opinion the best foodplant for this 
species) throughout the summer months. The cocoons produced were 
large and seemed to vindicate my choice of pabulum. 

The first moth emerged on 11th November — a very colourful male 
with a wingspan of 13cm. No partner being readily available, it was 
confined to a netting cage in an unheated room, a temperature of 
approximately 57°F, cool enough I assumed to ensure inactivity. 
Unfortunately, I discovered at a later date that the temperature in the 
average November in northern India is almost identical. This probably 
explains why a midnight cage inspection revealed a tattered moth 
vigorously expending all its energy in flight. 

A female simla emerged on 14th November, a fine large specimen 
with a wingspan of 15cms. However, the likelihood of a pairing being 
achieved now seemed slim. Both moths were placed inside a cylindrical 
netting cage, suspended from the ceiling. Again the temperature 
remained cool. From dusk onwards the male proceeded to flap 
aimlessly around the bottom of the cage whilst the female “called”. On 
the morning of 15th November I found there were 18 obviously infertile 
eggs oviposited in the cage. No pairing had occurred. Luckily, during 
the afternoon, a further two male simla emerged. Although a pairing 
was now extremely unlikely, I decided to experiment. 

The largest of the fresh males was left undisturbed in the small, 
square rigid emerging cage. The female was then _ introduced, 
temperature and conditions being exactly as before. The following day 
an early morning inspection revealed the moths to be in copulation, 
cramped together in the top corner of the cage. Oddly a further 33 
infertile ova had been laid before the pairing took place! 

The pair separated at approximately 10pm that evening. To my 
surprise and disappointment no eggs whatever were laid during the 
night. I decided at this stage to confine the female sim/a straight away 
to a small cardboard box measuring 17x10x7cms. At the same time the 

ae Volume 55 + August 1996 185 

temperature was raised to 75 F, in the hope that this would promote 
the laying of some viable ova. Although the moth had just encountered 
daybreak and would quite obviously be confused, it suddenly became 
active within the darkened chamber. The box vibrated violently. These 
false conditions seemed to suit! 

During the following two days 168 fertile ova were deposited in two 
separate batches, concealed underneath a cardboard flap inside the 

box. All of these eggs subsequently hatched the following year in late 

My experience with Dictyoploca simla was encouraging, proving 
that despite infertile ova being laid, success can still be achieved. 

Red admirals and washing lines — Part 2 
by Roberta Gunnell (6132) 
2 Springfields, Lower Moors Road, Colden Common, Winchester, Hampshire SO21 1SH. 

I regularly find Red admirals on my washing line at various times of the 
day. They usually rest on white or light-coloured articles and on the 
sunny side of the line. Earlier in the year Small tortoiseshells may also 

be found there. They seem to be sunning themselves or cleaning their 

Red admirals and washing lines — Part 3 

by Don Madin (10023) 

32 Kinross Road, Chesterton, Cambridge CB4 1OY. 

Following the notes on unusual sites for Red admirals in Bulletin 404, 
the photograph (Plate 960, Figure 5) may be of interest. It was taken at 
Plas Brondanw, Gwynedd on 8th September 1995, a mainly dull though 
mild day with several sunny periods. The photo also shows the 

unwelcome attention of birds, a large section of one wing having been 

In common with other parts of the country, both this species and the 
Painted lady (Cynthia cardui) were present in high numbers. 

186 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 34 

The occurrence of seaweed flies (Diptera: Coelopidae) at 

by Simon Hodge 

Ecology Centre, Science Complex, University of Sunderland SR1 3SD. 


Wrack beds are accumulations of seaweed washed ashore by high 
spring tides or during storms. The wrack usually persists on shore until 
it is washed away by a subsequent storm or by the next high spring 
tide. Previous works have described a characteristic dipteran fauna of 
wrack beds, prominent members of which are species belonging to the 
family Coelopidae (eg. Backlund 1945; Egglishaw 1960). Many previous 
investigations into the dipteran fauna of wrack beds have utilised 
populations situated on the north-east coast of England, mainly those 
from Whitburn, formerly in County Durham but now part of the Tyne 
and Wear district, to Seahouses on the Northumberland coast (eg. 
Egglishaw 1960; Dobson 1974, Rowell 1965; Phillips & Arthur 1994; 
Phillips et al. 1995). In distribution maps the species studied appear to 
be absent from an area of coastline south of Whitburn to the Tees 
estuary but present once more at sites south of the Tees (Dobson 1974; 
Phillips et al. 1995). Dobson's (1974) map describes the area of 
coastline between Whitburn and the Tees as definite absences; that is, 
where a survey has been performed but the species studied not located, 
as opposed to simply lack of record. As sizeable strings of wrack have 
regularly been observed on the rocky beaches at Hartlepool, to the 
north of the Tees, the absence of coelopids at this site appears 

The aim of this investigation was to “re-survey” the beaches at 
Hartlepool for the presence of Coelopa frigida Fabricius and C. pilipes 
Haliday. Included in the study was another, morphologically similar, 
dipteran species which also utilises wrack beds, Orygma luctuosum 
Meigen. This latter species was once classified as a coelopid (eg. 
Egglishaw 1960) but is now placed in the Sepsidae (Pont 1979). 


On three occasions in July 1995 samples of wrack material were taken 
from a shingle beach south-west of the Huegh breakwater on the 
Hartlepool headland (“Block Sands”; Grid ref, NZ 530334). Samples 
were taken by cutting around a one litre container and quickly placing 
it into a plastic bag. Two one litre samples of wrack material were 

34 Volume 55 + August 1996 187 

taken on each sampling occasion. The flies were extracted from the 
wrack material by flotation; placing the sample in a bucket of 
concentrated saline and catching flies as they floated to the surface. 

The site was visited a further three times in September and October 
1995. On these latter occasions sampling was carried out using a hand- 
held portable vacuum cleaner (Black & Decker, Spennymoor, Co. 
Durham) to capture adult diptera around the wrack beds. Wrack 
material was agitated and shingle and boulders lifted in order to disturb 
the flies. Each sample consisted of the flies captured in a ten minute 


The catches of adult Diptera belonging to the genera Coelopa and 
Orygma are summarised in Table 1. Both species were found, both in 
the wrack material and in the vacuum samples. The site was quite 
diverse in terms of wrack-inhabiting diptera; the anthomyiid, Fucellia 
maritima Haliday, the sphaerocerids Thoracochaeta zosterae Haliday 
and T. brachystoma Stenhammer, and members of the Empididae were 
also found at the site. 


The results of the survey confirm the occurrence of two species of 
Coelopa and the sepsid Orygma Iluctuosum on wrack beds at 
Hartlepool. The omission from previous distribution maps may have 
been due to chance, although the contagious distribution of flies under 
rocks and stones and generally affinity with wrack material makes them 
readily found if actually present. It is known that populations of these 
species fluctuate a great deal in size (eg. Egglishaw 1960) making it 
possible that the species were not recorded because the surveys were 
carried out at a population low point. Another possibility is that the site 
has recently been colonised, either from populations south of the Tees 
or from the well-established populations further north. The occurrence 
of coelopids at Hartlepool may suggest that other definite absences 
given on the earlier distribution maps may now contain these species. 
Further surveys at sites between Hartlepool and Whitburn may resolve 
this problem. 

188 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 3 


Backlund, H.O. (1945). The wrack fauna of Sweden and Finland. Opuscula 
Entolomologica Supplement V. 

Dobson, T. (1974). Studies on the biology of the kelp-fly Coelopa in Great Britain. 
Journal of Natural History 8: 155-77. 

Egglishaw, H.J. (1960). Studies on the family Coelopidae (Diptera). Transactions Royal 
Entomological Society, London 112: 109-140. 

Phillips, D.S. & Arthur, W. (1994). Observations on the distribution of seaweed fly larvae 
and other invertebrates within a wrack-bed. Entomologist 113: 154-63. 

Phillips, D.S., Leggett, M., Wilcockson, R., Day, T.H. & Arthur, W. (1995). Coexistence of 
competing species of seaweed flies: the role of temperature. Ecological Entomology 20: 

Pont, A.C. (1979). Sepsidae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects Vol. X, Part 
5 (c). Royal Entomological Society of London, London. 

Rowell, M.J. (14905). A sexual dimorphism in the proventiculus of adults of Coelopa frigida 
(Fabricius), with notes on a similar occurrence in C. pilipes (Haliday) (Diptera: 
Coelopidae). Proceedings Royal Entomological Society, London (A)40: 109-73. 

Sample type Wrack samples Vacuum samples 

Date 14.7.95 16.7.95 20.7.95 8.9.95 16.9.95 26.10.95 
Agel) are i) 
C. frigida males 
C. pilipes male 
O. luctuosum males 


Table 1: Summary of adult fly captures from wrack beds at Hartlepool. 

A Grayling tree in the Ardeche, France, 1994 

by Matthew Rowlings (9108) 

87 School Road, Stretford, Manchester M32 SDL. 

Passing through the fabulous scenic Gorges de l'Ardeche in central- 
southern France one afternoon in August 1994 we had a few hours to 
spare sO we stopped near the northerly end of the limestone gorge at 
the Pont d'Arc. Mother and sister were both happy sunning themselves 
on the popular beaches beside the Ardeche River. The Pont d'Arc itself 
was a marvellous spectacle of natural engineering — a jagged limestone 



tS] Volume 55 + August 1996 189 

bridge over crystal clear waters. A very short distance to the south the 
road dog-legs back on itself up a narrow valley. One side of this valley 
was grassy scrub-land and my father and I saw this an an opportunity 
for a walk with promising lepidopterous possibilities. 

Parking at a nearby resort we walked the 30 seconds away from the 
hustle and bustle of toursim to the quiet of our valley. The small stream 
responsible for the cutting of the valley kept the riverside vegetation 
green, but all other plants were suffering from dryness — the grasses 
were thoroughly dried out. Life for animals was also difficult and 
insects were not numerous. There were, however, a few isolated 
patches favourable to the Common and Chalkhill blues (Polyommatus 
icarus and Lysandra coridon). 

Along our route we found three typically Mediterranean species that 
were probably at the northern edge of their distributions. They were a 
single Southern small white (Pieris mannii), a Southern gatekeeper 
(Pyronia cecilia) and a Dusky heath (Coenonympha cecilia). The 
dryness and heat of this limestone area may have allowed these 
northerly incursions. 

Our walk up the valley was prematurely ended by a fence that had 
been driven across it. Several fierce dogs growled and barked at us 
from the other side and successfully deterred us from proceeding. A 
track led along the opposite side of the stream to a house to which the 
fenced-off areas evidently belonged. The only way to continue up the 
valley was along this track. The narrow band of flattish ground between 
road and stream was cultivated but a healthy hedge grew up on one 
side. Odd Graylings were disturbed from small fig trees dotted along 
this hedge but they were so fast that they evaded capture. A couple of 
trees grew opposite the hedge in a dampish patch of grass. The air 
beneath the largest of these fig trees was particularly pleasant — cool, 
still, shady. The odd fruit had fallen and begun rotting beneath it. It was 
very nice just to stand there but we had to share it with the Graylings 
that enjoyed the atmosphere like we did. The lichen-covered bark was 
ideal cover for Graylings and the shade was what many browns look 
for in such hot dry places. Four species of Grayling were concentrated 
on this tree — a single Grayling (Hipparchia semele), 10+ Great banded 

_ graylings (Brintesia circe), 3+ Striped graylings (Pseudotergumia fidia) 
and 4+ Woodland graylings (1. fagi). They all rested on the trunk and 

lower branches often in close proximity to one another. Occasionally 
they would start flying together (some noise disturbance perhaps) but 

~ usually there would be one or two circling a few times before settling 
_ in a different part of the tree. 

190 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 34 

I have seen such a Grayling congregation once before, also in a hot 
dry part of France. In the garden of a rural gite in the Dordogne were 
several lichen-covered plum trees. In August the Graylings here were 
the Great banded and Woodland graylings. The Dryad (Minois dryas) 
was also involved. The fruits were very ripe and many plums had fallen 
and begun rotting. These seemed an irresistible attraction for the above 
species. There is, however, a difference between the Ardeche fig tree 
and the Dordogne plum trees. None of the butterflies in the Ardeche 
were interested in the rotting fruit. Perhaps the Ardeche butterflies had 
filled up in the morning but I don't recall the Dordogne butterflies 
being particular about what time of day they fed. 

For whatever reason the Ardeche fig tree was a true “Grayling tree” 
and would be a stimulating subject for a behavioural study. 

Important Notice 

The AES Exhibtion is free entry to all members 
on production of pass enclosed with this Bulletin. 
Please complete the details on the pass and bring it 
to the exhibition. 

so please remember it! 

a6 Volume 55 + August 1996 

The collection of the late Ronald John Gooseman 
of Bearsted, Kent 

by Tim Newnham (4597) 

7 Whitemans Close, Cuckfield, Haywards Heath, West Sussex RH14 5DE. 

I have recently acquired the above collection from the daughter of the 
late Mr Gooseman who did not want to keep it but wanted it to go toa 

fellow entomologist. 

I, therefore, thought that the data from the collection would be of 

interest to readers of the Bulletin. 

Some of the specimens had deteriorated so much that it was 

impossible to preserve them. These are as follows: 


Ringlet (Aphantopus hyperantus) 
Adonis blue (Lysandra bellargus) 
Adonis blue (Lysandra bellargus) 
Common blue (Polyommatus icarus) 
Dingy skipper (Erynnis tages) 
Marbled white (V. galathea) 

Those specimens which are preserved and now in my possession are 

as follows: 


White admiral (Ladoga camilla) 

White admiral (Ladoga camilla) 

White admiral (Ladoga camilla) 

Red admiral (Vanessa atalanta) 

Red admiral (Vanessa atalanta) 

Peacock Unachis io) 

Peacock Unachis io) 

Small tortoiseshell (Aglias urticae) 

Large tortoiseshell (NV. polychloros) 

Small heath (Coenonympha pamphilus) 
Small heath (Coenonympha pamphilus) 
Small heath (Coenonympha pamphilus) 
Small heath (Coenonympha pamphilus) 
Silver-washed fritillary (Argynnis paphia) 
Silver-washed fritillary (Argynnis paphia) 
Silver-washed fritillary (Argynnis paphia) 
Silver-washed fritillary (Argynnis paphia) 

Where taken 

Tonbridge, Kent 

Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bude, Cornwall 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 

Where taken 

Tonbridge, Kent 
Tonbridge, Kent 
Tonbridge, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
No data 
Tonbridge, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
Tonbridge, Kent 
Tonbridge, Kent 
Tonbridge, Kent 
Tonbridge, Kent 










No data 

192 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society tL] 

Comma (Polygonia c-album) Bearsted, Kent 1945 
Comma (Polygonia c-album) Bearsted, Kent 1945 
Comma (Polygonia c-album) Bearsted, Kent 1945 
Comma (Polygonia c-album) Bearsted, Kent = 1945 
Comma (Polygonia c-album 

var. hutchinsoni) Tonbridge, Kent 09.07.1950 
Duke of Burgundy frit. (Hamearis lucina) Bearsted, Kent 02.06.1951 
Pearl-bordered frit. (Boloria euphrosyne) Tonbridge, Kent 08.06.1950 
Pearl-bordered frit. (Boloria euphrosyne) Tonbridge, Kent 06.1949 
Pearl-bordered frit. (Boloria euphrosyne) Tonbridge, Kent 06.1949 
Pearl-bordered frit. (Boloria euphrosyne) Tonbridge, Kent 08.06.1950 

Small pearl-bordered frit. (Boloria selene) 
Small pearl-bordered frit. (Boloria selene) 
Small pearl-bordered frit. (Boloria selene) 
Small pearl-bordered frit. (Boloria selene) 
Brown argus (Aricia agestis) 

Chalk-hill blue (Lysandra coridon) 
Holly blue (Celastrina argiolus) 

Holly blue (Celastrina argiolus) 

Large skipper (Ochlodes veratus) 

Large skipper (Ochlodes veratus) 

Large skipper (Ochlodes veratus) 

Large skipper (Ochlodes veratus) 

Small skipper (Thymelicus flavus) 

Small skipper (Thymelicus flavus) 
Silver-spotted skipper (Hesperia comma) 
Silver-spotted skipper (Hesperia comma) 
Grizzled skipper (Pyrgus malvae) 
Grizzled skipper (Pyrgus malvae) 
Grizzled skipper (Pyrgus malvae) 
Grizzled skipper (Pyrgus malvae) 

Green hairsteak (Callophrys rubi) 

Purple hairstreak (Quercus quercus) 
Small blue (Cupido minimus) 

Small blue (Cupido minimus) 

Common blue (Polyommatus icarus) 
Small white (Pieris rapae) 

Small white (Pieris rapae) 

Small white (Pieris rapae) 

Small white (Pieris rapae) 

Large white (Pieris brassicae) 

Large white (Pieris brassicae) 

Large white (Pieris brassicae) 

Large white (Pieris brassicae) 

Kynance Cove, C'wall 07.08.1949 
Kynance Cove, C'wall 07.08.1949 
Kynance Cove, C'wall 07.08.1949 
Kynance Cove, C'wall 07.08.1949 

Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
Tonbridge, Kent 
Bude, Cornwall 
Bude, Cornwall 
Bearsted, Kent 
No data 

No data 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
Bearsted, Kent 
No data 

No data 

No data 

No data 


~ 07.1950 



No data 
No data 
No data 
No data 
No data 
No data 




No data 
No data 
No data 
No data 

Volume 55 

Green-veined white (Pieris napi) 
Green-veined white (Pieris napi) 
Green-veined white (Pieris napi) 
Green-veined white (Pieris napi) 
Green-veined white (Pieris napi) 
Marbled white (Melanargia galathea) 
Orange tip (Anthocharis cardamines) 
Orange tip (Anthocharis cardamines) 
Orange tip (Anthocharis cardamines) 
Clouded yellow (Colias croceus) 
Clouded yellow (Colias croceus) 

Clouded yellow (Colias croceus var. helice) Newquay, Cornwall 
Clouded yellow (Colias croceus var. helice) Newquay, Cornwall 
Clouded yellow (Colias croceus var. helice) Newquay, Cornwall 
Clouded yellow (Colias croceus var. helice) Newquay, Cornwall 

Brimstone (Gonepteryx rhamni) 
Brimstone (Gonepteryx rhamni) 
Brimstone (Gonepteryx rhamni) 
Speckled wood (Pararge aegeria) 
Speckled wood (Pararge aegeria) 
Black-veined white (Aporia crataegi) 
Black-veined white (Aporia crataegi) 
Grayling (Hipparchia semele) 
Grayling (Hipparchia semele) 
Grayling (Hipparchia semele) 
Grayling (Hipparchia semele) 
Meadow brown (Maniola jurtina) 
Meadow brown (Maniola jurtina) 
Meadow brown (Maniola jurtina) 
Meadow brown (Maniola jurtina) 
Wall (Lasiommata megera) 

Wall (Lasiommata megera) 
Gatekeeper (Pyronia tithonus) 
Gatekeeper (Pyronia tithonus) 
Painted lady (Cynthia cardui) 
Painted lady (Cynthia cardui) 

¢ August 1996 

Bearsted, Kent 1947 
Bearsted, Kent 1947 
Bearsted, Kent 1947 
Bearsted, Kent 1947 
Tonbridge, Kent 09.05.1950 
Bude, Cornwall 1946 
Bearsted, Kent 1947 
Bearsted, Kent 1947 
Tonbridge, Kent 1950 
Bearsted, Kent 08.1947 
Newquay, Cornwall 08.1947 




Bearsted, Kent 1949 
Bearsted, Kent 1950 
Bearsted, Kent 1950 
Tonbridge, Kent 07.05.1950 
Tonbridge, Kent 07.05.1950 
Found in cabinet ? 
Found in cabinet ? 
Bearsted, Kent 08.1949 
Bearsted, Kent 08.1949 
Bearsted, Kent 08.1949 
Bearsted, Kent 08.1949 
Bearsted, Kent 08.1949 
Bearsted, Kent 08.1949 
Bearsted, Kent 08.1949 
Bearsted, Kent 08.1949 
Bearsted, Kent 08.1949 
Bearsted, Kent 08.1949 
Bude, Cornwall 08.1949 
Mullion, Cornwall 08.1946 
Bred 1949 
Bred 1949 


As can be seen from the above list the butterflies were very varied in 
the 1940s and '50s around the Bearsted area and Mr Gooseman was 
able to capture some rare and now extinct species, including the Large 
tortoiseshell and several fritillaries and hairstreaks. 

I hope this data is of interest to entomologists in the Bearsted area 

and can be used to update any records that may be kept. 

194 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 34 

Notes on the reappearance of Lycaenid butterflies 

by Ted Rimington (5269) 

& Riverside Drive, Sprotbrough, Doncaster DN5 7LE. 

I was interested to read Peter Tebbutt's note (Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc. 
54:(402) October 1995) on the reappearance of the Brown argus (A. 
agestis) at sites in Leicestershire. It reminds me of similar incidents 
which I have experienced with this species and with the Lycaenids in 

My parents retired to Eastbourne in 1970 and I have since been in the 
habit of paying regular visits to the district in late May and often in 
August. I quickly learned of and visited many of the best local butterfly 
sites including Ashdown Forest, Abbott's Wood, Beachy Head, Firle 
Beacon and various other downland sites at and around Eastbourne. In 
those days the fritillaries were regularly met with, the Adonis blue 
(Lysandra bellargus) flew in plenty and the Silver-spotted skipper 
(Hesperia comma) could also be found where today, sadly, nostalgia 
has largely taken their place. I also visited Vert Wood (Laughton). 

In 1983 this latter site remained both pleasant and fruitful and in that 
year I recorded thirty-one species of butterflies — excluding migrants — 
in two or three visits and also an excellent second brood of Small 
pearl-bordered fritillary (Boloria selene) in late July; for a northerner, 
an unexpected pleasure. More interestingly, however, was the sudden 
appearance of a healthy colony of agestis in early August of that year 
in the wood, at a spot immediately adjacent to the crossroads near to 
the old sawmill. This is an area that I have walked regularly over the 
years and never have I seen the species there or anywhere else in the 
wood before or since, although local lepidopterists may correct me on 
that score. Nor did I confuse agestis with the Common. blue 
(Polyommatus icarus) which in my experience is very rarely 
encountered at Vert. 

Interestingly, in August 1985 I observed several examples of the 
butterfly at a restricted spot in Abbott's Wood, a locality which I had by 
then visited many times without any sign of the species. Abbotts was 
already in sad decline when I first knew it in 1970 due largely to the 
activities of the Forestry Commission and my visits in recent years have, 
therefore, become irregular. In any event I have never seen agestis 
there since. Small wonder the decline, I once spoke to a Head Forester 
in Abbotts who replied to my protestations of vandalism, “we would 


plant cabbages here if it paid”. 

34 Volume 55 + August 1996 195 

The impact of the Vert sightings on me was quite startling and 
though less dramatic, reminded me of the oft quoted account by J.F. 
Stephens of the explosive appearance and just as sudden disappearance 
in 1827 of the White-letter hairstreak (S. w-album) at Ripley in Surrey 
Cllustrations of British Entomology Vol. 1): “. . . lit] exceeded anything 
of the kind J have ever witnessed .. .”. 

This sort of behaviour by Lycaenids — though rarely so extreme as in 
Stephen's account — is not unusual and is well known to lepidopterists. 
It is characterised by rapid and unexpected population fluctuation in 
known colonies and the real or apparent emergence of new colonies, 
occasionally in startling profusion. The effect is usually more impressive 
when it Occurs with naturally secretive species such as the hairstreaks 
which may also be present at low density and, therefore, unrecorded. I 
recall a most dramatic population explosion of w-a/bum at a Doncaster 
site — again in 1983 — while in 1991, after many years of virtual absence, 
the Holly blue (C. argiolus) took off here only to collapse into obscurity 
again wits the summer brood of 1993. Yet again in 1983, the Green 
hairstreak (C. rubi) was recorded for the first time ever at Thorne Moors 
(Doncaster), an internationally famous site worked by naturalists for 
two hundred years or more. I suspect that the butterfly has always been 
there but that the activities of the peat cutters in recent years have 
rendered spots of the moor now more suitable than previously. Neither 
are more mundane Lycaenids immune. I have seen healthy colonies of 
the Small copper (1. phlaeas) seemingly disappear temporarily while 
nearby colonies continue to thrive oblivious an second broods of icarus 
apparently go missing causing the unwary to declare the species locally 
single-brooded. I think we have all seen similar incidents. 

As to the foodplant, Vert wood is heavy and common rock-rose (77. 
nummularium) is absent. To my discredit I did not search diligently for 
common —storksbill CE. cicutarium) but noted herb’ robert (G. 
robertianum). However, as George Thomson says in his superb book, 
The Butterflies of Scotland, much work requires to be done on the 
relationship of artaxerxes to its foodplants and, therefore, of course 
agestis also. 

Mr Tebbutt has a nice little project to hand — if the colonies will hang 
around long enough for him to complete it. 

Published 20th August 1996 by the Amateur Entomologists’ Society 
(Registered Charity No. 267430), from PO Box 8774, London SW7 5ZG. 



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LUNI bb zy Moy AUNGaV) 

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B\ RACECouRse BYyy 



of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society 


C. Raper. Unusual/Rare species seen in South Oxfordshire. ................escesseeeseeseeeeees 
M. Rowlings. Cruel death for Peck’s skipper while the Harvester is collected nearby. 

Cheesequake State Park, New Jersey, USA. 10th August 1995. ...........-.2::.-eseeeeceseee 
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T. Newnham. The collection of the late Ronald John Gooseman of Bearsted, Kent. . 

Short Communications 
¥: Morton. The Small white in-Australia. 2.0 2 
A. Emmerson. Out of season. TOmnMmeOiG. i i522. .-2e.cecees doce ee 
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M. Pickup. Some observations on the pairing and egg-laying habits of the Saturniid 
moth Dictyoploca’simla Westwood. <2... 
R. Gunnell. Red admirals and washing lines — part 2. ............:cesceeseeeseeseeeseeseeeseereeeees 
D. Madin. Red admirals and washing lines — part 3. ............sessescescesceseseeseesceseeeeeeeeeees 
T. Rimington. Notes on the reappearance of Lycaenid butterflies. ...............seeee 

Exhibition Report for 1995... ooo. <.-n.-sacsnseoce cots es acu can csteccnen ote aoe eee 

Book Review 

— Insects & flowers: A biological partnership ...........:.:c1:c1ssseseeseeeees 

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Br he ee 
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of the Amateur Entom 

Volume 55 ¢ Number 407 October 1996 


The trade of insects, both livestock and deadstock, continues to raise 
controversy in the Society. The AES Insect List, comprising species 
listed on recognised conservation lists, produced a variety of responses 
from interested parties. On one hand, members were applauding the 
Society for introducing measures which would help to aid the 
conservation status of amateurs, on the other we had members 
questioning what we were intending to achieve, other than to threaten 
the Society’s future. 

The range of views that were received made it clear that before the 
Society implemented any form of policy on the trade of invertebrates, 
all affected parties must be given the opportunity to express their 
views. This therefore meant that the policy was withdrawn for the 1996 
exhibition and traders were informed of this prior to the event, the 
POlicvestevcrine— aS in - previous years, to the rules of trade in 
invertebrates issued by the DoE. 

Council therefore urges all members and other interested parties to 
comment on the future trading policy in invertebrates to the AES 
Trading Policy, PO Box 8774, London SW7 5ZG by 31st January 1997. 
This will then allow the Council to consider all views and implement its 
policy by the end of April 1997. 

The exhibition itself was once again a success. Well over 1000 people 
attended the event, a high proportion of which were members, and the 
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| this space for more details. 



198 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ee 

Monographia Rhapalocerorum Sinensium by 

Prof. Dr Chou Io and 50 other Chinese Lepidopterists. 
22x30cm, Clothbound, 2 volumes (August 1994), 910 pages with more 
than 5000 coloured photographs. Published by Ilenan Press of Science 
and Technology, Henan, China. ISBN 7-5349-1199-1200/S.325. Price 
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This is the first complete monograph of the Chinese butterflies 
(including Taiwan and Hong Kong) dealing with 12 families, 367 
genera, 1227 species and 64 species which are reported from China for 
the first time. All the species and subspecies are illustrated with 
coloured photographs of either or both sexes. More than 90 per cent 
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English descriptions and illustrations of their wing patterns and/or male 
genitalia, as well as coloured photographs. 

Please send your order and cheque to: The Bank of China Shaanxi 
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od Volume 55 «* October 1996 199 

Observations on Microplitis ocellatae, Bouché (Braconidae: 
Microgastrinae), a gregarious endoparasitoid of the 
Poplar hawkmoth caterpillar, Laothoe populi Linn. 

by Hewett A. Ellis (9940) 

16 Southlands, Tynemouth, North Shields NE3O 2QS. 


Part of my work with the red-spotted form of the Poplar hawkmoth 
caterpillar (Ellis, 1993; 1995) has involved the rearing of stock collected 
from the wild. In several seasons some of the caterpillars from Preston 
Cemetery, North Shields, have proved to be parasitised by a 
hymenopterid (braconid). The purpose of this communication is to 
describe and illustrate some of the features and behaviour of the 
parasitoid, which has been identified by Dr Mark Shaw of The Royal 
Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, as Microplitis ocellatae Bouché 
(Braconidae: Microgastrinae). The term “parasitoid” is applied here in 
preference to the more usual “parasite” since the host is eventually 
killed (Shaw & Askew, 1976; Shaw, 1990). 

M. ocellatae is also known to parasitise caterpillars of the Eyed 
hawkmoth (Smerinthus ocellata L.) and Lime hawkmoth (Mimas tiliae 
L.), but neither of these moths has been recorded in north-east England 
in recent years (Dunn & Parrack, 1986) and I have no_ personal 
experience of their parasitisation. The present observations are based 
on caterpillars collected from poplar trees in Preston Cemetery during 
1992, 1994 and 1995 and which subsequently were fed on poplar or 
willow leaves. 

Life history of M. ocellatae 

I have not witnessed ovipositing but the female M. ocellatae inserts up 
to several dozen ova through one or possibly more than one site in the 
cuticle of the caterpillar. At first the caterpillars appear normal, but in 
the autumn, when approaching maturity, they become less active and 
cease to feed. The multiple parasitoid larvae are internal feeders 
(endoparasitoids) and as they reach maturity their presence is 
sometimes indicated by local pallor and swellings which undergo 
writhing movements. Both yellow-green and blue-green colour forms of 
the caterpillar may be parasitised. Having completed its growth each 
parasitoid larva emerges through a separate hole in the cuticle of the 
caterpillar. Most emerge more or less at the same time from any one 
caterpillar and are crowded on the surface (Plate 96Q, Fig. 1). 

200 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ad 

Emergence occurs mainly in the last week of August, but in the case of 
two caterpillars collected late in the 1995 season (17th September) this 
did not occur until 2nd and 5th October respectively. The larvae are 
moist and shiny, pale grey-coloured and maggot-like with recognisable 
segments outlined in black and with a dark dorsal longitudinal line. 
Without further feeding each rapidly spins a buff-coloured cocoon of 
glistening fine silk threads. These are attached to the carcass of the 
unfortunate caterpillar and form a contiguous mass or several masses of 
individual cocoons projecting from it (Plate 96Q, Fig. 2). The cocoons 
are very tough and some show a slight longitudinal surface ridging. The 
caterpillar may remain alive for 24 to 48 hours after emergence of the 
parasitoid larvae and moves if disturbed. In those which I have 
observed in captivity the parasitoid larvae have emerged at a time when 
the host caterpillar still clung to the foodplant and had not undergone 
the colour change or become moist as it usually does in preparation for 
pupation in the soil. Eventually the caterpillar shrinks and mummifies 
and the attached surrounding cocoons persist overwinter. 

The adult parasitoids emerge from the cocoons the following late 
spring and early summer. In captivity indoors I have found the adults to 
commence emerging as early as 8th April (1995) with 31 individuals 
from one caterpillar continuing to emerge until mid-May. On another 
occasion adult parasitoids comprising a brood of 36 from one caterpillar 
did not commence emerging until 17th May (1993). Greater numbers 
sometimes occur, for example, there were 51 and 53 parasitoids, 
respectively, in two caterpillars collected in September 1995, and these 
started to emerge as adults 20th May 1996. 

Although a few species of hymenopterans overwinter as adults in the 
cocoon most do so as pre-pupae and the actual pupal and pre- 
emergent adult phase is short-lived (Shaw, 1995, pers. comm.). I have 
opened several cocoons of M. ocellatae in early springtime and found 
what I take to be pre-pupae and not overwintering adults. The adult 
parasitoid remains in the cocoon and extends its wings prior to 
emergence. An exit is achieved by making a complete circular cut 
through the main cocoon wall towards one end and pushing aside the 
pole which frequently remains hinged by a few outermost silken 
threads. The exit hole measures 1.4 to 1.5mm in diameter (overall the 
cocoon measures 5.5mm long and 2.5mm in widest diameter). Each 
cocoon, after emergence, can be seen to have a smooth and _ shiny 
lining and to contain shrivelled larval exuviae and some tiny nodules of 
cream-coloured material which is presumably meconium. Further 

1 Volume 55 * October 1996 201 

similar meconium is excreted by the adult after emergence. One 
individual adult was observed to have emerged from its cocoon with 
the exuviae firmly caught in a hind leg tarsus. The exit holes in any one 
aggregate of cocoons are often at the same poles of neighbouring 
cocoons giving rise to a honeycomb appearance, but this is not 
invariable and sometimes holes occur at opposite poles of immediately 
adjacent cocoons. 

The adult parasitoids are small (forewings each 4.5mm long; body 
length 3.7mm; antennae each 4mm), dark insects with characteristic 
braconid wing venation. The head capsule, antennae, thorax and 
abdomen (shiny) are black as are the coxae and hind leg tarsi, the 
remainder of the legs being golden brown (Plate 96R, Fig. 3). 

Synchrony of life cycles of parasitoid and host 

The observed timing of the emergence of the adult parasitoid indicates 
that M. ocellatae is univoltine and this is in synchrony with the 
univoltine life cycle of local Poplar hawkmoths. The tough parasitoid 
cocoon is eminently suited to provide long-term protection overwinter. 
In the absence of the Eyed and Lime hawkmoths I assume that the 
Poplar hawkmoth is the sole host for M. ocellatae in this locality. Like 
others of the Microplitis genus M. ocellatae is a haemolymph feeder. 
Being gregarious and with so many larvae per brood a large caterpillar 
is more or less a necessity. 

Parasitoid overwintering strategem 

Some comment is necessary regarding the location of the parasitoid 
cocoons overwinter. As described above, in captivity, the cocoons are 
formed attached to the host caterpillar whilst it is still on the foodplant 
and this pattern also occurs in the wild. Thus Dr Shaw (1995, pers. 
comm.) informs me that he has received broods collected as cocoons 
with dead L. populi host caterpillars on trees. This is an exposed 
situation and although the cocoons are tough, their chances of survival 
would be improved if they overwintered in leaf litter or below ground. 
Possibly in the wild the host carcass with attached cocoons at sometime 
falls to the ground and is protected overwinter amongst the leaf litter. 
Other times it seems that M. ocellatae larvae form their cocoons in the 
soil within what appears to have been a pupation chamber prepared by 
the host, but I have not personally witnessed this latter type of 

202 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society t 

Effects of parasitoid on the Poplar hawkmoth population 

Clearly the presence of M. ocellatae must have some impact on the 
dynamics of the local Poplar hawkmoth population. The nature of the 
present observations does not permit an assessment of the degree of 
this impact. Indeed the apparent frequency of parasitisation may itself 
be misleading. Thus the parasitised host caterpillars are slower than 
normal to develop and any degree of parasitisation observed towards 
the end of the season may be spuriously exaggerated since unknown 
numbers of healthy caterpillars have already gone to earth to pupate. 


M. ocellatae is a regular gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the Poplar 
hawkmoth in Preston Cemetery, North Shields. It is univoltine in 
synchrony with the life history of local Poplar hawkmoths and 
Overwinters in the immature state within the protection of a tough 

I am grateful to Dr Mark Shaw for his help and encouragement and for 
the determination of the parasitoid Microplitis ocellatae. 


Dunn, T.C. & Parrack, J.D. (1986). The Moths and Butterflies of Northumberland and 
Durham, Pari 1 Macrolepidopiera. The Vasculum, Supplement No. 2. pp. 122-123. The 
Norther Naturalists Union, Houghton-le Spring. 

Ellis, H.A. (1993). Observations on the red-spotted form of the larva of the Poplar 
hawkmoth, Laiboe populi Linn. The Vasculum, 783): 32-50. 

— , (1995). The red-spotted form of the Poplar hawkmoth larva. Bulletin of the Amateur 
Entomologists’ Society, $4: 11-13. 

Shaw, M.R. (1990). Parasitoids of European butterflies and their study. In: Butterflies of 
Europe Vol. 2, Introduction to Lepidopterology, Ed. O. Kudrna. Aula-Verlag, Wiesbaden. 
pp. 449-479. 

Shaw, M.R. & Askew, R.R. (1976). Parasites. In: The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain 
and Ireland Vol. 1. pp. 24-50. Ed. J. Heath, Harley Books, Essex. 

en eran 

be Volume 55 + October 1996 203 

Alleged overcollecting: could we have evidence and 
understanding please? 

by Brian Gardiner (225) 

2 Highfield Avenue, Cambridge CB4 2AL. 

I see from the latest proposals regarding changes to the Wildlife and 
Countryside Acts concerning species considered to be endangered, that 
although habitat destruction or degradation due to natural causes is 
clearly the main concern, allegations are made that collecting is also a 
problem and for a few species trade in them is considered to be a 
serious threat. I think by now we are all aware that a successful 
prosecution was brought against two individuals, one of whom was 
found guilty of offering for sale 14 wild-caught specimens of the 
Chequered skipper (Carterocephalus palaemon) which was an offence 
under the Act, although catching them was not. The second individual 
was found guilty of the same offence, but got off more lightly as he had 
bought some specimens in good faith believing them to have been 
legally bred by the first. While these two individuals were prosecuted 
no action whatsoever was taken against the individuals or firms who, 
on English Nature's own admission in their Annual Report, damaged 
over 100 of our finest wildlife SSSI sites. We have, therefore, insofar as I 
am aware, only a single publicised example in Great Britain of the 
illegal offering for sale of an endangered species. I have not come 
across any instance of a successful prosecution for the collecting of an 
endangered species nor has action been taken against the far more 
destructive activity of destroying a habitat and killing the species in it. It 
appears you may kill with impunity provided you do not retain the 
bodies and offer them for sale! On the other hand there is only 
suggestion, inuendo and rumour, which may or may not be true, and 
which some individuals like to think is happening on a large scale, that 
considerable collecting of rare and endangered species occurs. I would 
like to see published some concrete evidence that could stand up in a 
court of law (witnesses, photographs perhaps) from the people and 
organisations that are quoting collecting as being a danger to scarce 
species, although I do appreciate that without monitors or undercover 
agents such evidence may well be difficult to come by. I see on 
television and read in the press accounts of the illegal collecting and 
trade in birds and their eggs, mammals and plants. The only successful 
prosecutions that I have come across for illegally collecting and trading 
invertebrates has been in the United States where a small fine and 

204 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ee 

community service was the punishment for collecting and selling 
protected butterflies, but a nine-year prison sentence for smuggling and 
dealing in rather a large number of the spider Brachypelma smithi (All 
Brachypelma species are now added to CITES Appendix II). I have not 
yet come across accounts of other illegal collecting of insects or other 
invertebrates, but have seen reports about the apparently legal damage 
that is being done in the Philippines by overcollecting of shells and of 
sea cucumbers off the Galapagos islands. The illegal catching of wild 
birds and their eggs is also well publicised and prosecutions have been 
brought for illegally digging up wild plants, mainly bulbs. 

Quite frankly it really puzzles me that, for the Marsh fritillary 
(Eurodryas aurina), while loss of unimproved grassland is the main 
threat “collection also poses a serious threat” and for the Large copper 
(Lycaena dispar) “collecting at the single release site (Woodwalton Fen) 
is a problem.” CU understand that the fritillary is really being put on 
because of its place on the Berne Convention, reflecting its serious 
decline in Europe.) The coppers have been on the Fen since 1923, so 
either they have successfully resisted collecting for threequarters of a 
century, or the collecting of them is a very recent problem and, if so, 
who has witnessed it and why have we not had a statement from 
English Nature (Manager of the Fens) or other responsible body, 
published in the Entomological press asking for it to cease? If, as I have 
been informed, the inclusion is to “protect” a new attempt at re- 
introduction elsewhere, then why should the coppers elsewhere be in 
any more danger than they have been formerly on Wicken and 
Woodwalton Fens? Since I have known both the Fens and their 
wardens for nigh on fifty years, I can state that collecting has never 
been a problem during that time. Unsubstantiated allegations do no 
credit to the conservation cause. Frankly, I do not believe collecting has 
ever been a threat. 

Until recently the stock on the Fen was re-inforced for many years by 
the assiduousness of the wardens in maintaining a captive bred stock 
for this purpose. In any case, why, I ask myself, does anyone go and 
collect either of these species, for both of them are exceptionally easy 
to breed and are readily available from those that do so? The late Peter 
Cribb maintained a colony of the Marsh fritillary for nearly forty years, 
giving away many thousands to anyone who requested some. The 
Large copper too is now widely bred in captivity. The economics of 
collecting for sale of either species is absurd and would nowhere near 
cover the cost of collecting them. Having seen a film of a Large copper 

og Volume 55 «© October 1996 205 

being caught, not by a collector, but by a reed bunting (Emberiza 
schoeniclus) who then fed it to its parasitic nestling, a cuckoo (Cuculus 
canorus), | wonder who are the real culprits in catching coppers and 
how many more went into that ravenous beak. I have also witnessed 
birds catching more butterflies in an hour than I could hope to catch in 
a day and this does rather put human collecting into its proper 
perspective. Indeed a collector or two charging around after butterflies 
is likely to scare off the birds after the same prey. Even Steven's! 

It may be that butterflies were once so prolific in the tropics that it 
was more economical to catch them than to rear them in the past, but I 
am now reliably informed that in many cases this is no longer so, due to 
greatly increased demand, and species such as Morphos are now reared 
using artificial diets and many of the butterflies now to be seen in the 
butterfly houses are being reared in quantity in countries such as 
Malaysia. In Papua New Guinea rearing Birdwing butterflies for sale is a 
cottage industry actively promoted by the Government. Surely for rare 
endangered species such activity should be encouraged here. That 
successful breeding can destroy the rapacious dealer from catching for 
profit is perhaps best exemplified by the case of the Clifden non-pareil 
(Catocala fraxini). In the 1930s genuine English specimens changed 
hands for £5 (two to three weeks wages for many!). In the 1950s it was 
successfully bred in its thousands causing a complete price collapse and 
indeed I and others could hardly give them away when we had them. 
The present going rate for them is the equivalent of the 1930s 2/- (10p!). 

Between about 1925 to 1950 the Swallowtails (Papilio machaon) on 
Wicken Fen were rationed and permits were given to catch six 
specimens only (of any or mixed stages) and the Large coppers were 
not to be taken at all. Since collectors were therefore being put on their 
honour — there were no checks — I believe these restrictions were 
scrupulously observed. It was not collecting but the wartime ploughing 
and drainage — pure “habitat destruction” — that put paid to their 
existence on the Fen. Since there will always be those who must “catch 
it myself”, I do wonder whether the introduction of a “permit” system 
for certain rare species, which would seem capable of withstanding a 
slight loss might not be an advantage, as this would again put people 
“on their honour” not to exceed their quota. The fact that a population 
on such a small area as Wicken Fen could sustain a limited loss to 
collectors for so many years is surely an argument that other species, 
which may be even more widespread, could equally sustain limited 
collection and while one can never overlook the fact that there might 

206 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society Qed? 

be rogue collectors around, the majority will respect a limited permit 
system, for, after all, it is in all our interests to make sure that over- 
collecting does not take place and exterminate the species we wish to 
see there in the future and as in the piscatorial industry where permits 
and “rationing” is in place this is in the main strictly observed and does 
more to conserve stocks than restrictive legislation. The well-publicised 
Code of Insect Collecting may be followed by some but it is only a 
“code” whereas “permit” implies an obligatory restriction on how many 
specimens may be taken and is far more likely to be observed. Just 
who is to issue them remains a problem. Perhaps the landowner (from 
whom permission to collect on his land must be sought in any case) 
would be the best person, but this arrangement might be better 
organised by such responsible bodies as English Nature or the Local 
Wildlife Trust. 

I am informed that collectors descend on new arrivals or newly 
discovered species and, in the case of the Scarce chocolate tip moth 
(Clostera anachoreta) may have wiped out the new arrival. At the risk 
of being heretical I would ask if this really matters. Not all species that 
arrive can, for whatever reason, be expected to survive and spread. We 
have, however, (see below) gained far more species than we have lost 
and, in spite of collectors, new arrivals such as the Varied coronet 
(Hadena compta), the Perlucid pearl (Phlyctaenia perlucidalis) and the 
Saxifrage plume (Stenoptilia saxifragae) have spread and become 
relatively common over a wide area. 

A number of species are known to be very localised. In particular 
both the Marbled green (Cryphia muralis impar) which only occurs in 
Cambridge and the Silver barred (Deltote bankiana), a pretty and 
sought-after moth, which occurs mainly on two Cambridgeshire fens 
where it has been assiduously collected for over a century and yet 
remains common on the fens. A clear case of species being able to 
sustain collection pressure. Why? We need research to be done on the 
reasons when on the same fens the Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), 
the Reed tussock (Laelia coenosa), and the Rosy marsh moth (Eugraphe 
subrosea) became extinct and in no way was this due to collecting and 
nor would legislation have prevented it. Early this century the Black- 
veined white (Aporia crataegi) became extinct, almost certainly due to 
use of insecticides on hops. The reason the Large blue CVaculinea 
arion) became extinct is without doubt due to myxamatosis in rabbits 
which so reduced the grazing of its habitats that they became 
unsuitable to sustain the ants on which its life-cycle depended. That the 

a Volume 55 + October 1996 207 

Large tortoiseshell (Nymphalis polychloros) also recently declared 
probably extinct, became so is most likely due to either habitat or 
climatic change. It was on the edge of its range and it is interesting that 
while it was in decline its relative Nymphalis xanthomelas was steadily 
extending its range from Russia to France: how nice it would be if it 
became established in Great Britain (it is already bred here and reports 
of sightings are likely to have been due to escapees). In no way were 
collectors to blame for any of the above three extinctions and this 
makes me wonder if passing legislation will in any way prevent future 

I also believe that the inclusion of the Swallowtail in the original 
Wildlife and Countryside Act, as a “Flagship” species so I understand, 
(“. . sneaked on apparently because it is pretty and MPs have heard of 
it.”) not because it was in any real danger, was a serious physiological 
error, as it not only put many people’s backs up against the Act, but 
resulted, due to the confusion and misunderstanding concerning 
captive breeding, in the destruction of many thousand specimens that 
were then being reared in captivity. I also believe that the “collector” is 
considered to be a soft target who can be blamed for causing 
extinctions, whereas the landowners of the habitats are hard nuts with 
influence. When the Wildlife and Countryside Act of 1981 was 
proposed and passed into law, while professionals and perhaps a few 
individuals of organisations and such as the JCCBI and various 
appropriate Societies were consulted, this was in the main to their 
appointed representatives and little or no opportunity was given to the 
multitude of amateur entomologists to express their views, nor has any 
such consultation, until very recently, been made possible since by 
widely publicising proposed changes to the Act. 

It is my opinion that greater regard and understanding would be 
given to collecting restrictions if much fuller publicity were given in the 
entomological press as to which species were becoming, or were likely 
to become, endangered together with stated reasons, based on sound 
research data, as to why I, for instance, as the editor of two 
entomological journals never received any Official notification of the 
details of the proposed original Act, nor of proposed changes to it 
since, so that they could be published and the views of the readers 
sought, although of course I did hear of and receive unofficial and 
unconfirmed reports. It was not, of course, until some years after the 
1981 Act that reports and explanations of it were published and the 
British Red Data Book 2: Insects was published by the Nature 

208 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society pe 

Conservancy Council in 1987. It is, after all the thousands of amateur 
entomologists, collectors to a man or woman in the past who have 
been responsible for our present knowledge of both the species that 
occur and their distribution; not the legislators who seem determined to 
stamp out further recording. 

It is not easy unless perhaps one is an avid reader with access to a 
library (or subscribes to a couple of dozen publications!) to find out the 
present state of play concerning potentially endangered species. I had 
no idea until the recent proposed changes, that either the Stag beetle 
(Lucanus cervus), which I have always regarded as common, nor the 
Fiery clearwing (Bembecia chrysidiformis), also common even though 
in a restricted area, were endangered. For the Siag beetle I understand 
its inclusion is due to its sharp decline, like the Marsh fritillary, on the 
continent, leaving Britain as its major stronghold. For the Fiery 
clearwing it is of course the advent of the Channel Tunnel and its 
associated roadworks between Cheriton and Dover combined with the 
degradation of Folkestone Warren that is responsible for its being 
endangered, not collecting which it was well able to withstand. I have 
seen it stated that removal of its foodplants is a threat. Such removal is 
already illegal (unless the landowner's permission has first been 
sought). While there is clear evidence that some of its foodplants have 
been dug up, there is no published evidence that this was by 
entomologists, since plant collectors could be just as blameworthy. I 
completely fail to see how making the collecting of the moth also 
illegal will solve the situation unless the law can be strictly enforced by 
having the habitat under constant police surveillance (security cameras 
installed?). An unlikely scenario! However, I am _ informed that 
conservation measures are now being taken to restore the habitat to 
make it suitable for the active spread of its foodplant which was 
becoming smothered by stronger vegetation, which is a far greater 
threat than any collecting. As was the case with the Clifden nonpareil, 
the many thousands that were bred originated from only a few wild 
females being captured. My own breeding of some thousand 
individuals in the 1950s all originated from the nine eggs I started with. 
Nearly all insects are very prolific, laying from a few hundred to some 
two thousand eggs. It does not take more than a few wild captured 
females to saturate the market and the belief in some quarters that 
“breeding is difficult” is a complete myth both from my own experience 
and that of others, although I will admit that “green fingers”, or an 
aptitude for creating the right conditions and spotting when things are 
going wrong before they do, comes into it. A number of species 

cre Volume 55 + October 1996 209 

(including butterflies) have been in continuous culture for some forty to 
fifty years, the oldest I know of, the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus since 

Many view with increasing cynicism, anger and frustration restrictions 
on collecting that are entirely due to Government's apparently complete 
disregard for preservation of habitats which it seems hellbent on 
destroying, such as (Gust before retiring from office) Dr Brian 
Mahwinney authorising the destruction or damaging of no less than 
four Wildlife sites by approving the exceedingly controversial route of 
the Newbury bypass. Also approved by an insensitive government has 
been the destruction of the Marsh fritillary Selar SSSI site for the sake of 
Opencast mining — as if a new coalmine on such a sensitive site was 
required when so many other coal mines were being closed due to lack 
of demand! The planned widening of the Al through Cambridgeshire is 
already doing immense environmental damage. The safest way to save 
species is to protect their habitats and this can really only be successful 
if they are in an inalienable ownership, as are already sites owned by 
English Nature, Butterfly Conservation and the National Trust. Indeed 
all our endangered butterfly species are known to occur on National 
Trust land, often on several sites and all but two species which are not 
considered to be endangered also enjoy their hospitality, so the future 
of these looks distinctly hopeful, for the Trust is aware of their rarity 
and takes its responsibilities for their welfare seriously. To buy further 
habitats takes money. Some 100 million pounds have now been given 
by the National Lottery to the performing arts, historians and archivists 
and similar causes. Although a tiny trickle has come from that source, is 
it not time for the nature lover also to benefit substantially from a 
source of revenue? I only hope the appropriate bodies are making 
strong applications for such funds. 

Enormous effort has gone into the re-introduction of both the Large 
copper and the Large blue (Maculinea arion) but when the Gypsy 
moth (Lymantria dispar) re-introduced itself of its own accord, it was 
immediately exterminated. Why? It was never a pest species in Great 
Britain and no evidence to substantiate the reason for the extermination 
appeats to have been published. Previous attempts to re-establish it 
before the present legislation on such activity was in force were 
unsuccessful. Is it not highly hypocritical to be so selective? 

To sum up, to legally ban a species from being collected while at the 
same time giving no protection whatsoever to its habitat(s), sometimes 
indeed actually authorising its destruction, is both illogical and 

210 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ae 

hypocritical. In any case no law is effective unless it can be enforced 
and seen to be enforced. A concentration on a sustained rearing 
programme of endangered species for sale would remove much of the 
incentive of dealers, if not of all collectors, to raid the reduced habitats. 
The botanists are already doing this. Botanic gardens in particular, 
collect and interchange seed of rare and endangered species, some of 
which are now commoner in cultivation than they are in the wild and 
there is no reason whatsoever why invertebrates should not be 
cultivated in the same way. Indeed a start on such a scheme is already 
in operation, albeit in a small way as yet, which has been organised by 
the Entomological Livestock Group. We need to think along these lines 
and we also need more information and certainly far more research on 
the reasons as to why species are becoming extinct and why they may 
need to be put on a protected list banning their collection. A far more 
cogent reason than blaming collectors is climatic change, habitat 
changes which include change of use, not just development for other 
purposes and also the slow drip of insecticides and herbicides into the 
environment which, while not killing the insects immediately, may have 
so contaminated the nectar flowers on which they feed (already 
drastically reduced by hedgerow destruction) that many pick up a sub- 
lethal dose affecting their survival and fertility or starve to death 
through lack of sustenance. Habitat separation is also a reason as even 
a new road can prevent the interchange of genetic material from one 
population to another and the huge arable fields created by hedge 
destruction to increase crop production under the CAP policies have 
caused habitats to become more and more spatially isolated as well as 
reduced in size. In particular we need to apply as much pressure as we 
can on the politicians to legislate for habitat protection — especially 
from their often insensitive and appalling road programmes and also, if 
it is a criminal offense to collect, then it must an equally criminal 
offence for anybody purposely to degrade, by any means whatsoever, a 
designated habitat. Otherwise we will have one law for the would-be 
collector and another Gnore favourable one) for the landowner. Back to 
the days of the 18/19th century game laws perhaps? 

To look on the bright side, while we hear a lot about species 
becoming endangered and extinct, we hear very little about species 
arriving and increasing in numbers. We forget, perhaps, that nothing is 
static; environments and climates change: species come; species go. 
Every year I see quoted in the Royal Entomological Society's journal 
Antenna lists of insects “new to Britain” of which there were 35 in 
1995. To take a few examples. We have gained six species of moths per 

oe Volume 55 + October 1996 211 

year over the past half century (335 between 1938 and 1992). Between 
1945 and 1964 Hemiptera increased from 1411 to 1627. Between 1945 
and 1976 flies increased from 5199 to 5950 and fleas from 47 to 57. For 
every species that has become extinct this century we have gained at 
least ten. 

I would like to thank Paul Batty, Paul Waring, Wayne Jarvis, Martin 
Harvey, David Shepherd, Alan Stubbs, Paul Sokoloff and Richard Jones 
for their helpful comments during the preparation of this article. 

) = 

Gh a Ss 7 The rise and fall of Melanic peppered moths 
AN \S 
by Denis F. Owen 

42 Little Wittenbam Road, Wittenham, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 4QS. 

The rise and fall in frequency of melanic (form carbonaria) Peppered 
moths, Biston betularia, is one of the best documented examples of 
observable evolutionary change. Melanic frequencies of 90% or more 
were recorded in and around areas of heavy industry and were 
maintained at this level until the late 1970s when a decrease in 
frequency began. The decrease has continued and at one site a melanic 
frequency of over 90% in 1959 has fallen to less than 18% in 1995. 
Similar changes have occurred and are still occurring in the American 
subspecies, Biston betularia cognataria. Indeed the melanic form may 
be decreasing at a rate of 1.2% a year which means that it will 
disappear unless some sort of stability occurs. Because of the 
exceptional interest of evolution in the Peppered moth, I suggest that in 
1996 a special effort is made to record the frequencies of all three 
forms: typical, carbonaria and the intermediate insularia. We need 
information from as many sites as possible from throughout the British 
Isles. The moth is readily caught in m.v. and similar traps. Many of us 
run traps in our gardens and it is from these that the best records are 
likely to be obtained as sample sizes should be adequate for numerical 
analysis. I would be delighted to receive records from the 1996 season, 
either in the form of a list of frequencies of typicals, carbonaria and 
insularia, or papered specimens which I can then score. In this way we 
should be able to build up a picture of the present status of melanism 
in the Peppered moth which can be compared with the past situation. 
If left much longer, it may be too late. I look forward to hearing from 
moth trappers prepared to participate in this project in the future. 

212 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society pe 

| Notes and observations: Some unusual courtship behaviour 

by John L. Gregory 

Lepidoptera House, Bodelva, Par, Cornwall PL24 2SZ. 

A remarkable courtship was observed on 15th June 1996 in the Tropical 
Butterfly House at Par Plant Centre in Cornwall, when a male 
Heliconius charitonius, which had emerged about two weeks earlier, 
was seen to be persistently chasing and repeatedly but unsuccessfully 
attempting to pair with a very freshly emerged female Papilio xuthus. 
The courtship lasted for perhaps about an hour ‘before the H. 

charitonius gave up. It is amazing that a male butterfly should be so 
very strongly attracted to a female of a species from a so 
completely different family. Perhaps he was 
“turned on” by the super-stimulus of a female 
so much larger than himself, despite the only 
rather vaguely similar coloration. Or, perhaps he 
might have been frustrated at being unable to find a 
female of his own species. 3 

These two species would never come together in the 
natural wild state, because of their widely different 
geographical distributions. 

Webb’s wainscot — an unusual record 

by Roger Hayward (2769) 

16 Gilmore Close, Slough SI3 7BD. 

I should like to record the capture, in my garden here in Slough, of a 
male A. sparganii (Webb’s wainscot) on the night of 29th July 1995. 
This is an unexpected record, in my view, of the distribution shown in 

I had previously taken a specimen in 1978, which I dismissed at the 
time as a vagrant from the coast. However, this second record raises 
other possibilities, especially as I took an A. geminipuncta (Twin- 
spotted wainscot) in 1990 and that R. /utosa (Large wainscot) turns up 
from time to time. 

Martin Albertini, the County Recorder for Bucks (Slough records still 

count as Bucks, although the county is now administratively in Berks), 
received a record of this species from the north of the county this year. 

a Volume 55 + October 1996 213 

Hibernating Heralds 
by Paul Sokoloff (4456) 

4 Steep Close, Green Street Green, Orpington, Kent BRO ODS. 

The Herald moth, Scoliopteryx libatrix (Linn.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) 
is reasonably common over much of the British Isles, although it is 
seldom seen in any numbers except when one chances upon the 
overwintering group — the second brood of the moth hibernating, often 
communally, in cool, dark places. I have come across up to 14 
individuals together in a coal cellar in Croydon, Surrey but cannot rival 
the “several hundreds” encountered by A.G. Carolsfeld-Krausé 
overwintering in a chambered barrow (Entomologist’s Record (1900) 72: 
36). He describes the roof stones of the barrow as “densely covered . . . 
the moths . . . sat so closely that they touched each other’. 

More recently, R.K.A. Morris and G.A. Collins published a study of 
hibernating moths in an abandoned fort at Box Hill, Surrey. They included 
the Herald in their study, and they followed the fate of the moths through 
the winter and spring months (Entomologist’s Record (1991) 103: 313). 
On the continent, the Herald is well known as a cave hibernator. The 
species has a wide Eurasiatic distribution, although becoming a scarcer 
species in southern Europe. 

In early August 1995, I was on the island of Madeira — off the west 
coast of Africa. Whilst walking along the Levada da Rocha Vermelha, an 
artificial irrigation channel high in the mountains, I came across a long 
tunnel feeding water into the /evada at an altitude of around 2800 feet. 
The rock tunnel, cut through the mountain, was about two metres tall 
and very, very long. Water gushed through and there was a steady flow 
of air as the tunnel linked two valleys on either side of a mountain. 
Having a torch in the rucksack I could not resist exploring, as all sorts 
of interesting creatures can be found in caves, tunnels and the like. But 
the tunnel was barren — not even a spider's web, nothing except — 
Herald moths! Starting about five metres in from the entrance I found a 
handful on the rough rock of the tunnel roof and more and more as I 
went further into the tunnel. I stopped counting at 150 specimens, 
largely due to a crick in the neck from looking at the roof, but they 
continued for as far as I went in the tunnel. Remarkably, every single 
specimen was dead. All were hanging from the roof, and most had a 
coating of fine, filamentous, white mould, often exuding a drop of clear 
yellow fluid from the abdomen. 

214 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ae 

The dead moths were widely spaced and not clustered together as 
one might expect during the overwintering of this species. My 
conclusion was that these were simply the casualties, the other moths 
having flown off after successfully overwintering — if so, the original 
numbers in the tunnel must have been huge. Because of the condition 
of the moths, I guessed them to be the remnants of a recent hibernation 
rather than an accumulation of years. The few specimens I took were 
identical in all respects to our own Herald moth. 

The final puzzle was the concept of “overwintering”. Madeira has 
remarkably consistent weather throughout the year — yes it does rain a 
lot more, and even snow in the mountains during some months, but 
there is no long winter as we would recognise it. So does this species 
have some form of diapause programmed in, regardless of geographical 
location? I have no idea, but it is food for thought. 

H.G. Phelps of Crockerton, Wiltshire 

Members of the Society who knew Howard will, I am sure, be 
saddened to hear of his death in the summer of 1995. 

Apparently, Howard was found dead in his car in a remote 
area of Spain, his equipment by his side, having gone to Spain 
for a “bugging” holiday. His body was not discovered for 
several days. 

This “field trip” was typical of Howard’s later life when he 

made several “solo” trips abroad, including Arctic Scandinavia 
— but Spain was a great love for him. He kept his collection of 
Spanish butterflies until the end. 

Howard was an “all round” naturalist and sportsman and 
was a close friend of the other Wiltshire “greats”, General 
Lipscomb and Capt. A.L. Jackson. He also met Baron De 
Worms on several occasions. 

Farewell Howard, you “Man of the fields”. 
S. Button (7649) 

Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Fig. 1. Poplar hawkmoth caterpillar with recently emerged Microplitis ocellatae larvae. 
31st August 1992 (Slide x 1.5) 

Microplitis ocellatae cocoons. 15th September 1994 (Slide x 3) 


Volume 55 «+ October 1996 tf 

Aas - fuer oe a Renae 
Fig. 3. Microplitis ocellaiae adult parasitoid. Emerged April 1995. (Slide x 10) 

. Ge ae ae ered Sf Sy SN a yy eR ey ais la Ep] NE: 
Fig. 4. The Brown hawker (Aeshna grandis). Photo: Cedric Elliott. 


Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

ea eee e 
DeaRi SPE Mass 

So ee ee eee - = i es S eee ee 

Fig. 6. A close-up of the Museum beetle. Photo: Nick Holford. 


Volume 55 + October 1996 

Fig. 7. An unusual pairing between a male Cinnabar (Callimorpha jacobaeae) and a 
female Scarlet tiger (C. dominula). 


Fig. 8. The view of the unusual pairing through the cage side. 



ae Volume 55 © October 1996 215 

BDS Collective Knowledge Project update, 
Aeshna grandis, the Brown hawker 

by Stuart Irons 

69 Glinton Road, Helpston, Peterborough PEO 7DG. 

During the past year I have received about a dozen contributions to the 
Aeshna grandis Collective Knowledge Project. Some have revealed new 
information and others have opened up new lines of enquiry which I 
would wish to pursue. 


It is known that A. grandis (Plate 96R, Fig. 4) is well established in the 
Midlands, south and east, but I have received records of ovipositing in 
ponds just south of Darlington and in South Wales. It will be interesting 
to learn whether colonies of A. grandis are established in these areas or 
in any other parts of the north and west. 


I have received no information regarding larvae at all. So any Sites 
where A. grandis larvae have been found with as much information as 
possible would be useful. 


Has anyone witnessed A. grandis emerging? I have received information 
regarding emergence sites all found on the western bank of the 
Basingstoke Canal, a site which received early morning sun. Is this 


Male territory held over water has been described as about 100 metres 
along a canal or 50 square metres over open water. When males 
holding adjacent territories meet they spiral upwards with the lower 
insect, at the end of the spiral, invariably being the winter. Any 


It seems that A. grandis is rarely seen in pairs but when a pair is seen 
together they are usually in the “wheel” position and not in tandem. So 

/ where do they mate and for how long? Under what circumstances do 
_ they fly in tandem? 

216 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society oe 


I have received several delightful accounts of female Brown hawkers 
egglaying usually into waterlogged wood but if this medium is 
unavailable, soft mud or other vegetation is used. 

Resting places 

A. grandis is rarely observed at rest, however I have received two 
observations on this subject indicating that sites chosen are either very 
low down (within one foot of the ground) or high (over ten feet above 
the ground) invariably with a brown background. Has anyone observed 
other resting places for A. grandis? 

First and last dates : 

The first dates I have received vary between 20th and 29th June with 
last dates between 11th September and 11th October over a six year 

Flight times 

I have received one observation of a Brown hawker flying at dusk but I 
would be grateful for other detailed observations on this subject. Do 
they also fly early in the morning? 

These are a few, lines of enquiry which 1) with the (help) of my 
correspondents, have been pursuing. If anyone has any information on 
these or any other subject, I would love to hear from you. 

Unusual pairing: male Cinnabar (Callimorpha jacobaeae) 
female Scarlet tiger (C. dominula) 

by Don McNamara (5537) 

6 Fulham Close, Hillingdon, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB10 OSU. 

During a “hatch-out” of Scarlet tigers and Cinnabars (0th July 1996), 
both of which were in the same cage I spotted the above combination 
(Plate 90T, Figs. 7 & 8). They stayed in cop for most of the day, having 
paired presumably during the previous night. I isolated the female after 
parting at about 5.00pm and kept her well-fed — but no eggs. 

The Cinnabars were of west London origin and Scarlet tiger stock 
came from the “artifical” colony in west Merseyside. 

od Volume 55 * October 1996 217 

Notes on the insects and other invertebrates of an urban house 

by Stuart Cole (10159) 

24 Broom Close, Broom Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 OR]. 

For most of the past thirty years I have lived at a number of different 
addresses in the south-west London boroughs of Wandsworth and 
Richmond. In that time I have come across a quite interesting and 
varied insect fauna in houses in the area. 

The largest number of species were found in two flats in a row of 
late Victorian buildings on Putney High Street in the inner London 
borough of Wandsworth. The top three floors of the buildings 
comprised residential flats while shops occupied the ground floor along 
the length of the block and included a bakery and a restaurant. By 
1980, when the Greater London Council took over the ownership of the 
buildings, they were suffering the effects of years of neglect. The 
yellow-brown dry-rot fungus (Merulias lacrymans) had _ spread 
extensively beneath floor boards and under the plaster of walls and 
ceilings. Old seeping water pipes encouraged the growth of the fungus. 
The age and neglect of the buildings and the varied occupancy created 
the conditions for an insect fauna that included more than a dozen 
species of beetle. 

Of the 13 beetle species found, some are associated with stored 
foodstuffs and a few are omnivorous scavengers. At least four are 
introductions from abroad — probably most of them are — many species 
of insects and other animals have been commensals of man for so long 
that their countries of origin are uncertain. Some species were well 
established in the flats, being found year after year, while others, 
encountered only once or twice, may have been transitory or breeding 
in other parts of the buildings to which I had no access, eg. the bakery. 
The species were: 

Dermestes lardarius (Dermestidae) Bacon beetle. Common and _ also 
sometimes found outside the building on the roof and in pigeons nests 
on ledges. 

Attagenus pellio (Dermestidae). Several adults. 

Anthrenus verbasci (Dermestidae) Museum beetle (Plate 90S, Figs. 5 & 
6). All too common, sometimes found breeding in my insect collection 
while adults fed at flowers, especially composites, on the roof. 

Paratillus carus (Cleridae). A rare introduction from Australia where the 
species is said to prey on wood boring beetles of the Bostrychidae and 

218 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ae 

Scolytidae. An adult was found once in the flat, in a cupboard infested 
with Anobium striatum. It was a small slender beetle with metallic blue 
elytra crossed by a white stripe. 

Tenebroides mauretanicus (Ostomidae). Introduction from north-west 
Africa. Found only once. 

Mycetaea hirta (Endomychidae). Occasionally found wandering slowly 
about in the vicinity of dry-rot fungus on which it is said to feed. 

Niptus hololeucus (Ptinidae) Golden spider beetle. An introduction from 
south-east Europe. Common. 

Ptinus tectus (Ptinidae). Introduction from Tasmania. Frequent. I once 
came upon adults and larvae feeding on an old Afghan rug. 

Trigogenias globulus (Ptinidae). Common. 

Gibbium psylloides (Ptinidae) Spider beetle. Common. One source of 
food for adults of this species was the string in textured wallpaper. 

Anobium striatum (Anobiidae) Furniture beetle. Frequent. Larvae were 
present in the wood of floor boards, beams, cupboards and table legs. 

Tenebrio molitor (Tenebrionidae) Mealworm beetle. Adults very 
common and probably mostly originating from the bakery. Both adults 
and larvae feed on a wide range of foodstuffs, both fresh and dried, 
and other materials such as paper and feathers. 

Blaps mucronata (Tenebrionidae) Cellar beetle. Only one individual 
was found and this was on the roof, but as this is a flightless indoor 
insect a population must have been present somewhere in the 
buildings, perhaps the bakery. 

Of Hemiptera two occurred in the flats. One was the small and 
delicate predatory bug Empicoris vagabundus (Reduviidae) which is 
found in buildings and in a variety of habitats outside including 
woodland and sand-dunes. It was found twice but as this is a very 
inconspicuous insect and looks rather like a midge when in flight, it 
may actually have been more numerous. I did not discover what its 
prey was; possibly booklice (Psocoptera). The related, but much larger 
and more robust black Reduvius personatus is not uncommon in houses 
in the neighbouring borough of Richmond but I did not come upon it 
in Putney or elsewhere in London. 

The other hemipteran was the scale insect, Lecanium hesperidum 
(Coccidae) known as the soft brown scale. This formed colonies on a 
lemon tree (Citrus sp.) grown in the flat. The insects gathered on the 
underside of the leaves, mostly around the mid-vein. Since the females 




oé Volume 55 * October 1996 219 

of this insect are wingless and immobile when mature, and the plant 
was raised from a pip in the room it is a mystery how they came to be 
on the lemon tree. The adult female Lecanium is a flattish, oval, 
creature which is incapable of movement once it has reached maturity. 
The young are aphid-like and initially shelter beneath the mother’s 
carapace then, soon after becoming independent, change to the flat 
oval shape of the adult, gradually becoming less mobile. When the tree 
grew too large it was moved outside onto the flat roof and, surprisingly, 
survived for several years. The scale insects too, although undoubtedly 
Originating from a warmer climate, persisted. Their numbers dropped 
sharply during the cold months but recovered each summer. Many 
other kinds of plants were grown on the roof but Lecanium spread to 
only one — a small ivy (Hedera helix). 

On only one occasion in five years did I come upon what I think was 
the male of Lecanium. Like all scale insects the male is a very different 
looking animal and this one was a tiny winged aphid-like homopteran 
with an orange pronotum, greenish abdomen and filiform antennae. 
One year, many of the scale-insects were parasitised, probably by the 
little Chalcidoid wasps, less than two millimetres long, that were found 
searching the leaves of the lemon tree. In late summer dead adult scale 
insects each had a minute exit hole of their dorsal surface. 

Two kinds of cockroach were found in the building at different 
times; these were Blatta orientalis (Blattidae) and Blattella germanica 
(Blattellidae). In the 1960s the black wingless females of Blatta used to 
make an occasional appearance in the flats, particularly in the kitchen 
and bathroom. They were more common outside in a yard where the 
dustbins were kept and groups of Blatta lived under the bins or in 
loose brickwork at the base of the yard wall. The cats would also 
sometimes catch one of the fully winged brown males on the roof. 
Blatta was not seen in later years and it seems generally to have 
become less common in London while the smaller, light brown 
Blattella germanica has become quite abundant in some London 
restaurant kitchens and in council estate tower blocks. It was often seen 
in the restaurant on the corner of the block in Putney. Blattella came to 
Europe from North Africa but the original home of Blatta is uncertain. 
The big red-brown Periplanata autralasiae (Blattidae) is believed to 
originate from tropical Africa. This species thrives in the hot houses at 
the Botanic Gardens at Kew a few miles from Putney, especially in the 
tropical rainforest section of the Princess of Wales Conservatory where 
dead and dying cockroaches can be found in the pitchers of 
insectivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes. 

220 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society oe 

Two kinds of moth bred in the house. One was the well-known 
Clothes moth (Tineola biselliella) the larvae of which I discovered in 
large numbers in a metal trunk containing old wool rugs and a heavy 
woollen coat. They had been there for some time, perhaps for two, 
three or more generations as they had eaten holes right through the 
thick material. Pupae and the small plain whitish adult moths were also 
present. Each pupa was contained in a white silk cocoon with dark 
fibres from the coat attached. The other species was the Brown house 
moth (Hofmannophila pseudospretella) which, like the Clothes moth, is 
a small undistinguished-looking insect. This was particularly numerous 
one year around a window just above some pigeons’ nests where they 
were likely to have been breeding as the larvae of the species is known 
to feed in birds nests. 

Other insects in the buildings included the lithe thysanuran Lepisma 
saccharina (the “Silverfish”) which also occurred outside under bricks 
on the flat roof and under window boxes on ledges. Inside they were 
only found in the bathroom and this is the case with all other houses in 
which I have come upon Lepisma. Presumably only bathrooms supply 
the necessary humidity. Booklice were present in books and sometimes 
found in my insect collection. There were also the usual flies that 
commonly come into houses such as Musca domestica and Calliphora 
sps. These do not usually breed in houses but one that does is the odd 
Window fly (Scenopinus fenestralis) which at first glance looks a bit like 
a small black beetle. The species was often found resting or walking 
slowly over the inside of window panes. The larva was not discovered 
but is apparently predatory on insect grubs. Other flies probably 
breeding in the house were “Moth-flies” (Psychoda sps.) usually present 
around sinks where the larvae were no doubt living in the waste pipes. 
We had four cats in the flat and cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) numbers 
fluctuated from year to year. The eggs and larvae were to be found in 
the cats’ bedding; the larvae are white, legless and typically dipterous in 

The common black garden ant, Lasius niger, did not live inside the 
building but there were colonies in the soil of nearly every plant pot on 
the roof and the workers frequently came into the kitchen of the top 
floor flat to forage, especially searching for any sweet substances. 

As for other invertebrates, house spiders of the genus 7egenaria were 
common residents in Putney, most often seen when they ran across the 
floor in the evening, and they were found at most of the addresses | 
have lived at in London. Scytodes thoracica (Scytodidae), a small spider, 

oe Volume 55 « October 1996 221 

white with black spots, was common in the flats and was once also 
found among debris on the flat roof. It is a hunter and has an unusual 
method of catching its prey; spraying it with sticky threads, hence the 
common name of the spitting spider. Scytodes is an introduction from 
southern Europe which IJ have rarely seen in other buildings. Although 
it is well established in Britain it seems to me that the species has 
become scarcer in recent years while another introduced spider, the 
spindly legged Pholcus phalangoides (which makes inconspicuous 
webs in the corners of rooms just below the ceiling) has become very 
common in southern England although it was not found in Putney. 

The most unexpected inhabitant of the upper floors of the block in 
Putney was the yellow slug (Limax flavus). | found three in the early 
1980s, One On One occasion, two on another, at night on the floor in 
and just outside a bathroom that was particularly badly affected by dry 
rot. Probably they had emerged from under the broken floorboards 
which were permanently damp and beneath which fungal growth was 
well advanced. The species is known to live in cellars, as well as in 
woodland, but it is surprising that these individuals were present on the 
fourth floor of a building standing in a concrete yard. 

At my next address, a flat in a 1930s mansion block in Kew in the 
leafier London Borough of Richmond, there were very few house 
insects. Over ten years seven species of beetle were found but only two 
of these were permanently resident, the others were encountered once 
or twice or very occasionally. The species were: 

Dermestes haemorroidalis (Dermestidae). Larvae commonly found 
wandering about on the floor especially in the kitchen. The species is 
now very widespread in London. 

Anthrenus suranamensis (Cucujidae). Several adults in a tin containing 
white rice. 

Anobium striatum (Anobiidae). One in a tin containing icing sugar. 
Ptinis fur (Ptinidae). Several found once in an old cat basket. 

Tenebrio molitor. Found once. 

Euophryum confine (Curculionidae — Cossoninae). Found once. 

Other than these beetles there were only booklice (unidentified) and 
Lepisma sacharrina. Of spiders there were Pholcus phalangoides and 
Tegenaria sps. including T. parietina and T. gigantea. Although 
“indoor” species were few in kind, quite a number of normally outdoor 
insects, spiders and woodlice strayed inside and took up abode in the 
flat and hallways of the block. I don’t think any of these bred in the 

222 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ae 

building except for the common earwig (Forficula auricularia). For 
several years earwigs were everywhere, in cupboards, under chairs, in 
door frames. There were probably as many as 40 or 50 in the flat at any 
one time. Although no very young earwigs were found, half-grown 
immatures were quite frequent and the species may have been 
breeding but what they ate was not known. Few measures were taken 
to reduce their numbers but eventually they declined and almost 
disappeared from inside the flat. 

My next two addresses were in Twickenham and Teddington, both 
also in the Borough of Richmond. There were fewer house dwelling 
species still at these. Resident beetles were Anobium striatum at both 
addresses and Dermestes haemorroidalis and Anthrenus verbasci in the 
flat in Teddington. Two insects that both places had in common were 
Lepisma saccharina and the predatory bug Reduvius personatus. Of 
spiders, Pholcus and unidentified Tegenaria sps. are present in 
Teddington but no house spiders were noted in the few months spent 
in the house at Twickenham. 

do¢ Volume 55 © October 1996 223 

Some observations on breeding Moon moths 
(Lepidoptera: Attacidae). Part II 

by Michel Lamour 

Les Vallées, Rue des Grands Terrages, 85100 Le Chateau d'Olonne, France. 

Continued from Part 1, Bulletin 55: (406) 135-141. 

Genus Argema 

I have only bred two species: Argema mittrei and A. mimosae. 

Argema mittrei 

Breeding this species in Europe had long been considered impossible, 
as it is extremely difficult to obtain pairings in captivity. 

A friend of mine obtained some eggs for me, resulting from hand- 
pairings. This enabled me to make two attempts to breed this species: 
indoors in winter and outdoors in the autumn. Breeding indoors (see 
Bulletin of Société Sciences Nat. no. 63, September 1989). 

I received thirty eggs on 29th August 1986; they were sleeved 
outdoors on Eucalyptus gunnii (Myrtaceae). 

As no larvae had hatched after one month, the eggs were then 
transferred to a heated greenhouse (25°C) with a very high degree of 
humidity. As a result, 17 larvae hatched a week later, about 10th 
October, but only 15 survived. The 15 survivors were placed indoors on 
potted eucalyptus, in a well-lit south-facing position. 

Everything went well during the first two instars, until early 
November, but afterwards the larvae, which are normally very lethargic, 
started becoming active. I should have tried to find out at the time why 
the larvae had changed their behaviour; the eucalyptus was starting to 
die off indoors and as there was a lack of suitable food, the larvae 
started to look for another plant. 

As usually happens in such cases, a bacterial infection broke out, and 
I lost eight larvae. About 10th December, four larvae failed to undergo 
the fourth moult. Around Christmas I had three larvae left, all in the last 

dino, of them pupated on 25th December. Ihe third died on 27th 
December, despite the fact that it was the largest. 

I expected the moths would emerge very early by keeping the 
cocoons at a temperature of 25°C and a hygrometry of 90-100%. I had 

224 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society wee 

to curb my impatience. I lost one cocoon. I then decided to induce the 
remaining pupa to enier diapause by gradually reducing ihe 
temperature to 15°C and a hygrometry of 60%. 

After having kept the cocoon for about three weeks in a heated 
ereenhouse (22°C) and a hygromeiry of 90%, I obiained a normal-sized 
male moth G70mm) on 17ih June 1987. 

Several conclusions can be drawn from this account: The larvae 
readily accept Eucalypius gunnii, although ii is noi their onginal 
foodplant; this is Eugenia (Myrtaceae) or Weinmania (Saxifragaceae). 
Experiments could be made, using other species of cucalypis as 
foodplants. Just now I have got other kinds of eucalyptus grown from 
seed. If I can get some eggs, I shall carry out an expenment 

Breeding indoors is apparently difficult, as Eucalypius gunnii does 
not do well under such conditions and also possibly Gue io ihe 
ecological requirements of the larvae. 

It would appear that the pupae musi necessanly be induced to enier 
diapause 10 Obtain imagines similar to those from Madagascar, with 
regard to size and configuration. However, this possibly depended on 
the nature of the stock I had obiained. 

It would appear thai heat and a high degree of humidity are required 
for the eggs to hatch. 

Paradoxically, the larvae do not require an enormous quaniiiy of food, 
in spite of their size bout 15cm, when in their last instar). However, # 
must be pointed out that Eucalyptus gunnii produces thick leaves and 
abundant foliage, and this can give a false impression of the situaiion. 
On the other hand, there is not a large amount of frass, and this would 
appear to confirm that the larvae do not consume much food. 

In all probability, this species does noi lend itself to being bred 
indoors, and this would account for the very poor results 

The lengthy breeding time should also be noted: ten months elapsed 
from the time when the eggs were received until the moth emerged. 

As far as its appearance is Concemed, it is a remarkable creature; the 
size of the fully-grown larva is impressive; it is dark-green, glossy, with 
light-yellow intersegmental rings, brown tue legs and orange prolegs. 
The imago is the well-known Madagascan comet moth and need not be 
described here. 

Breeding outdoors: 
The following year I received five eggs at the beginning of August. On 
this occasion, unlike the previous year, all five of them hatched within 

ed Volume 55 + October 1996 225 

three days after I had received them. However, the ambient 
temperature was about 25°C. 

Using a fine paintbrush, I straight away sleeved the larvae outdoors 
on a large Eucalyptus gunnii which had survived the rigours of the 
previous winters. 

They immediately started feeding. I noticed they were very lethargic 
and easily disturbed; whenever there is the slightest unusual sound they 
slightly raise their bodies just like hawkmoth larvae and remain quite 

In mid-September the five larvae were in their third instar. Then 
disaster struck. While I was away, some wasps made their way into the 
polyproplene sleeve and killed three larvae. I fitted a second sleeve 
over the first one and had no more trouble. 

Both remaining larvae pupated on 1st November at a temperature of 
2°C. In spite of the cold I left them outside until 10th November and 
untied the sleeves to remove the cocoons. 

During the winter I happened to drop one of the cocoons, due to 
clumsiness. Although the pupa was perfectly well formed, it did not 
survive. I obtained a female moth in July 1988, measuring over 

To sum up: My attempts at breeding would have been completely 
successful, has it not been for the wasps and my clumsiness. The cold 
weather at the time of pupation gave rise to some concern. As a matter 
of fact, the cold weather did not stop the insect from going through all 
its stages satisfactorily, and this species appears to be perfectly able to 
resist moderately cold temperatures. Breeding outdoors appears to be 
easy and no special precautions are required, except for those 
mentioned above. 

Argema mimosae 

Towards the end of August 1989 I received about twenty eggs of A. 
mimosae. When I say that I received some “eggs” I am being optimistic, 
as the larvae hatched in the tube while they were in the post, and were 
more or less reduced to pulp when they arrived. 

Five larvae were not so severely crushed or suffocated that I was 
unable to save them, and I offered them a selection of various 
foodplants: willow, walnut, privet, pear, Eucalyptus gunnii and, of 
course, some liquidamber, as I was not quite sure on which plant to 
rear the larvae. 

226 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society oe 

They all joined up on the liquidamber and started to feed. I had no 
further doubts about the foodplant. A friend of mine subsequently told 
me that the larvae will also take Schinus molle, a small tree from Peru 
and Chile belonging to the family Anacardiaceae, and which is grown 
on the French Riviera. 

I put the liquidamber outdoors and was extremely surprised when 
the larvae stopped feeding. I replaced the liquidamber indoors behind 
the window at about 25°C and the larvae resumed feeding. 

As soon as the temperature fell below 25°C, I noticed they became 
less active, except in the last two instars, or even at temperatures 
slightly below 20°C, I did not notice any further reduction in their 
activity. Breeding was accordingly carried out indoors. 

When in their first instar, the larvae very much resemble those of 
Actias selene. In the following instars the larval colour is a uniform 
green, with blue intersegmental bands. They are lethargic, like the 
larvae of Argema mittrei. 

Despite their being reared indoors, the larvae behaved normally; 
liquidamber also lends itself very well to indoor breeding conditions. 
The larvae are almost as large as those of A. selene and are voracious 

Five liquidambers, each two metres high, were required to feed my 
five surviving larvae, at a cost of about 200 francs per larva. It was just 
as well that only five survived, otherwise they would have cost me a 
small fortune! 

The five larvae pupated about mid-October within a day of each 
other. In comparison to the size of the larva, the cocoon is relatively 
small (about one-third of the size of that of A. mittrei, which it very 
much resembles. I expected that the cocoons would enter diapause for 
the winter, and accordingly left them indoors at a temperature of about 
20°C and a dry atmosphere (50% hygrometry) so as to induce this 

I was all the more surprised when I obtained three imagines within a 
day of each other (two males and one female) about the 10th 
November. Strangely enough, all imagines emerged at exactly 9.30pm 
local time (8.30pm solar time). I would like to know whether other 
breeders have observed this feature. 

The resulting imagines were perfectly well formed and very much 
resembled A. mittrei, however, they were green in colour and of 
smaller size (125mm). 


tf Volume 55 + October 1996 227 

Both remaining cocoons overwintered, and the imagines emerged in 
May and June 1990. The May emergence also took place at 10.30pm 
local time (summer time - unchanged at 8.30 solar time). The June 
emergence took place one hour later. 

This species seemed very easy to rear. It can very well withstand 
indoor environmental conditions. 

Although Gardiner mentions walnut and Eucalyptus gunnii as 
possible foodplants, the larvae only accepted liquidamber. 

I was able to breed A. mimosae once again. On 12th August 1991 I 
received 42 eggs of A. mimosae. As a matter of fact, they included an 
ege of Actias luna, which produced a female moth five weeks later. 
The larvae of A. mimosae were then only in their fourth instar. This 
indicates how fast the two species develop. Accordingly, there were 
only 41 eggs from which to breed. Remembering my _ previous 
experience with regard to the voracious appetite of the larvae, I 
resolved I would use all possible means to oblige the larvae to accept 
eucalyptus. I offered them Eucalyptus gunnii, coccifera, cinerea, nitens 
together with Sumac. It was no use. With some apprehension I had to 
use liquidamber, while at the same time making an estimate of how 
much it would cost me. 

All the eggs hatched out. During the first instars I used potted 
liquidamber, located indoors. Subsequently, I used cut branches 
standing in water to which some glucose had been added, together 
with a few drops of potassium-chloride water per litre; I continued 
breeding indoors. In spite of my fears, everything went satisfactorily. I 
gathered 35 cocoons and 35 moths emerged: 13 in November 1991 and 
22 in June 1992. The success rate was 85%. The moths did not emerge 
at a specific time, and all emergences took place in the evening 
between 8pm and 11pm. 

Genus Graellsia 

[The editor wishes to remind readers (in France) that permits are 
required to breed species protected by law (in this case Graellsia isabellae 
galliae-gloria); these can be obtained from the Ministry of the 
Environment, at the following address: Direction de la Protection de la 
Nature, 14 Boulevard du Général Leclerc, 92524 Neuilly-sur-Seine. 

Breeding must be carried out for scientific purposes; as a rule, a report 
must be sent to the Ministry.] 

228 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ae 

There is only one species in this genus — Graellsia isabellae — of 
which there are several local races. 

This species does not occur on the Atlantic seaboard. On the other 
hand, it is easy to rear. Looking back, I even believe it is the species I 
found the easiest to rear. It is quite straightforward; it does not need 
looking after. My experience covers three years, during which time I 
bred about 130 larvae. 

In the first year, breeding was carried out using potted Pinus 
sylvestris. | had a success rate of nearly 50% but had some losses, 
because of ants. 

In the second year, most of the eggs supplied to me failed to hatch. 
On the other hand, in the third year I received about one hundred 
eges, which I sleeved out on a branch of a young P. sylvestris. When I 
had finished rearing, I gathered 73 cocoons; I believe this disproves the 
statement that the larvae cannot be crowded. In the second year | 
placed half the eggs on P. sylvestris and half on P. nigra var. austriaca 
and I gathered as many cocoons from both foodplants. 

Obviously, it appears that different species of pine are acceptable as 
foodplants. On the other hand, I have not tried to breed the larvae on 
Monterey pine (P. radiata). 

When in their first instar, the larvae are black. In the next two instars 
they are exactly the same greyish colour as the pine branches and it is 
almost impossible to detect them in the sleeve, so that one begins to 
wonder whether breeding has been a success. Frass alone indicates the 
presence of the larvae. When fully grown, the larva is a magnificent 
creature, with dark bands of red and grey alternating with the green 
ground-colour. This coloration certainly enables the larva to be very 
well camouflaged among the pine branches. 

Towards the end of the final instar, the sleeve must be opened and 
the bottom lined with peat and ground pine bark. The larvae spin a 
loose cocoon amongst this material. 

It is very easy to harvest the cocoons: the breeder has only to remove 
the sleeve and sort out the cocoons from the peat. If a large number of 
larvae are bred in the same sleeve, which is what I did, great care must 
be taken not to damage the cocoons, which are often spun together in 
batches of four or five. 

Unlike other species which I have bred and despite a high larval 
population density in the sleeve, I never had to change it to a fresh 
branch, due to insufficient foliage; this just shows the small amount of 

od Volume 55 * October 1996 229 

food eaten by the larvae. I know that the larvae are smaller than those 
of A. selene, to quote an example; however, when I last bred G. 
isabellae, from about 15th May to 15th July, I gathered 73 cocoons; had 
I been breeding A. selene, I would have had to change to sleeve to 
another branch every four hours, given the same number of larvae. I 
would like to point out that Robert Vuattoux has hybridised A. /una 
and A. sinensis with G. isabellae. Until recently, when males of G. 
isabellae were paired with females of A. /una, the resultant moths were 
all males. Scientists have succeeded in obtaining female hybrids of 
these species by injecting the female pupae with hormones which 
break the diapause (Ecdysone). 

For further information, articles on breeding A. mittrei, A. mimosae, 
G. isabellae and its hybrids have been published in the bulletins 
issued by Sciences Nat, Jmago and Alexanor, these will be found 

For my part, I have never seen an imago of G. isabellae emerge, as I 
have always sent off all my cocoons, for hybridisation and to enable 
assembling experiments to be carried out. 

Moon moth imagines 

I have watched the imagines of different species of Moon moth emerge 
on dozens of occasions, belonging to various genera (except Graellsia), 
and all have been discussed in this article; I noticed that the wings of 
these imagines always expand in the same way: 

— first of all the front wings unfold, 
— followed by the hind wings, 
— and then the tails. 

The wings can take from half an hour to expand fully (Actias 
sinensis) to two hours (Argema mittrei). 

| The reaction of imagines to tactile and sexual stimuli can vary greatly, 
) depending on the genera. 

| Argema species are just as placid (even the males) as Actias species 
| are restless and cannot easily be approached or caught. 

When I first bred A. mittrei, | brought my fingers close to the cocoon 
, to which the male was clinging, and gently stroked its antennae. It 
gently climbed onto one of my fingers and I found it very difficult to 
induce it to let go. I carried out the same experiment with A. mimosae, 
with the same result. 

230 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society pe 

Try to do likewise with a male A. selene or A. sinensis, and you will 
see the difference; both males and females let go and drop to the 
ground. They then beat their wings slowly and very frequently, each 
time they turn round and usually irretrievably damage their wings. 


I have bred other species of silk moths and Lepidoptera belonging to 
other families, and it is very interesting to rear them. However, it gives 
a thrill to my sense of beauty whenever I see an imago of A. selene 
emerge and unfold its wings, and consider it to be one of the most 
beautiful species of Lepidoptera in the world, even though it is very 

Hopefully, we shall soon see the publication of a work of reference 
on these remarkable insects, the Moon moths, to inform and delight 
many amateur breeders. 

Hints to breeders to prevent predation by wasps when breeding 

I had sleeved about fifty larvae of Eupackardia caletta on a fine privet 
shrub close to a wall. Every evening I went to inspect my larvae. 
However, one evening when I went on my tour of inspection I was 
most surprised not to find a single larva. And yet these larvae are very 
conspicuous and they are one of the most highly-coloured of all the 
silkmoth larvae. 

I then noticed a hole of about 0.5cm* in the sleeve and at the same 
time I saw a wasp enter an irregular opening in the adjoining wall. The 
following morning I took a syringe and some insecticide with which to 
destroy the wasps’ nest. All-my larvae were there, but obviously they 
were dead. The wasps had paid their forfeit, but my breeding stock had 
been completely destroyed. The breeder should also keep a sharp look- 
out for ants and small spiders which feast upon young larvae and give 
branches a good shaking before installing a sleeve, so as to dislodge 
any likely predators. 

[Translated from Jnsectes 86: 17-19 )1992) and reproduced with 
permission from the author and OPIE.] é 


tf Volume 55 * October 1996 231 

The long, hot summer of 1995. 
A note on Mellicta athalia (the Heath fritillary) 

by Don McNamara (5573) 

6 Fulham Close, Hillingdon, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB10 OSU. 

Whether is it a mini-cycle of warmer weather or evidence of “global 
warming” or not, it seems that unusual occurrences are becoming 

I have had a small stock of Heath fritillaries originating from way 
back in the mid-sixties, from an egg batch obtained from a gravid 
female from the Blean Woods complex, Kent. Larvae have always spun 
up around the end of August — early September and remain in their 
hibernacula until about April the following year. 

These are reared outdoors in large builders’ buckets planted out with 
Plantago lanceolata (narrow-leaved plantain), with a central “pole” 
holding up a tent of black, parasite-proof Terylene netting which is tied 
down around the lip of the bucket. As adults emerge they are 
transferred to a netted rectangular cage, about a metre cubed, with 
potted plantain and nectar plants. The cage is placed in such a way as 
to get at least three hours of direct sunlight and is lightly sprayed with 
water in the late evening. I use the cultivated candytuft, an annual 
which if planted the previous November will start flowering in April. 
Stagger the planting and you can get flowers throughout the year. 

The surprising ease with which these butterflies pair and lay in 
“protective custody” seems at odds with their scarcity in the wild. Much 
has been written about the particular needs of this insect, coppicing 
policies, deleterious changes in land use and habitat destruction but 
why not an off-site breeding programme where amateurs could be 

However, in 1995 I had, for the first time, substantial numbers of 
first-brood larvae going through and second-generation pairings which 
have resulted in another brood, the larvae appearing in mid-September. 
Not all the first brood reached maturity and now I had two broods 
hibernating, the first generation larvae about one-third full grown 
“snugeling-up” to tiny second-generation larvae. I wondered whether 
the small larvae would catch up or whether there would be two 
hatchlings of adults or whether there would be staggered emergences. 

Another oddity — in my small pond frogs spawn most years and from 
about February until April there is the usual squelching, plopping and 
croaking but I’ve never heard croaking after the end of April. On the 

232 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

lst October, an unusually warm day, a large common frog (Rana 
temporaria) spent the early morning and late afternoon croaking almost 
as if his life depended upon it. I have often seen fat females at this time 
of year but no courtship behaviour. I wonder what would have 
happened if there had been a few around. I’ve not seen any reference 

to a second generation of this species either. 

All listings should be sent to the Editor at AES, PO Box 8774, London 
SW7 5ZG. Entries are free of charge. 


2nd Derbyshire Entomological Society. 
Annual Exhibition at Broomfield College, Morley, (on the A608) 

near Derby. Open 11.30hrs to 17.00hrs. All welcome. 
Information: Ian Viles 0115 944 3944 (W) 


6th AES Council Meeting. 
Baden-Powell House, London. Start 18.30hrs. 

> ee) 

pet hey 


ae Volume 55 ¢° October 1996 233 

Notes on the reappearance of Lycaenid butterflies 

by Ted Rimington (5269) 

8 Riverside Drive, Sprotbrough, Doncaster DN5 7LE. 

I was interested to read Peter Tebbutt's note (Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc. 
54:(402) October 1995) on the reappearance of the Brown argus 
(Aricia agestis) at sites in Leicestershire. It reminds me of similar 
incidents which I have experienced with this species and with the 
Lycaenids in general. 

My parents retired to Eastbourne in 1970 and I have since been in the 
habit of paying regular visits to the district in late May and often in 
August. I quickly learned of and visited many of the best local butterfly 
sites including Ashdown Forest, Abbott's Wood, Beachy Head, Firle 
Beacon and various other downland sites at and around Eastbourne. In 
those days the fritillaries were regularly met with, the Adonis blue 
(Lysandra_ bellargus) flew in plenty and the Silver-spotted skipper 
(Hesperia comma) could also be found where today, sadly, nostalgia 
has largely taken their place. I also visited Vert Wood (Laughton). 

In 1983 this latter site remained both pleasant and fruitful and in that 
year I recorded thirty-one species of butterflies — excluding migrants — 
in two or three visits and also an excellent second brood of Small 
pearl-bordered fritillary (Boloria selene) in late July; for a northerner, 
an unexpected pleasure. More interesting, however, was the sudden 
appearance of a healthy colony of agestis in early August of that year 
in the wood, at a spot immediately adjacent to the crossroads near to 
the old sawmill. This is an area that I have walked regularly over the 
years and never have I seen the species there or anywhere else in the 
wood before or since, although local lepidopterists may correct me on 
iat score, Nor. did /l comfuse agesiis with the Common, blue 
(Zolyommaius icarus) which, im my experience is very. rarely 
encountered at Vert. 

Interestingly, in August 1985 I observed several examples of the 
butterfly at a restricted spot in Abbott's Wood, a locality which I had by 
then visited many times without any sign of the species. Abbotts was 
already in sad decline when I first knew it in 1970 due largely to the 
activities of the Forestry Commission and my visits in recent years have, 
therefore, become irregular. In any event I have never seen agestis 
| there since. Small wonder the decline, I once spoke to a Head Forester 
_ in Abbotts who replied to my protestations of vandalism, “we would 
_ plant cabbages here if it paid”. 

234 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ae 

The impact of the Vert sightings on me was quite startling and 
though less dramatic, reminded me of the oft-quoted account by J.F. 
Stephens of the explosive appearance and just as sudden disappearance 
in 1827 of the White-letter hairstreak (S. w-album) at Ripley in Surrey 
(Illustrations of British Entomology Vol. 1): “. . . [it] exceeded anything 
of the kind I have ever witnessed .. .”. 

This sort of behaviour by Lycaenids — though rarely so extreme as in 
Stephen's account — is not unusual and is well-known to lepidopterists. 
It is characterised by rapid and unexpected population fluctuation in 
known colonies and the real or apparent emergence of new colonies, 
occasionally in startling profusion. The effect is usually more impressive 
when it occurs with naturally secretive species such as the hairstreaks 
which may also be present at low density and, therefore, unrecorded. I 
recall a most dramatic population explosion of w-album at a Doncaster 
site — again in 1983 — while in 1991, after many years of virtual absence, 
the Holly blue (C. argiolus) took off here only to collapse into obscurity 
again with the summer brood of 1993. Yet again in 1983, the Green 
hairstreak (C. rubi) was recorded for the first time ever at Thorne Moors 
(Doncaster), an internationally famous site worked by naturalists for 
two hundred years or more. I suspect that the butterfly has always been 
there but that the activities of the peat cutters in recent years have 
rendered spots of the moor now more suitable than previously. Neither 
are more mundane Lycaenids immune. I have seen healthy colonies of 
the Small copper (LZ. phlaeas) seemingly disappear temporarily while 
nearby colonies continue to thrive oblivious and second broods of 
icarus apparently go missing causing the unwary to declare the species 
locally single-brooded. I think we have all seen similar incidents. 

As to the foodplant, common rock-rose (H. nummutlarium) is absent 
in Vert wood. To my discredit I did not search diligently for common 
storksbill CE. cicutarium) but noted herb robert (G. robertianum). 
However, as George Thomson says in his superb book, The Butterflies 
of Scotland, much work requires to be done on the relationship of 
artaxerxes to its foodplants and, therefore, of course agestis also. 

Mr Tebbutt has a nice little project to hand — if the colonies will hang 
around long enough for him to complete it. 

Published 20th October 1996 by the Amateur Entomologists' Society 
(Registered Charity No. 267430), from PO Box 8774, London SW7 5ZG. 

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H.A. Ellis. Observations on Microplitis ocellatae, Bouché (Braconidae: 
Microgastrinae), a gregarious endoparasitoid of the Poplar hawkmoth caterpillar, 
Laothoe popoli UN. .ccc.:ss0 bs. tctsre ee 

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PEASE? 5.0 ccsecseessesncscoccoseghicsesecpenssseeestevobseshigtedckessnsesseuensse< erst eae ee ee 

S. Cole. Notes on the insects and other invertebrates of an urban house. ................. 

M. Lamour. Some observations on breeding Moon moths (Lepidoptera: Attacidae). 
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Short Communications 
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Scarlettiger (C. GOminula) 7. seiieslecrasces Dui cssdonaceshndesnesoncendespaestqeee= tee re 
D. McNamara. The long, hot summer of 1995. A note on Mellicta athalia (the Heath 
fritillary) ec. .tkescscccssesstescvccvec suchen stossnes uecclnyacncuancast tana. osasa je meecee a ten en 
T. Rimington. Notes on the reappearance of Lycaenid butterflies. ..............:csseeeeeeee 

EGitOF alo ius.s.cersssdcernedoavsestagevocousohnasuedsasseiosacelvtcg’taesantuseSeudsls Jae ene mee een ener 

Book Review — Monographia Rhapalocerorum SinensiuM. .........c0:ccecceesseeseeeseeeeceeeeees 

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of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society © 

Volume 55 ¢ Number 409 December 1996 


Another year comes to a close and a new year dawns. With it, dawns a 
new part of the Society, the AES Bug Club, which officially comes into 
existence on the 1st January 1997. The response has been very good so 
far, and we have enrolled a number of new members to the Society. 
The Bug Club will produce six colourful newsletters per year and will 
organise special events around the country. The renewal form, enclosed 
with this Bulletin, also includes our new Family membership category, 
which will give members a copy of the Bulletin and Bug Club News. All 
subscription forms for 1997 should be returned to the Registrar as soon 
as possible to ensure that you are on our February mailing list. 

I would also like to thank all members who have written with regard 
to the AES Trading Policy so far. There is still some time to write and let 
us know what you think. Responses have been mixed so far — so let us 
know your opinion! 

Our Advertising Secretary, Rob Dyke is standing down from his post 
at the AGM in April. We are, therefore, looking for someone to take his 
place. If you are interested in this position on Council, drop us a line! 

Finally, on behalf of the Society, may I wish you all a very Merry 
Christmas and a prosperous and Happy New Year. 

Wayne Jarvis 


Biilletin * & 

of the Amateur ee aap 

The cover of this issue of the Bulletin 
features the Hoverfly 
(Chrysotoxum bicinctum). 

Photo: Robin Williams 

236 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society Le] 


Report of Council — 1995 

Membership of the Society as at the 31st December 1995 was 1725; this 
comprised eight Honorary, 57 Life, 13 Exchange, 11 Complimentary, 
149 Juniors and 1487 Ordinary, Associate and Overseas Members. 

The Council met of four occasions during the year at the London 
Ecology Centre, Covent Garden, and the Methodist Central Halls in 
Westminster. The Annual General Meeting was held in conjunction with 
the Members’ Day at the Royal Entomological Society of London on the 
22nd April. Michael Majerus and Richard Jones gave lectures. 

In addition, a meeting was held in May by a specially formed Review 
Sub-Committee to look into the modernisation and promotion of the 
Society. Many proposals have now been passed by Council as a result, 
and during the year many changes to the Society will be visible. 

The Annual Exhibition was held at Kempton Park racecourse and 
was once again a huge success. This was Roy McCormick’s final year as 
Exhibition Organiser, and Council thank him sincerely for all of his 
hard work over the years. The Society welcomed Maxwell Barclay as 
his replacement in the newly created Exhibitions and Meetings 
Secretary post. Council also welcomed Nick Holford to Council during 
the year, but said farewell to Owen Lewis, Wendy Fry and Simon 

Six Bulletins were issued during the year, along with three issues of 
Invertebrate Conservation News in February, June and October. 

Council reports with regret the death of Eric Bradford during 1995. 
Eric, 74, had been involved with many natural history Societies, but had 
a dedicated interest in the AES. He will be sadly missed. 

Finally, the Society looks forward to the coming year with excitement 
and anticipation of the changes which are set to take place. 

Wayne Jarvis 

ad Volume 55 * December 1996 237 

Report of the Treasurer — 1995 

Accounts for 1995 have been prepared and audited. These show that 
income from the activities of the Society in the year has decreased from 
Ol Oo2m 10) 2627/5896) The! ‘decrease’ ‘is mainly due to «the: fall ‘in 
subscription income reflecting decreased member numbers. Costs have 
increased from £37,560 to £39,817 or by 6%. This has been attributable 
in the main to increased Bulletin costs and the decision to help finance 
Field Trips, to which the Society contributed £1,463 in the year. Overall 
publications expenses fell, reflecting the dearth of new publications in 
the year — against this, income from the sale of publications remained 
steady, at £10,202 in 1995. Investment income increased in the year by 
nearly £1,000 to £7,938. Overall the result for the Society was a loss of 
&3,983 in the year, against a profit of £2,256 in 1994. The deficit has 
been funded from the General Fund. 

As a result of the loss in the year the net value of the Society has 
decreased from £176,827 to £172,844. There have continued to be 
additions to equipment owned by the Society to improve its availability 
on Field Trips and this cost £1,414 in the year. The great majority of the 
Society’s worth is in short-term investments, a total of £151,668. After 
much debate the Society will now re-invest these funds with the object 
of obtaining a better return. It is mindful of ethical investment and will 
therefore take this into consideration in its investment choices. After the 
year end the Society was most grateful to receive a bequest from the 
late Eric Bradford of around £10,000. 

In a broad context Council acknowledges its responsibility to further 
the objects of the Society through its funds and is therefore moving 
towards a more activity-based approach to achieving these aims. 
Recently Council has considered sponsorship with the purpose of 
encouraging more young people into the Society. There is also a 
process of reform within the Society with the possibility of encouraging 
those who give up time to assist with the Society by means of modest 
payments. These developments are intended to move the Society gently 
towards the 21st Century and to optimise the opportunities that its 
funds represent. 

Andrew Locke 

238 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 4 

Conservation Report for 1995 

The AES Conservation Committee met twice in 1995, in February and 
November, and the Society was represented at all five JCCBI meetings: 
i.e. the main meetings of March and October, together with those of the 
Executive Sub-Committee in May, September and November. 

The business of these three committees overlapped considerably, but 
the AES Committee has additionally dealt with several projects and 
proposals which are of special interest to the Society’s members. One 
of these was the Committee’s future status under the proposed re- 
organisation of the Society’s Council and committees. Our Committee 
has also reviewed progress in the production of Imvertebrate 
Conservation News and the 2nd edition of Habitat Conservation for 
Insects. We are glad to report that issues 16, 17 and 18 were published 
as planned during 1995. Further work on the book is awaiting 
completion of another of the Society’s publication projects. Resources 
for displaying our ideas and our work at exhibitions and shows have 
also been under review. 

Another internal matter\ has ‘been the-setting up of <a) panel “to 
administer the Cribb award, which will be a trophy presented to 
individuals who have made outstanding contributions to invertebrate 
conservation. Three expert members from outside the AES have agreed 
to sit on the panel, and plans have been made for commissioning the 
trophy and inviting nominations. 

The remaining major activity within the Society has been the 
development and expansion of the area representatives’ scheme, 
Which is based on collaboration with the local wildlife trusts. Details of 
this scheme have been supplied in JCN by our Habitat Conservation 
Officer, Martin Harvey. There are now eleven representatives, several 
of whom have supplied interesting reports of local activities for 
publication in JCN. These’ activities include the monitoring of 
invertebrates at local sites, including both existing nature reserves, 
such as the RSPB’s Ouse Washes reserve, and also sites threatened by 
development, including a Marsh fritillary habitat in Mid-Glamorgan. 
Some of our representatives hope to run AES field meetings jointly 
with their wildlife trusts, and these will be listed in the Society’s diary. 
In 1995, Martin Harvey himself ran three such meetings. Our area 
representatives welcome help from other AES members, and can be 
contacted) directly of via Martin Harvey, A> meeunes or ine 
representatives took place at the Society's annual exhibition in 
October, and another is planned for 1990. 

| Volume 55 ° December 1996 239 

Turning to matters which we have pursued through JCCBI, we report 
that the quinquennial review of Britain’s Wildlife and Countryside Act 
(1981), has passed all its stages of consultation with organisations and 
individuals. By the end of 1995 we were awaiting the publication of the 
new schedules of protected species, based on the adjudication of the 
Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). Increased protection on 
Schedule 5 of the Act was proposed for nine invertebrate species, as 
explained in JCN 18. Also, removal from this schedule of the Act was 
proposed for one species, the now extinct Vipers bugloss moth 
(Hadena irregularis). We submitted some comments to JNCC, in which 
we suggested that the proposals were unnecessarily strict for three of 
the moths involved: the Southern chestnut (Agrochola haematidea), the 
Fiery clearwing (Bembecia chrysidiformis) and Fisher’s estaurine moth 
(Gortyna borelii). We also pointed out that the proposed full protection 
for the Marsh fritillary butterfly (Eurodryas aurinia) might cause 
concern amongst the many amateur entomologists who maintain 
breeding stocks of this species, and who would be allowed to continue 
doing so only on the basis of the current interpretation of the law, 
rather than its strict letter. 

We have, through JCCBI, also discussed the proposed licensing 
system for the release into the wild of many butterfly species under a 
revision of Schedule 9 of the Act. We understand that the proposal 
would not fit in with official policy, since such measures were not 
originally intended to apply to native British invertebrates. We have 
been canvassing opinion on this matter within the Society, and have 
found almost total rejection of the proposal, but general acceptance of 
voluntary systems of control. Although voluntary controls have been 
alleged to have failed, the current code of conduct and proposal 
scheme appear not to be available readily enough, and we are 
exploring ways of overcoming this deficiency. 

Another topic related to legislation was the JCCBI policy document 
on this subject. We are glad to report that the final draft was approved 
by all the JCCBI member-organisations, and that it is now available for 
publication. A copy will appear in JCN during 1996. An earlier JCCBI 
publication, its guidelines for invertebrate surveys at individual sites, 
was reproduced in ICN 17. 

AS major area of discussion for the JCCBI has been the UK 
Biodiversity Action Plan, official proposals for which were published at 
the end of 1995. This specifies targets for the conservation of named 
species and types of habitat to be incorporated within local plans to be 

240 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society Lt ] 

run by voluntary bodies and local authorities. Despite many 
deficiencies in the selection of invertebrates for inclusion, the Plan can 
be welcomed as a very positive step, provided that resources are made 
available to implement it. The Plan was the central theme in a 
programme for an invertebrate conservation conference which was 
planned for February 1996, and will therefore be mentioned in our 1996 

A European project which relates to the Biodiversity Action Plan is 
the selection of “Special Areas of Conservation” (SACs, or “Natura 2000 
Sites”), and an article on this by Alan Stubbs has appeared in ICN. It is 
hoped that SACs, most of which will be based on existing SSSIs as far 
as the UK is concerned, will be strongly protected against damaging 


inadequacies regarding the selection of candidate SACs which have 
special value for invertebrate conservation. There was very little 
consultation with voluntary bodies and individuals, and the criteria for 
site selection were inappropriate in some major respects. Nevertheless, 
the statutory agencies have worked very hard for the inclusion of sites 
that will be of value if they are designated. Meanwhile there are 
continuing attempts to adapt the rules so as to include important sites 
that do not currently qualify. 

David Lonsdale (4137) 

a Volume 55 ¢ December 1996 241 

(Registered Charity No. 267430) 

Year ended 31st December 1995 

Charitable Trustee’s Report 
for the year ended 31st December 1995 

The purpose~of the Charity is to provide for the promotion and 
dissemination of entomological knowledge by every means possible 
and the encouragement among the younger generation of an interest in 

Review of Activities 

A deficit of £3,983 arose in the year ended 31st December 1995 (1994 
Surplus £2,250). During the year, the charity invested the funds 
available to it in bank deposits, National Savings, Treasury Funds, and 
Charifund Units. It is intended to reinvest funds in equities and gilts at 
the earliest opportunity to increase investment income. 

P.A. Sokoloff (appointed 7th December 1990). 

Principal and Registered Address: 

4 Steep Close, 
Green Street Green, 
Orpington BRO ODS. 

Approved by the Trustee on 11th April 19960. 

ati NH 

Richard Jones, President 

242 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society 3 

Auditor’s Report 
Amateur Entomologists’ Society 

Report of the Auditor to the Members 

I have examined the financial statements attached which: have been 
prepared in accordance with the recommendations of SORP2. 

I have audited the financial statements annexed in accordance with 
approved Auditing Standards. 

In my opinion, the financial statements, which have been prepared 
under the historical cost convention, give a true and fair view of the 
state of the Society’s affairs at 31st December 1995 and of its Income 
and Expenditure for the year then ended. 


Anthony J. Pickles 
Chartered Accountant 
200 Salisbury Road, 

Southampton SO4 3PE. 

11th April 1996. 

Volume 55 « December 1996 

Balance Sheet — 31st December 1995 



&/712 Treasury 12 3/4% 1995 

£1,470 Treasury 9 1/2% 1999 

109 M&G Charifund Income Units 

National Savings and Midland Bank Investment Accounts 


Stocks of publications at cost 

Cash at bank 

CREDITORS: amounts falling due within one year 













& 19,816 


5 £172,844 








I approve these financial statements and confirm that, to the best of my 
knowledge and belief, I have made available all relevant records and 

information for their preparation. 

A.J. Locke — Treasurer 
Amateur Entomologists’ Society 
11th April 1996 

244 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ae 

Notes and Accounting Policies 
Year ended 31st December 1995 

1. Accounting Policies 

Basis of Accounting 
The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost 


Income represents amounts received in respect of the Society’s activities 
from subscriptions, publishing and ancillary activities. Income also 
arises from investments. 

Depreciation is provided using the following rates and bases to write 
off the cost of tangible assets over their estimated useful lives: 

Equipment — 25% per annum on cost. 

Publications stocks are valued at the lower cost of and net realisable 
value, having regard for age and condition. 

2. Fixed Assets 

1995 1994 
Equipment Equipment 

Cost 01 January 1995 6,671 4213 
Additions 1,414 2,458 
Cost 31 December 1995 8,085 6,671 
Less: Depreciation (6,725) (4,703) 
Net Book Value 31 December 1995 1,360 1,968 
3. Debtors 1995 1994 
Subscriptions - 2,276 
Publications 2,486 3,090 

Volume 55 ¢ December 1996 

Notes and Accounting Policies — continued 
Year ended 31st December 1995 

4. Creditors 1995 

Publications and printing 

Subscriptions received in advance 6,349 
Donations received in advance — 
Other 305 
5. Capital Funds 1995 
General Fund: 
Balance 01 January 1994 SDH 
Add: Income for year — 
Less: Deficit for year (5,707) 
Life Membership Fund: 
Balance 01 January 1994 and 31 December 1995 _—_—_7,656 

Ansorge Award Fund: 

Balance 01 January 1994 and 31 December 1995 362 

Crow & Hammond Trust Fund: 

Balance 01 January 1994 and 31 December 1995 79,676 

Publication Fund: 

Balance 01 January 1994 60,336 

Add: Trading surplus for year 1,724 

Total Capital Account & 172,844 




& 176,827 


246 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Income and Expenditure Account 
Year ended 31st December 1995 

Income from activities 

Membership income: 

Enrolment fees 


Publishing income: 
Increase in value of stocks 

Other income: 
Advertising revenue 

Annual exhibition (net profit) 

Less: Expenses 

Bulletin costs: 

Membership services: 
Registrar’s fees 

Registrar’s expenses 
Wants and exchanges lists 

Postage and stationery 
Meetings’ expenses 

Sundry expenses 

Field trips 

& & 
Dio VA 



1, 889 






ad Volume 55 * December 1996 247 

Income and Expenditure Account 
Year ended 31st December 1995 — continued 

1995 1994 
& & & & 

Printing 945 7,451 
Decrease in value of stocks 3,452 
Commissions on sale 4,081 3,841 

Cry 3) 1 CEO) 
(Loss) for the year on activities (11,921) (4,708) 
Investment income gross: 
National Savings and 
Bank Deposit accounts 7,938 6,964 
(Loss)/Profit for the year & (3,983) & 2,256 

Interesting Notodontid moth found in north-west Somerset 
by M.O. Hughes (3612) 

“Elvira”, 1 Woodside Avenue, Kinmel Bay, Conwy LL18 5ND, Wales. 

In the afternoon of 8th June 1996 I found an imago of the Bordered 
straw moth (Heliothis peltigera Schiff.) outside a busy amusement 
arcade/cafeteria in Regent Street, Weston-super-Mare. 

South (1961) states “the species seems to be of fairly regular 
occurrence in south-east Kent, Sussex, Dorset, Devon and Cornwall, but 
it has also been observed, more or less rarely, in many other English 
counties, chiefly those on the coast; in Pembrokeshire and 
Glamorganshire, South Wales; a few specimens have occurred in Co. 
Cork and one in Co. Wicklow, Ireland”. 

Skinner (1984) describes it as an immigrant and erratic visitor. 

It is the first time in 38 years of recording that I have encountered it. 

248 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society t | 

Annual arrival of a strange monster 
by Jeanette Hatto (9541) 

“Silver Birches”, Rowhills, Heath End, Farnham, Surrey GU9 9AU. 

Every year, sometime around the middle of August, I answer the warble 
of the telephone only to hear an anxious-sounding voice addressing my 
right.ear .with words such as. monster’,~usly , incredible’ and 
“weird”. Well before we arrive at the magic word “Fuchsia”, I have 
already guessed, as no doubt have my readers, that the caller is 
referring to an Elephant hawkmoth larva in its final instar. 

My 1995 example, banished by a keen gardener from her Farnham 
plot, was released into my own garden on wild fuchsia, to fend for 
itself, because I have recently confirmed the existence of a local colony. 

My 1994 “monster”, expelled by a keen fuchsia grower from her 
Farnborough greenhouse (Plates 96U & V, Figs. 1-4),was gladly 
received into the vivarium on 12th August as a large, handsome and 
healthy larva which fed voraciously on both wild and cultivated fuchsia 
and rosebay willowherb, enjoying both the leaves and the flowerheads. 

On 17th August, it became restless and emitted a 
greenish fluid before it began spinning above the 
soil and eventually producing a rough web against 
the. side “of the tank on )}top—of the- peat and 
incorporating some of the garden debris in the 
tank the next day. On 23rd August, the larva 
shed its skin and became a typical dullish- 
> coloured, rough-skinned Elephant hawk 
So pupa: 
On--3rd., April” 1995;~ the’ yaupa, new 
separated from its case for ease of checking and~ periodic 
spraying with water, was observed wriggling furiously, moving some 
two inches along the floor of the tank by 19th April and some eight 
inches by 28th April. It was observed moving very strongly indeed — 
jumping up and down and also twisting over and over. 

On 3rd May it was “standing up”, head high. It continued to be active 
until 21st May, by which time it was coloured a dark reddish-black all 

“H” day or “Hatching day” arrived on 23rd May 1995 (Plates 96U & V, 
Figs. 1-4). Inflation was totally successful and the superb imago was 
released in a suitable location. 

ad Volume 55 ° December 1996 249 

Some observations on the behaviour of the Hornet — 
Vespa crabro L. 

by John B. Garrett (6579) 

52 Glebelands, Pulborough, West Sussex RH20 2]]. 

In spite of having a southern distribution, hornets have not been 
reliably reported from my home county of Sussex for at least sixty 
years. This is a disappointment for entomologists, but no doubt a great 
relief for everyone else, because although hornets are relatively docile 
creatures their large size and fearsome appearance invariably causes 
alarm (Plate 90W, Figs. 5 & 6). In this country I have seen them with 
some regularity on the Devon/Somerset border, but even here they are 
not common. In France, on the other hand, they are widely distributed 
and frequently encountered. I have lived under the same roof as a 
hornet colony in Burgundy and watched a nest in an old stone well- 
Meade) Provence. In! 1995 they shared my interest in the rich 
invertebrate life of a neglected meadow nest to the River Erdre in Loire- 
Atlantique. Here butterflies such as the Swallowtail (Papilio machaon), 
the Map (Araschnia levana) and the Cardinal (Pandoriana pandora) 
were much in evidence, together with other spectacular insects which 
included the hoverfly (Volucella zonaria), known to be an inquiline of 
vespid species. Nevertheless, my attention was increasingly drawn to 
the hornets. They would appear every few minutes, seeming to drone 
aimlessly through the dense vegetation. However, in my experience 
only humans are capable of aimless behaviour! So what were the 
hornets doing? 

The meadow in question had not been grazed for a number of years 
and apart from grasses, the dominant plants were purple loosestrife 
(Lythrum salicaria), meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) and hedge 
bindweed (Calystegia sepium). The loosestrife, in particular, was a great 
attraction for nectaring insects. The immediate surroundings consisted 
of light deciduous woodland and the adjacent river provided an 
additional source of insect life which included vast swarms of the 
mayfly, Epboron virgo. 

Hornets were encountered so frequently that at the time of my visits 
in late August I concluded that this was the preferred destination for the 
local populations, presumably because it could provide them with 
maximum food for minimum effort. I became ever more curious about 
the nature of the food source and I also wanted to know whether they 
were feeding themselves, their larvae, or both. Adult hornets are 

250 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society t ] 

prevented from swallowing solid food by the narrowness of their 
oesophagus and the constriction of the petiole (wasp waist). They 
require energy-producing carbohydrates rather than body-building 
proteins and it is doubtful whether they possess the enzymes needed to 
assimilate protein. Larvae, on the other hand, do need protein and can 
ingest both solid and liquid food. Knowledge of a food ‘source can 
therefore suggest its destination. 

Flowers were clearly of no interest as providers of nectar and were 
totally ignored unless a visiting insect drew attention to itself by moving 
at an ill-advised moment. The hornets would then engage in_half- 
hearted pursuit, but lacking the aerial agility of many of the potential 
victims these forays seldom ended in success. Even butterflies could 
escape. I watched a Sooty copper (Heodes tityrus) avoid capture by 
suddenly changing direction just before the predator closed in. Pursuit 
was immediately abandoned, the hornets reverting to what was 
obviously considered a more rewarding activity, no doubt involving 
more substantial prey. The nutritional value of a small insect would 
hardly justify the expenditure of much energy in its capture. 

At this point I should mention another very noticeable denizen of the 
meadow. Every two or three metres I would find a characteristically 
reinforced orb web. Spread-eagled in the centre of each web was a 
large yellow and black spider, a female Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli). 
These webs were constructed at just the height favoured by the cruising 
hornets! Here indeed was a succulent meal for a large wasp. One step 
up the food chain from the smaller nectaring insects, her capture would 
be altogether more energy efficient. Could it be that she was the main 

Suddenly a vicious skirmish caught my attention. A Meadow brown 
(Maniola jurtina) had blundered into a bruennichi web constructed 
amongst the flowerheads in a clump of common fleabane (Pulicaria 
dysenterica). The web’s owner made a dash to incapacitate the hapless 
victim before it could break free. This was decidedly unwise for at that 
precise moment a hornet chanced by. Attracted by the struggle it 
literally pounced on the spider, totally ignoring the Meadow brown 
which then managed to escape unharmed. A spilt second later it was all 
over. The spider was decapitated by a single bite through the pedical 
and the large abdomen was then manoeuvred so that it could be firmly 
gripped between the hornet’s two front legs, the remaining four 
providing a secure anchorage on a fleabane leaf. During the next few 
minutes the spider’s abdomen was slowly and skillfully rotated so that 

tf Volume 55 * December 1996 251 

the entire surface could be chewed. It was then dropped, whether by 
accident or design I do not know, and the hornet proceeded to clean 
its mouthparts in readiness for the next kill. The whole drama was 
carried out with such ruthless efficiency that it must surely have been 
enacted many times before. None of the spider’s flesh was taken away 
and the presumption must be that the meal consisted entirely of 
protein-rich liquid or pulp derived from the abdominal musculature. 
This would have been stored in the crop and taken back to the nest, 
regurgitated and fed to the growing larvae. 

The following day I witnessed a similar attack, but this time the 
spider was too quick for the hornet and fled into the shelter of 
surrounding vegetation. The frustrated predator was nevertheless an 
opportunist and remained to chew the small fly which had just been 
ensnared. Although bruennichi webs are strong they are not intended 
for very large prey and present no obstacle to hornets which can break 
free with consummate ease. 

These observations suggested that the primary source of liquid 
protein was indeed provided by A. bruennichi. Sadly, limitations on my 
time made additional fieldwork impossible and my supposition could 
be tested no further. It is likely that similar behavourial patterns would 
be found in other habitats where the two species co-exist in any 
numbers. The spiders seem unable to put up any physical resistance to 
these attacks and might well get stung if they attempted to do so, but it 
is hard to believe that they have failed to develop any protective 
mechanisms. What might these be? 

The spiders make no attempt to hide — they remain for long periods 
in the centre of their webs so that they can detect the smallest vibration 
from any direction. This enables them to locate and incapacitate 
ensnared prey with minimum delay. We know that the compound 
insect eye is more likely to register movement than static shapes, and it 
would therefore be doubly advantageous for a spider to remain 
stationary whenever possible. Firstly, it would avoid the risk of 
deterring small insect prey which might otherwise collide with the web, 
and secondly it would reduce the chance of detection by predator 
species. The expectation that spiders would show a reluctance to move 
is borne out by field observation. Daytime activity is normally only 
triggered by the characteristic vibrations emanating from a small 
struggling insect. It is even possible that the spider’s passivity may be 
reinforced by awareness of hornet proximity. Certainly web impact 
caused by a blundering hornet would be in stark contrast to the 

252 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ad 

diminutive tensions and tremblings following ensnarement of small 
insect prey. Sure enough, if a curious entomologist strikes a web 
sharply the spider will generally remain motionless, but when a web is 
“tickled” with a grass blade to simulate the struggles of a small insect it 
is usually possible to elicit movement. But even the near approach of a 
hornet can probably be detected. During flight these heavy insects 
cause enough downdraught to move nearby leaves and flower heads. 
Again, a simple test — blowing on the web — will not induce the spider 
to move. Extremely fine hairs on the legs, known as trichobothria, can 
detect the minutest air currents and it may well be that bruennichi is 
conditioned to associate particular patterns of localised turbulence with 
danger. Furthermore, oscillograph traces made from recordings of insect 
flight depict distinguishing “sound signatures” for different species, the 
hornets being no exception. It would be well within the spider’s 
capabilities to sense and decode these sound patterns because the ultra 
sensitive tricobothria are of varying lengths, each being tuned to 
particular frequency range. 

So much for my observations on attack and defence in relation to the 
procurement of liquid protein needed by the hornet larvae, but how 
were the adults feeding themselves? They would need a carbohydrate 
intake but showed no interest in nectar sources. Honeydew on nearby 
oak trees was probably being used, but I could not be certain of this. 
However, I did manage to discover one source before I finally left the 
meadow. A small number of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) saplings had 
become established, each around three or four metres high, and I 
noticed hornets routinely flying to some of these. Their flight was quite 
different from that of the protein seekers, being higher, faster and more 
direct. Close inspection of the trunks revealed rectangular scars about 
six centimetres high and two centimetres wide where hornets had 
gnawed the outer layers as far as the hard xylem. The material which 
had been removed would not be suitable for nest building because 
wood pulp is only made from decaying or weathered timber. Clearly 
these were feeding stations. Four or five hornets could be found 
clustered around the top and bottom of each wound, never the sides, 
eagerly exploiting the sugars conveyed in the tree’s phloem just 
beneath the bark. Flies were also attracted and fed alongside the 
hornets, but all these insects seemed to be oblivious of each other in 
their single-minded obsession with the ash-sap. 

Many years ago Donisthorpe recorded hornets “ringing” ash twigs in 
Windsor Great Park and there are other records of hornets feeding on 


t Volume 55 »* December 1996 253 

sap exuding from damaged oak and elm trees. I could find no evidence 
of “twig-ringing” on these French trees, the insects were all 
concentrating on the trunk wounds, nor could I establish whether they 
chose ash trees for preference or simply because these were the only 
trees in the meadow young enough to have thin, vulnerable bark. 

It is one of the great fascinations 
of entomology that finding the 
answer to one question merely 
begets a whole series of new 
questions and hypotheses. I can 
make little additional progress until 
I return to the meadow, but in the 
meantime perhaps there are some 
hymenopterists amongst the AES 
membership who can elaborate on 
the behavioural patterns which I 
have described. 

Bus stop entomology 
by Frank McCann (6291) 

3 Langhbar Path, Easterhouse, Glasgow G33 4HY. 

On 7th June this year whilst waiting at a bus stop near Milngavie for a 
bus to Glasgow I noticed a caterpillar on the underside of an elm leaf 
on a tree growing behind the bus shelter. I took it from the tree and 
discovered it was a larva of the Brindled beauty moth. It fed very well 
on elm in captivity and later I released it onto a lime tree near my 

The next day whilst waiting for another bus at Cumberland Road, 
next to Alexandra Park, I collected a Common carpet moth which was 
resting on the pavement next to the bus stop. A few days later I was 
once again standing at a bus stop at Edinburgh Road near my house in 
Easterhouse when I noticed on the wall across from the bus stop a 
small micro-moth, which I put into a small jar and identified it at home 
aS a common species in Europe known as Dichrorampha petiverella. It 
has small yellow-gold markings — one on each of the very dark 
forewings. The larvae of this species feed in roots of yarrow and ox-eye 
daisy, yarrow is common on the roadside verges and banks where I 
found the moth. 

254 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society t 

Pieris mannii and other animals on Corfu in May 1995 — Part 2 
by Rob Parker 
2063 Washington Street, Beck Row, Suffolk IP28 8EX. 

[The last few pages ot Rob Parker’s article were inadvertently omitted from Volume 55 
(August 1996), and are added here as a supplement. — Ed_] 

Checklist of the butterflies of Corfu 
RP, May 1995 =m 
AHD, September 1995 = s 

m Melitaea cinxia (Linnaeus, 1758) 
M. phoebe (Denis & Schiffermuller], 1775) 

m s WM. didyma (Esper, 1778) 
m Melanargia larissa (Geyer, [1828]) 
m s_ Hipparchia syriaca (Staudinger. 1871) — Identified in the field, 
H. semele (Linnaeus, 1758) — See text 
H. volgensis (Mazochin-Porshnjakov, 1952) — See text 
H. statilinus (Hufnagel, 1766) 
m s  Maniola jurtina (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Hyponephele lupina (Costa, 1836) — New record, see text 
Pyronia cecilia (Vallantin, 1894) 
m s  Coenonympha pamphilus (Linnaeus, 1758) 
m Pararge aegeria (Linnaeus, 1758) — Mon Repos only 
m s_ Lasiommata megera (Linnaeus, 1767) 
m s_ JL. maera (Linnaeus, 1758) 

Kirinia roxelana (Cramer, [1777]) 

Checklist of the erroneous and doubtful species records for Corfu 
(with bibliographical references) 

Gegenes nostrodamus (Fabricius, 1793) — (Mathew, 1898) 
Erynnis tages (Linnaeus, 1758) — (Staudinger, 1870) 
Carcharodus lavatherae (Esper, 1783) — (Staudinger, 1870) 
C. flocciferus (Zeller, 1847) — (Galvagni, 1934-1935) 

Leptidea duponcheli (Staudinger, 1871) — (Koutsaftikis, 1974a) 
Colias alfacariensis (Ribbe, 1905) — (Koutsaftikis, 1974a) 
Pieris ergane (Geyer, [1828]) — (Norris, 1891) 

Euchloe tagis (Hubner [1804]) — (Norris, 1891) 

a Volume 55 ° December 1996 255 

Satyrium w-album (Knoch, 1782) — (De la Garde, 1899) 

Scolitantides orion (Pallas, 1771) — (Staudinger, 1870) 

Glaucopsyche melanops (Boisduval, [1828]) — (Norris, 1891; Smith, 1987) 

Argynnis adippe (Linnaeus, 1767) — (Koutsaftikis, 1973; Baldock & 
Bretherton, 1981) 

Melitaea trivia ((Denis & Schiffermiuller], 1775) — (Staudinger, 1970) 

Hipparchia fagi (Scopoli, 1763) — (Norris, 1891; Mathew, 1898; Rebel, 
1910: all records probably referable to H. syriaca). 

Another visit to Corfu by Peter Taylor was made in June/July 1996, and 
the reference on p181 to his records can now be updated: 

Lycaena thersamon, Quercusia quercus, Pieris ergane 
by Peter Taylor (unpublished). 


Baldock, S.W. and Bretherton, R. (1981). Butterflies in Corfu (Kerkyra) in late August with 
a provisional list of all species known from it. Trans. Br. Ent. Nat. Soc. 14: 1981; 8-10 & 

Coleman, N. and Mewton, C. (1991). Corfu. Windrush Island Guides. 

Coutsis, J.G. and Olivier, A. (1993). Confirmation of the presence of both Gegenes pumilio 
and G. nostrodamus on the Greek island of Crete. Phegea 21(4): 101-107 (1st Dec. 

Cribb, P.W. (1991). The problems of the Dappled white's name and status. Bull. amat. 
Ent. Soc. 50(376): 101-104. 

Durrell, G. (1956). My Family and Other Animals. Penguin Books. 

Kurdrna, O. (1977). A Revision of the Genus Hipparchia Fabricius. E.W. Classey. 

McLean, I.F.G. (1983). Spring Butterflies in Corfu. Proc. Trans. Br. Ent. Nat. Hist. Soc. 
16(983): 53-54. 

Olivier, A. (1987). Catalogue of the Butterflies of the Greek Islands in the Collection of 
the Institute Voor Taxonomische Zoologie Amsterdam. Phegea 15(2): 77-78 (1st April 

— , (1993). The Butterflies of the Greek Island of Rhodes. Viaamse Vereniging voor 
Entomologie, Antwerp. 

— , (1995). Personal Communication including Corfu Checklist. 

Owen, D.F. (1991). Can Danaus chrysippus (L.) establish itself in Europe? Ent. Gaz. 42: 

Parker, R. (1983). The Butterflies of Cyprus. Ent. Gaz. 34: 17-53. 

Showler, A.J. (1984). Further Records of Spring Butterflies in Corfu. Proc. Trans. Br. Ent. 
Nat. Hist. Soc. 17: 30. 

Tolman, T. and Bernhard, T. (1994). Significant extensions to the known range of 
Anthocharis damone (Boisduval, 1836) in Greece. Phegea 22: 177-80. 

Vanholder, B. (1993). Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758) en andere trekvlinders op 
Kerkira (Corfu) Phegea 21(2): 44. 

Withrington, D. (1995). Corfu in late September — Butterflies. Bull. amat. Ent. Soc..54: 

256 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ad 

Invertebrate Collection 
National Avian Research Centre 
United Arab Emirates 

by John E. Cooper, Programme Manager 

The National Avian Research Centre (NARC) is a research organisation 
dedicated to the economically sustainable use of wildlife. NARC is 
based in Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and was 
established by Royal Decree in December 1989. 

Although primarily concerned with birds and, in particular, with 
bustards and falcons, NARC has broad interests in desert ecology and 
the conservation and management of wildlife. During the first three 
years of its existence NARC included in its ecological programme 
research on invertebrates and, as a result, an impressive collection was 
amassed. | 

The Invertebrate Collection at present comprises the following: 

e Set specimens, primarily insects of different orders, in a large multi- 
drawered entomological cabinet. 

e Fixed specimens, mainly arachnids, in alcohol. 

e Unset and unfixed specimens of different arthropods frozen for 
examination and subsequent mounting or preparation. 

The NARC Invertebrate Collection is under the 
supervision of the Department of Ecology. It is 
available for study and use by bona fide scientists, 
professional and amateur. In return for having 
access to the collection, visitors are asked to assist 
in its curating and maintenance since, at the present 
time, NARC has no full-time entomologist on_ its 

The Invertebrate Collection is situated at the 
Sweihan Research Station which is 55km from the 
city of Al Ain in Abu Dhabi Emirate. 

For further information about the invertebrate 
collection and enquiries concerning access to it 
should be addressed to: 

The Head, Department of Ecology, National Avian 
Research Centre, P.O. Box 45553, Abu Dhabi, UAE: 


| | Volume 55 * December 1996 257 

The Gold Bug of Edgar Allan Poe: Fact or fiction? 
by John Hay 

336 Glasgow Road, Ralston, Paisley, Strathclyde PA1 3BH. 

Several recent visits to the Ohio State University at Columbus have 
permitted further pursuit of an entomological conundrum which, to me 
at least, holds considerable fascination. This entails essentially, the 
quest to discover what species Cif indeed there is one) is The Gold Bug 
of Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) short story fame (see Poe, 1983, for the 
unabridged tale, originally published in 1843). The Insect Collection of 
the University’s Museum for Biological Diversity seemed like the place 
where clues to the identity of the gold bug might be obtained. Through 
the auspices of the Museum’s curator, Dr Charles A. Triplehorn, I was 
able to compare the morphological description of Poe’s “Gold Bug” 
with specimens in the Museum’s extensive archive of insects native to 
the USA. 

The tale of “The Gold Bug” is basically one of a search for the buried 
treasure of the notorious pirate, Captain Kidd. It is, however, really an 
extensive ratiocination (May, 1991), where it is necessary for complete 
enjoyment of the narrative, to solve various cryptograms, in order to 
unearth the whereabouts of the stash. The gold bug, which in fact has 
little to do with the storyline, is more or less a red-herring (please 
forgive the mixed metaphor!). Neither is it a bug in the entomological 
sense; what is described in the tale, are features consistent with those 
of a coleopteran. But which one? 

Poe (though his character Legrand), tells the reader that the “bug” “is 
of a brilliant gold — about the size of a large hickory-nut — with two jet- 
black spots near one extremity of the back, and another, somewhat 
longer, at the other.” These latter features give to the dorsal aspect of 
the insect features reminiscent of “a skull, or a death’s head”. The “bug” 
was “identified” as “Scarabaeus caput hominis (head-of-a-man beetle).” 
According to the text, it was a voracious creature actually attacking its 
discoverer’s head on one occasion. So what is this species of insect; 
does it actually exist within the imagination of Poe? There appear to be 
four leading contenders (Figure 1). 

One prima facie candidate is the Goldsmith beetle (Cotalpa lanigera, 
family Scarabaeidae) (Saylor, 1940). This insect is approximately 20- 
26mm long, fairly heavy, and basically oval in shape. The head, thorax 
and scutellum are yellow to greenish in colour and have a metallic 
lustre. The elytra are yellow to beige. This species is favoured by some 

258 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ad 

Figure 1. Major contenders of the role of gold bug: 

1. Metriona bicolor, 2. Geotrupes splendidus, 3. Pelidnota punctata; 4. Cotalpa lanigera. 

entomologists (Milne & Milne, 1980) as being the actual gold bug of the 
tale of that name. It has, however, none of the markings attributed to 
the scarab in the Poe story. The related Grapevine beetle, 18-25mm 
long (Pelidnota punctata, family Scarabaeidae), has some of the 
required features. This beetle has two black dots on the sides of the 
pronotum and a further three black dots on the side of each elytron. 
The top of the head and the scutellum are greenish-black, however, 
and the elytra are brownish-yellow to a dull-red in colour, thus 
eliminating it as a candidate for the role of the gold bug. 

On patterning alone, another possibility would be the Golden 
tortoise beetle (Metriona bicolor, family Chrysomelidae). This is a brass 
coloured insect in life Gt becomes a dull reddish-brown, post mortem). 
It also has the synonym “gold bug” (Arnett, 1968). It is altogether too 
small at 5-Omm, however, to be a serious contender to fit Poe’s overall 
description of the gold bug. 

The Glossy pillbug (Geotrupes splendidus) is another scarab with 
possibilities. It is some 13-18mm in length, and can be bright bronze in 
colour, although it is more commonly metallic greenish-purple in 
colour. Again, however, the jet-black spots are notably absent, with the 
elytra instead being deeply pitted in rows running lengthwise along the 
dorsal aspect of the insect. 

| | Volume 55 * December 1996 

It is apparent that none of these beetles matches completely Poe’s 
description of the gold bug. One possibility, although considered 
unlikely, is that it was a sport form of one of the aforementioned 
species. So, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, should we 
conclude that the gold bug is a figment of the author’s imagination, 
being as one author has suggested (Allen, 1949), a composite species 
comprising the morphological and (behavioural) features of a number 
of different coleopteran species? One such example suggested in 
Allen’s biography of Poe is a hybrid consisting of the gold coloration 
of Cotalpa laningera with the distinct markings characteristic of the 
25-44mm long black coloured Eastern eyed (big eyed) click beetle 
(Alaus oculatus, family Elateridae), especially the presence on the 
pronotum of two large velvety black eyespots which are surrounded 
by a dense ring of white scales. The latter represents the well-known, 
“eye-spots” mimicry patterning observed on other insects, such as 
butterflies and caterpillars, as well as other animals such as peacocks 
(Wickler, 1968). 

In my opinion the jury is still out in the case of the gold bug and I 
for one shall continue to use my imagination in an attempt to solve the 
mystery concerning the “true” identity of this elusive and fascinating 


Allen, H. (1949). Israfel: The Life and Times of Edgar Allan Poe. Rinehart & Company, Inc, 
New York. pp. 174-178. 

Arnett, R.H. Jr. (1968). The Beetles of the United States (A Manual for Identification). The 
American Entomological Institute, Michigan. 

May, C.E. (1991). Edgar Allan Poe. A Study of the Short Fiction. Twayne Publishers, 

Milne, L. & Milne, M. (1980). National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American 
Insects and Spiders. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York. 

Poe, E.A. (1983). The Unabridged Edgar Allan Poe. Running Press, Philadelphia. 

Saylor, L.W. (1940). Synoptic revision of the beetle genera Cotalpa and Paracotalpa of the 

United States, with description of a new subgenus. Proceedings of the Entomological 
Society of Washington, 42: 190-200. 

Wickler, W. (1968). Mimicry in Plants and Animals. Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 

260 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society a 

In search of the 4-fold net 
by Leigh Plester (2968) 

BioFilm Ltd., Yla-Muuratjarvi, FIN-41800 Korpilahti, Finland. 

Whatever happened to the four-foldGing) butterfly net of the 1950s-60s? 
This was a particularly handy implement for an obvious reason — it 
could be assembled or stowed away in half a minute. A quick change 
of net bag and you had a fish net, or even a sweep net. With butterfly 
nets apparently now frowned upon among the UK’s tarmac jungles, the 
advantages of the disappearing act are obvious. 

Having carried kite-nets in the tropics on numerous occasions, I feel 
that the benefit of the extra size of these nets is outweighed by their 
clumsiness, air resistance and inconvenience to other people when one 
has to stop to fit the contraption together and later to put it away in a 
haversack. They are particularly unwieldy when used among thorny 
shrubs like rattan and generally arrive home leaving you wondering 
which was the original opening. Inevitably, that gynandromorph 
birdwing flits by just as you have pulled the frame sections out of the 
hem. Moreover, a kite net only just fits into my largest suitcase (minus 

In Lapland, the round frame of the 4-fold model fitted the shoulders 

better when the net was draped over one’s wide-brimmed hat 
to ward off mosquitoes. Nowadays they make hats with 
mosquito net “veils” built in, but it 
ain't half hard to catch things 
with them. 

The 4-fold pattern worked 
perfectly well for us until my 
school friend David Gadd broke 
the frame of his Corsica in '62 and I 

lost the last surviving ferrule on a 
clearcut in Finland during the early 
'80s. Since then, I have attempted to buy 

such a net (or even a frame) in both the 

West and Far East, all to no avail. Fishing 
tackle. ‘shops offers) only) plastic (ok 
aluminium non-folding fish nets. 

We are continually informed that the economic situation in Europe is 
poor. Who is going to start supplying this most useful implement again 
and make him(her)self a mint? Bags me the first one! 

a Volume 55 * December 1996 261 

Perching to advantage? 
The Purple hairstreak (Quercusia quercus). 
Observations during July/August 1996 on a Common by the M25 

by Anthony Crawford 

42 Bulstrode Court, Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire SLO 7RT. 

The Purple hairstreak was first noticed during the afternoon on a sunny 
day in mid-July. It was at low level on a small oak tree about two 
metres tall and this specimen had obviously strayed from much higher 
oaks which were adjacent. 

On following the flight of this specimen when it was disturbed I 
noticed others flying about the taller oaks (estimated at ten metres). 

Later that day, and accidentally as it happened, I again noticed Purple 
hairstreaks flying around the taller oaks in the vicinity of the original 
sightings. This was much later in the day (19.45hrs) and the weather 
conditions were fine, clear and warm. 

Further investigation showed many oaks of ten metres and more to 
be infested with the butterflies. As the sun went down they could be 
seen in large numbers flying around the tops of the trees and groups of 
ten or more butterflies were a common sight as they appeared to chase 
each other around the summit. 

There was no way of identifying their sex but quite lengthy 
observation, brought about by the spectacular nature of the sightings, 
indicated that there was a purpose to what was being witnessed. 

The flights and groups were all on the extreme west side of the 
tallest oak trees. The areas where these flights were observed were 
without exception the last areas of the trees to remain in the fading 
sunshine as the sun set but the butterflies were chasing each other 
around to settle for the night on the east side of the trees. It seemed 
that a prime perch was secured by a butterfly, or a number of 
butterflies, which were then disturbed by another or others looking for 
similar perches. A territorial chase would take place as the disturbed 
chased the disturbers away from the prime location. They then seemed 
to return to the original location but there was no way of determining if 
the original perchers regained their territory. 

It was assumed that these perches must have had some advantage if 
the activity to defend them was so active. Perhaps the reason was a 
prime position to obtain every benefit from the rising sun the following 

262 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society L ] 

These aerial acrobatics were observed for the rest of the month at 
about the same time each day and the observations indicated vast 
numbers of butterflies in the area. Early in August the same 
observations were made in the Ashclyst forest in Devon. 

During the early part of August there was a drop in the temperature 
when heavy rain may have washed away the honeydew from the host 
oak trees. After this the butterflies seemed to disperse over a wider area 
but they remained in evidence although not with the same density as 
had been seen before when every tree on the ten acre common must 
have supported at least 100 of them. 

A Spanish phenomenon — answers please 
by Ilse Danby 

6 Collingwood Terrace, Jesmond, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 2]P. 

I experienced a phenomenon on a recent holiday in the Spanish 
Pyrenees and hope that an explantation might be forthcoming from 

It was during the last week of August. The summer had been wet 
and mild. The soil was beginning to dry out and the countryside was as 
green and luscious as I had never seen it before, although the 
Pyrenaian peaks still wore ragged caps of snow from last year. 

I was standing on our terrace just before sunset. The sky was clear 
and there was a light breeze. It had not been too hot during the day. 
Then I saw something totally unreal, undreamed of by science fiction. 

Moving from one mountain valley to the other, at a distance of about 
200 feet from me, were rotating funnels or cones of thousands of 
reddish insects, dancing and bobbing up and down, and hovering 
along in the same direction, like ghosts of space ships. There were 
hundreds of these funnels, each one measuring about two feet in depth 
and one across their flat top and each one carrying thousands of 
insects. So, there must have been millions of insects on the move. If 
attacked by swifts, each funnel scattered and reformed immediately 
afterwards to resume its rhythmic transport to the next valley or 

What was it and why was it doing it? What if it had turned around, 
invaded our house and devoured me? 

Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Fig. 2. Having emerged, the wings are inflated. 


Volume 55 * December 1996 a4 

Fig. 4. The Elephant hawkmoth. 


Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Fig. 6. A close-up of the Hornet — their appearance and size often causes alarm. 
Photo: Nick Holford. 


Volume 55 * December 1996 

Figs. 7 & 8. A mining bee of genus Andrena. Photo: Nick Holford. 


2 Volume 55 * December 1996 263 

Unwelcome visitors from Australia: Polistes (Hymenoptera) 

by Steve Eden 

14 Stafford Street, Waihi, B.O.P., New Zealand. 

We all sometime or other encounter unusual, interesting or even 
beautiful insects from far off places. I have read of the “nice” imports 
that the old country (England) has looked forward to for many decades 
now. However, I look forward to the butterflies such as the Painted 
lady skipping across the coast from Australia. We have had a number of 
Hymenoptera in the form of parasitic social wasps that are only too 
willing to come without a visa or other recommendations. I have 
noticed One wasp in particular, hawking the foodplant of the Copper 
butterfly Rauparaha. | mentioned in passing this fact to Dr George 
Gibbs, and he said that he was not surprised. He also stated that this 
wasp is parasitic of the Monarch butterfly. The wasp that I am referring 
to is the Chinese paper wasp (Polistes chinensis). 

My wife and I took particular notice of the comings-and-goings of 
this wasp. It was this step-up of vigilance of wasps that made me 
realise that New Zealand was under scrutiny by other “bad eggs” of 
the Hymenoptera group of insects. So I undertook the pleasant task of 
catching, setting, cataloguing and then painting illustrations onto plates 
making up the heading of New Zealand parasitic wasps and 
ichneumon flies, which the Auckland Museum is helping me to 


The Chinese paper wasp makes the usual cup-shaped nest which is 
attached to a branch by means of the petiole. However, I must state 
here that this social wasp has a nest that, so far as I have observed, is 
quite somewhat larger than the Tasmanian paper wasp, the former 
making their nests of a diameter of 80mm (3") or smaller. One nest of 
this size found in my garden had 62 wasps on it. The body-length of 
the insect is from 13mm up to 17mm and is coloured black and yellow, 
with light orange legs. Its temperament is quite docile compared to that 
of the German wasp. I[ saved the nest mentioned above, and mounted 
the wasps on top of it. 

The Chinese paper wasp has probably been around for a few years, 
yet I have failed to notice it flying around in the gardens. Last winter 
was a kind winter, so our immigrant lost no time with the pleasantries 
and got on with the job of procreation. Now it appears that ours was 
not the only garden to contain a nest, three being found this season 
within our littke township of Waihi. In May each nest sported between 

264 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society oe 

30 and 60 adults. However, it is now late May and there are no wasps 
to be found. This wasp feeds on other less fortunate insects by 
hawking the foodplants. Upon finding the larvae of butterflies she sets 
to and quarters them up and takes these pieces back to feed her 

Butterflies wishing to gain a foothold (especially the Monarch) and 
then build up their numbers face two problems. The first being, the 
swan plant does not grow naturally in New Zealand so the Monarch 
has to rely on the kindness of butterfly lovers. The second problem is 
that other unwanted immigrants have decided to join their friends in a 
headlong rush to set themselves up as well. Thus we have the 
Tasmanian paper wasp Polistes tasmaniensis finding the climate quite to 
their liking as well as a number of ichneumon wasps, who are all quite 
happy to add our butterflies to their menu. 


In New Zealand we like to see our butterflies on the wing each summer 
and it would be silly to sit back and wait for the balance of nature to 
work out the best outcome. So here in Waihi, we are endeavouring to 
cut down the number of wasp nests and be of help to the Northland 
people by building up the foodplant for the Monarch's larvae. A 
helpline has been set up for this very purpose. 

There is a butterfly house in western Auckland built and run by Ted 
Scott. The butterflies are bred under the protective cover of 
garden/nurcry mesh. But where this butterfly house differs from 
others, is that all the butterflies are released by a number of helpful 
school children. Good news is that Ted intends to build an additional 
butterfly enclosure to enable him to carry out the same procedures 
with our native Red and Yellow admirals (Sassaris gonerilla and B. 

There is of course one more thing that would give our butterflies an 
added helping hand and that is an unusually freezing cold winter! This 
would cut down the numbers of unwelcome visitors from Australia! 

ad Volume 55 ° December 1996 265 

The moths of Mepal — additions for 1994 and 1995 
by Rob Partridge (8956) 

11 New Road, Mepal, Ely, Cambridgeshire. 

This is the fourth article about the moths I have recorded around my 
home village of Mepal in Cambridgeshire (VC29). Earlier articles 
appeared in Bull. amat. Ent. Soc. 51: 293-297, 52: 267-272 and 53: 245- 

During 1994 and 1995 a further 31 species were added to this local 
list, giving a total of 205 since recording began in 1990. 


Narrow-bordered five-spot burnet (Zygaena lonicerae). A good colony was 
found on the south-facing bank of the village by-pass on 2.7.94, with at least a 
dozen individuals in flight. Several possible foodplants were present. 


Dwarf cream wave Udaea fuscovenosa). One came to m.v. in the garden on 
30.6.94. Several were noted subsequently in 1994 and 1995. 

Dark-barred twin-spot carpet (Xanthorhoe ferrugata). One taken on 20.5.94 
confirmed that I already had a specimen among X. spadicearia. Several more 
were seen after this date. 

Wood carpet (Epirrhoe rivata). A pristine specimen came to m.v. on 7.7.94. 
Barry Dickerson, the recorder for old Huntingdonshire (VC31), pointed out that 
this species has become much scarcer there since the early 1980s (pers. comm.). 

Twin-spot carpet (Perizoma didymata). From 26.6.94 this moth was found 
commonly, flying along hedgerows at dusk on the Ouse Washes, although it 
has never come to light in the garden. 

Toadflax pug (Eupithecia linariata). A single came to actinic light on 7.6.94. 
The foodplant, Linaria vulgaris, has not been found locally. 

Wormwood pug (Eupithecia absinthiata). Larvae were collected from ragwort, 
Senecio jacobaea, on 24.9.93 and emerged from 4.7.94. 

Sloe pug (Eupithecia chloerata). One larva was beaten from blackthorn, Prunus 
spinosa, blossom in 23.3.94. This species was common at a site near Ely in 


Early tooth-striped (Jrichopteryx carpinata). One came to actinic light on 
6.5.95. B. Dickerson (pers. comm.) has only one record for VC31 in recent years 
— Weavely Wood on 14.5.92. 

Yellow-barred brindle (Acasis viretata). Several came to actinic light at a nearby 
pit on 1.6.94. This is one of the few sites in the area where ivy, Hedera helix, is 

266 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 34 

Lilac beauty (Apeira syringaria). One male came to m.v. on 14.7.95. 

Scalloped hazel (Odontopera bidentata). One to m.v. on 1.6.94. 

White-pinion spotted (Lomographa bimaculata). The first came to m.v. on 
31.5.94 — others were noted after this. The species is common at a site near Ely. 

Yellow belle (Aspitates ochrearia). On 3.9.94 a specimen came to the garage 
light while I was setting up the trap! It is a small, lightly marked individual 
whose identity was confirmed by B. Skinner at the annual exhibition that 
year. Generally a species of coastal counties but established in the 


Convolvulus hawk-moth (Agrius convolvuli). One came to m.v. on 13.9.95. Two 
specimens of the common immigrant Nomophila noctuella (Lep.: Pyralidae) 
were also present. 


Pale tussock (Calliteara pudibunda). 13.5.95 to m.v. was the first date — two 
other followed. On 24.9.95 a fully-grown larva was found feeding on dogweed, 
Cornus sanguinea, in a local hedgerow. 


Short-cloaked moth (Nola cucullatella). The first came to m.v. on 2.7.94 — 
others followed. One was seen in 1995. 

Least black arches CN. confusalis). One came to m.v. on 29.4.95. After this it 
was found in good numbers in the remnants of an old orchard nearby. 


The shears (Hada nana). One to m.v. on 1.6.94: another on 30.5.95. 
Pale-shouldered brocade (Lacanobia thalassina). Two to m.v. — 1.6.94 and 

The campion (Hadena rivularis). On 17.6.94 one came to m.v.. Though 
somewhat worn, a more attractive species than illustrations suggest. 

Feathered gothic (Tholera decimalis). A female to m.v. on 30.8.94 and a male 
on 6.9.94. 

The sprawler (Brachionycha sphinx). One to actinic on 4.11.94. 

Merveille du jour (Dichonia aprilina). On 13.10.95 three appeared to m.v. — 
two outside the trap and one inside. The trap was run on the five succeeding 
nights to see if others were present but no more were recorded. No recognised 
immigrants were seen but Udea ferrugalis (Lep.: Pyralidae) had been noted on 
Sih ORS): 

There seems to be some disagreement about the status and flight period of 
Dichonia. The Colour Identification Guide to the Moths of the British Isles 
says that it is a suspected occasional immigrant flying from mid-September to 

3d Volume 55 * December 1996 267 

mid- October. The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 
10 makes no mention of this species being an immigrant, and gives a flight 
period from mid-October in the south of England. 

Yellow-line quaker (Agrochola macilenta). One to m.v. on 25.10.95. 
Barred sallow (Xanthia aurago). One to m.v. on 4.10.95. 

Dark dagger (Acronicta tridens). A male specimen taken on 7.7.92 seemed 
browner and less clearly marked than other A. psi when I was reviewing the 
collection in the winter of 1994. Examining the genitalia with a hand-lens 
seemed to indicate A. tridens and this was confirmed by B. Dickerson in April 


Lesser-spotted pinion (Cosmia affinis). Adults began to emerge on 5.7.94 from 
larvae collected in late May of the same year — all were found on English elm, 
Ulmus procera. Larvae were common again in late 1995. 

Double-lobed (Apamea ophiogramma). One came to m.v. on 14.7.95. 

Twin-spotted wainscot (Archanara geminipuncta). To m.v. on 6.8.94 and 
another on the following night. This species is said to be seldom reported at 
light but I have also taken it using actinic light at a site near Ely. 

Small yellow underwing (Panemeria tenebrata). On 8.5.94 several were found 
flying in hot sunshine along a drainage bank on the Ouse Washes. They fed 
frequently at meadow buttercups, Ranunculus acris. Spoil from dredging 
operations smothered much of the bank in the following winter but one short 
section seems to be undamaged, although the species was not seen in 1995. 

The above species were all recorded in and around my home village. 
For the sake of completeness I give records of three other species 
found in VC29. 

Water carpet (Lampropteryx suffumata). One came to m.v. on 7.5.95 in 
Doghouse Grove, Wilburton, Cambridgeshire. 

Oak-tree pug (Eupithecia dodoneata). A pug was seen laying eggs on the buds 
of hawthorn blossom, Crataegus monogyna, on 1.5.95 at the Roswell Pits near 
Ely. The moth and ova were collected and by 8.6.95 larvae were feeding on the 
calyces of the fruit. A number of pupae were successfully overwintered and 
began to emerge on 20.4.95. 

Nut-tree tussock (Colocasia coryli). One came to m.v. at Doghouse Grove on 
23.4.95. This species was also found to be common at Fordham Wood, 

Finally, one of the earlier articles reported the discovery of a single larva of the 
Oak eggar, Lasiocampa quercus, in somewhat suspicious circumstances, 
suggesting that it may have been imported on shrubs from another area. I am 
pleased to report that the species is resident; several females have been 
attracted to light, a male has been found drying its wings on a July afternoon, 
and a larva was found feeding on low, scrubby bramble, Rubus fruticosa. 

268 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society Sé 

Many thanks to Barry Dickerson for his comments about many species 
taken over the years and for his help in identifying some of the more 
difficult ones, and also to the RSPB and English Nature for allowing me 
to record on the Ouse Washes SSSI. 

Heath, J. & Emmet, A.M. (Eds.), 1983. The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and 
Ireland 10, Harley Books, Colchester. 
Skinner, Bernard, 1984, Colour Identification Guide to the Moths of the British Isles. Viking, 


ten ny vO Ae be grtofully « received by 
young and old alike! 

Please send all contributions to the _ 
\ ‘AES Bug Club, PO Box 8774, London SW7 52ZG. 

Membership includes a regular newsletter, 
field trips, competitions and much more! 

For more details, please write, enclosing a SAE to: 
AES Bug Club, PO Box 8774, London SW7 5ZG 

3d Volume 55 * December 1996 269 

A Mining bee, Andrena humiilis, evicting two earwigs from its 

by Neil A. Robinson (10002) 
3 Abbey Drive, Natland, Kendal, Cumbria LAO 7QN. 

Duce junc 1995 1 spent quite-a lot of time watching and 
photographing a colony of mining bees, Andrena humilis Imhoff (Plate 
96X, Figs. 7 & 8), in the centre of a much-used public footpath on 
Heslington Barrows, Cumbria (SD487895). The colony consists of about 
100 holes, each surrounded by a mound of soil, in an area of about 
20m’. The females are brightly coloured by golden pollen from rough 
hawkbit (Leontodon hispidus L.) on a nearby roadside verge as they fly 
to their holes, but are quite dull when they emerge minus pollen. On 
29th June at 10.30am I noticed a pollen-less female grappling with 
something in the entrance to its nest-hole. Thinking I was about to 
witness a dispute with another female, or perhaps with a nomad bee, I 
took a photograph. The bee flew off and I was puzzled to see a pair of 
long straight antennae waving out of the hole. The next moment a large 
earwig shot out and scuttled away — I only had time to note from its 
straight-sided pincers that it was a female. The bee then returned to its 
hole and again I sould see that it was fighting with something — I took 
another photograph. Then a second earwig emerged, this time limping 
lopsidedly, presumably having been stung by the bee. 

This raises a number of questions. First; had the earwigs entered the 
nest-hole to raid the pollen store, pollen being one of their favoured 
foods, or were they simply using the dark hole as a retreat? Secondly; 
as earwigs are supposed only to be active in darkness, presumably they 
had entered the hole during the night — in which case, what had the 
bee been doing all this time? The fact that the bee was without pollen 
may be significant as I have noticed that if a pollen-bearer is unable to 
enter its hole, for instance, because the mound has been trodden on, it 
disappears for a while and then returns, minus pollen, to reopen it. This 
suggests to me that the battle with the intruders had begun before I 
arrived on the scene. I would be very interested to know whether there 
are any previous observations of earwigs using mining bee nest-holes, 
and if it is known whether they are attracted by, and eat, the stored 

The next day I saw a pollen-bearing female hesitating at the mouth 
of its hole, but this time a pollen-less female emerged, without any 
dispute, and the other entered. This is the only case I have observed of 
two A. humilis apparently using the same nest-hole. 

270 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society | 

Holidays in south-west France 

by Jerry Jones (8347) 

58 Wybourn Drive, Onchan, Isle of Man IM3 4AT. 

I have, for as long as I can remember, been a fanatical admirer of 
butterflies — those ephemeral beauties of the insect world of which we 
in the British Isles can boast around 60 species either resident or 

Living as I do in the Isle of Man, snuggled in between Ireland and 
mainland Britain, in the centre of the Irish Sea, I maintain a keen 
interest in the 17 species of butterfly which are either native to the 
island or migrate here annually. Seventeen species is not a lot and, 
when the opportunity to visit elsewhere to see other species arises, I 
am always keen to take it. 

With this in mind — and the need to find some place where the 
summer temperatures rise above 17 degrees Celsius — my wife and | 
decided to take the plunge in 1989 and buy an old house in the Lot-et- 
Garonne departement of south-west France. 

As teachers we are both fortunate to be able to take a long summer 
holiday, so we decided to explore a part of France which was new to 
us both. Indeed our first holiday down there at Easter 1990 was the first 
visit my wife had ever paid to France, whilst my experience of the 
country had been confined to visiting the north and north-east. 

That first Easter was an adventure and a half! Just prior to our arrival 
the temperatures had hit an almost record low of minus-nine degrees 
Celsius and, the day we arrived, the temperature had just about 
managed to creep up to eight or nine degrees. 

Our excitement on arrival was, therefore, tempered somewhat by the 
realisation that we had not brought with us any suitably warm clothing. 
Well, the worst happened, and it was cold and wet for the entire 
fortnight except for one afternoon in the the middle of the first week 
when, inexplicably it seemed, the sun came out and the temperatures 
rose to around 25 degrees Celsius. What a contrast! The flowers on the 
tamarisk tree in our front garden opened up and — best of all — the 
butterflies arrived! There weren’t many of them that first Easter, but 
there were two that I had never seen before in Britain. 

The first landed on the front lawn — though with the grass not having 
been cut since the previous August, it resembled something near a mini 

tf Volume 55 ° December 1996 214 

I had been sitting on a low wall on the verandah at the front of the 
house, enjoying a well-earned beer (by this time the interior 
decorating had begun to take its toll) when I spotted a smallish 
orange/brown butterfly which kept alighting on the grass behind me, 
only to take off again at regular intervals to drive away a similar 
insect which seemed intent on laying claim to the same small area of 

This behaviour gave me a clue as to the identity of the species and, 
after eventually getting close enough I established the fact that it was a 
Speckled wood — but not the Speckled wood we find in Britain! The 
markings were similar admittedly, but whereas the British insect has 
creamy markings on the brown background, this butterfly was very 
orange in colour. With my identification book at the ready, I realised 
that this was the southern European form of the Speckled wood, in 
which the creamy markings are replaced by orange. 

I was just congratulating myself on identifying this species when, out 
of the corner of an eye, I spotted what looked like a small pale- 
coloured kite gliding down to the tamarisk tree. A closer look revealed 
it to be a Swallowtail but, again, not the Swallowtail of which we have 
a British race. No, this was the rather erroneously-named Scarce 
swallowtail which, in most of Europe seems to be far more common 
than its “common” relative. 

For the next hour and a half I happily snapped away with the camera 
using up at least ten films, in the hope of obtaining one or two “classic” 

Well, that was it; I was well and truly hooked and the summer 
holidays could not come soon enough. When they did arrive we were 
fortunate to be able to spend six glorious weeks in almost non-stop 
sunshine at our new-found paradise. 

As for the butterflies; that first summer I was able to photograph 
many, many species I’d not seen before. There were plenty of blues; 
Long and Short-tailed, Adonis, Chalkhill, Alcon, Large and Small. There 
were Large and Sooty coppers; Woodland and Great-banded graylings; 
Heath, Weaver's, Meadow, Knapweed, Silver-washed and Queen of 
Spain fritillaries; Wood whites, Southern white admiral, Lesser purple 
emperor, Mallow skipper, Dryads and Common and Scarce swallowtails 
and many more. 

To someone used to the relative dearth of wildlife to be found in the 
Isle of Man, it was like being transported to a naturalist’s heaven. 

272 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society La 

Other wildlife soon made itself evident. There were umpteen species 
of damsel and dragonfly, huge — and not so huge — beetles, spiders, 
grasshoppers, crickets, day-flying moths and the ubiquitous wall lizards. 
I even unearthed a mini-colony of marbled newts which had decided to 
spend the summer months underneath a pile of old roof slates stacked 
up behind my barn. 

Night-time brought other visitors to the house. The larger moths 
homed in on the bulkhead light outside the front door, glow worms 
were evident in back and front gardens, as were stick-insects and 
praying mantids. What I first thought to be a night-flying dragonfly 
turned out to be an ant lion — the larvae and adults of which are 
ferocious carnivores — thank goodness they’re not 100-times bigger! 

Some may be surprised when I say that one of the greatest pleasures 
at night time was to watch numerous toads shuffling along in the 
undergrowth searching out juicy earthworms or beetles. It was a 
pleasure for me to see them, because there are no toads in the Isle of 
Man. Indeed there are no snakes, squirrels, voles or badgers. on the Isle 
of Man either, so the sight of what to many might seem common and 
possibly uninteresting, was novel and the cause of much excitement. 

Since those first two visits to our house in France some six years ago, 
we have been back every summer, and most Easters and the list of 
wildlife has continued to grow. I count myself fortunate to be able to 
holiday there each year and to photograph such diverse wildlife, but 
holidays are only holidays, of course, and one has always to retum 
home to face the reality of working for one’s living. Still, God willing, 
there’s always next year! 

Snail-dwelling wasp 
by George Ellis (3881) 

Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD. 

I was interested to read Philip Wilkins’ recent account of a wasp 
inhabiting a snail shell he found in southern Spain. The insect is 
unlikely to have been a wasp, though this cannot be. definitely ruled 
out as one may have taken shelter in the shell during the heat of the 
day. I know of no non-parasitic wasp which nests in snail shells. It is 
much more likely, however, that the shell was the nest site of a species 
of solitary bee. There are several species in the subfamily Megachilinae 

ad Volume 55 * December 1996 273 

which use empty snail shells for their nests. These shell-nesting bees 
are mostly in the genera Hoplitis and Osmia and are close relatives of 
the leaf-cutter bees (genus Megachile). In Britain, these include three 
species: Osmia aurulenta, O. bicolor and Hoplitis spinulosa. Once a 
snail shell has been appropriated as a nest site the bee begins to build 
its nest, mainly within the “whorl” or spire of the shell. A typical nest 
consists of a few chambers (about two or four in number, depending 
on the size of the shell) known as cells, the walls of which consist of 
masticated leaf pulp known as leaf mastic. When fresh the colour of 
this material is bright-green but, with time, assumes a brownish or 
black colour. Each cell is provisioned with a mixture of pollen and 
nectar, an egg is laid on this, and the cell sealed with further leaf 
mastic. The period from the egg to full-fed larva is usually quickly 
completed. Those species which fly in the spring generally overwinter 
as adults within their sealed cells. Bees which fly from mid to late 
summer normally overwinter as fully-fed larvae which pupate in the 

In many shell-nesting bees, a shell containing a completed nest is 
simply left exposed to the elements. However, in some species the 
female excavates a pit in the sand into which the shell is rolled, before 
being covered by a layer of sand. In Osmia bicolor the occupied shell is 
covered with a pile of perhaps two hundred dead stems or numerous 
fragments of leaf litter, each stem or fragment being carried in the 
mandibles of the female and deposited on top of the shell. The purpose 
of the eventual heap is not known but may act as_ short-time 
camouflage Cit is probably quickly dispersed by wind and rain). 

Some solitary wasps are cleptoparasites of snail-nesting bees. These 
wasps include species in the genus Sapyga. The female Sapyga lays an 
egg in the provisioned cell of the bee. The resulting larva destroys the 
bee’s egg or newly-emerged larva and feeds on the pollen and nectar. 
It is possible that the insect which Mr Wilkins saw inside his shell was a 


274 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 36 

A New Zealand Copper, Lycaena rauparaha 

by Steve Eden 

14 Stafford Street. Waibi, B.O.P.. New Zealand. 

Back in 1994 I spent some time on holiday at a little seaside resort on 
the Bay of Plenty called Matata, a small caravan park that is only 
separated from the sea by a long line of sand dunes. The camping 
ground had no electricity laid on, so everything in our caravan was run 
on LPG. 

The sand dunes are completely covered by masses of the Copper’s 
foodplant Muehblenbeckia australis which occurs around the whole of 
the New Zealand coastline. This plant forms a thick springy mat 
growing up to one metre high. 

The Copper itself has a historic background. It is named after an 
infamous Maori chief of the Ngati Toa tribe many years ago, which is 
interesting because this Copper covers the same areas that the chief 
covered in his fights with neighbouring tribes. 

January is the time that one can be assured of seeing this Copper on 
the wing, although it can be found earlier if the weather has been 
moderate over the spring period (September). 

LI. rauparaha has a wingspan of 25-31mm and can be seen in the 
hundreds fluttering across its foodplant seeking the choicest young 
shoots to place its tiny eggs on. It was keeping company with the 
Common blue butterfly, which is now (in the month of April) the only 
butterfly on the wing. 

I have sat in the car and watched a fairly recent immigrant from 
Australia, the Paper wasp Polistes chinensis (25mm) hawking over the 
Muebhlenbeckia looking for the Copper’s larvae to take back to its nest 
to feed its young. 

Rauparaha’s copper does not like wind or overcast weather. So the 
long range weather forecast had to be observed before we set out on 
our holiday. Sexual dimorphism is less extreme in this species than in 
its friend the Common copper L. salustius, so it takes some expertise to 
differentiate between the two. 

Something that is fairly common in L. rauparaha is the occurrence of 
two different colours. This is the golden/orange colour on the 
underside and also the variety that is a mustard colour underside. 

The entomologist stationed at the Wellington Museum advised me to 
write to a Dr George Gibbs at the Victoria University. Dr Gibbs told me 

od Volume 55 ° December 1996 275 

that he had written a book on the subject of New Zealand butterflies 
and that it could help me to differentiate between the closely allied 
species whose range sometimes overlap. Dr Gibbs’ beautifully 
illustrated book, along with its keys are of essential value. 

Dealing with rauparaha’s main points we can see the difference 
quite clearly. 

Lycaena rauparaha: 

The upper wing veins are displayed in singular black markings. J. 
salustius has two thin lines making up the wing venation on the males. 
Salustius females have double marked veins on hindwing M2, M3 and 
CuAl. However L. rauparaha does not have blue sub-marginal spots 
on the female. LZ. rauparaha does not have any black scales within the 
upper veins of the forewing M3, CuAl and CuA2 triangular shaped 
(salustrius does). 


Triangle clear 
of black scales 

No double lines on 
either sex, on forewing 
nor hindwing. 

Meuhlenbeckia australis 
Carger than complexa) 

L. rauparaha: male 

(upper side) 

Black scales 

L. salustius: male 
(upper side) 
Blue sub-marginal spots on female only. 

276 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 36 


To collect perfect specimens of L. rauparaha one would need to hunt 
for its pupa lying in the leaf-litter beneath the tangled mass of the 
springy foodplant Muehlenbekia, which is no easy job. 

One cannot grow this plant in a breeding cage very well, and it will 
not last if pruned from the plant and put into water. However, good 
specimens can be obtained if caught just after the first emergence. It is 
also found that setting them before the wings have stiffened is best. 

Large influx of migrants in southern England 
by Derek Jenkins 

7 Lakewood Road, Ashurst, Hampshire SO40 7DH. 

Whilst prospecting ponds near Ninham, Isle of Wight, on Ist June, for 
signs that the Odonata population was finally emerging after the 
appalling conditions in May, I came across Small coppers (Z. phlaeds), a 
Wall brown (Z. megera) and a Painted lady (Cynthia cardui). Since | 
usually record only one or two of the latter per year this was a 
promising start to the day. However, on continuing my walk, a further 
five C. cardui were encountered on rough grassland at the back of 
Sandown Airport. The following day 12 more were found a couple of 
miles away in a lane at Alvestone in late afternoon under relatively dull 
but warm conditions. During the following week, temperatures reached 
the lower 80s and five C. cardui were in a garden in the centre of 
Southampton and a further two plus numerous Silver Y moths 
(Autographa gamma) in a nearby park at Shirley. 

On 8th June I carried out work at Fletchwood Meadows, a 
Hampshire Wildlife Trust reserve at Ashurst, near Southampton and 
flushed 11 C. carduiand countless A. gamma from grassland at 8.30am. 
In the afternoon ten more were counted at White Moor, Burley and 12 
at Vales Moor, both in the New Forest area. In spite of a slight northerly 
breeze, most C. cardui on the wing were heading northwards. The 
following day I led a field trip to Fletchwood Meadows and rashly 
guaranteed that C. cardui would be seen but only one appeared, right 
at the end of a two-hour visit! A. gamma were as numerous as before. 
Had they all moved northwards as suggested by the flight pattern of the 
previous day? Certainly more C. cardui were seen in the afternoon 
further south in the New Forest at Dibden Bottom (11) and Crockford 
(9). It would be interesting to hear of other sightings and dates to see if 
this was a steady up-country movement or whether the migrants arrived 

| Volume 55 «© December 1996 277 

at the same time over a wide area of the country. Presumably all the 
migrants (and the rabid Daubentins bat) were carried in on the strong 
south to south-east winds in the last week of May. 

In the week up to the 14th June no further C. cardui were seen in 
Southampton in spite of continuing good weather, although a handful 
of Red admirals (Vanessa atalanta) were present in the parks. At the 
weekend, however, a further trip to the Isle of Wight produced two C. 
cardui (and a Broad-bordered bee hawkmoth, H. fuciformis) on red 
valerian in a Brading garden and a total of 24 spread out over 
Bembridge Marsh, ranging from reasonably fresh-looking specimens to 
some almost devoid of colour. Over the period from 1st June to 15th 
June, C. cardui was by far the most numerous butterfly encountered, 
with other species only present in ones and twos in any given area. 

Also at Fletchwood Meadows on 9th June was a single female Pale 
clouded yellow (C. byale). In flight this appeared to be a starkly 
contrasting black and white insect, quite unlike C. crocea f. helice of 
which several specimens were seen two years previously, and 
resembled an undersized Marbled white. At the one brief pause from 
flight, the upper side of the rear hind wings were seen to lack the 
greyish coloration of C. crocea f. helice. 

Glasgow micro-moths 
by Frank McCann (6291) 

3 Langbar Path, Easterbouse, Glasgow G33 4HY. 

I captured two small moths on the window which were white in colour 
— both the same species I think, they were micro-moths but a species I 
could not identify. I suspected at least one of them would be a female 
so I kept both of them for eggs. 

Outside the window from which they were captured is a window 
box in which I have planted many flowering plants. I put the small 
moths into a container with a selection of leaves from plants in the 
window box and one of them has laid eggs on a leaf, but as the leaf 
has withered it is difficult to identify what plant it was from. So I 
collected various bits of leaf from several of the window box plants and 
placed them on a large piece of white paper and wrote each species of 
plant beneath them, so when the leaves wither I can match the leaf to 
the same one the eggs were laid on. The eggs are white in colour and 
were laid in folds in the leaf and number around ten. Both micro-moths 
have died, and only the eggs remain to continue this particular species. 

278 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists* Society eS 


Journal Notice 

British Wildlife. A bi-monthly journal of approximately 70 pages with 
coloured and other illustrations. biainable from Subscription 
Department, British Wildlife Publishing, Lower Barn, Rooks Farm, 
otherwick, Hook, Hampshire RG27 9BG. Price, mentioning AES. 
£17.95 per year. 


Although some members may already be aware of, and already 
«7 = - ye ty koe 3 , es Se ee a 2 
for those who have-1 ne yet heard of it I believe it is worth 

Sees SN a Sees 
aoe Orthoptera, 

2 5 
jeud 5 

The issue for Apmil this year is of particular 
A interest to all entomologists. [he main article 

in ibe New Forest. If ever there was a clearer 

= > + - 
swarming — and I mean swar ming, DULTCTINES 
si 7 43 ; 3 < | 
were literal 

7 | 77 3 3 - ; — 
id hardly see ahead and indeed 

article exp! lains it. Fo 
Victorian era. up until 1914 
in fact. this paradise exist 

= > 3 5 .- = 
anda the Gepredgatiions 

3d Volume 55 « December 1996 279 

of hundreds of collectors over a century made not one jot of difference 
to the butterfly numbers. The rot set in with the dire necessity of tree 
felling during the two world wars and the inappropriate and insensitive 
management by the (conifer fixated) Forestry Commission into whose 
hands the New Forest was put. This article is essential reading for all 
those who may still be inclined to blame “collectors” rather than habitat 
destruction for the decline of our butterflies, for it leaves no doubt 
whatsoever that in the case of the New Forest such drastic changes 
have taken place this century as to leave little room for all but a few 
butterflies. The article does, however, end on a ray of hope; with better 
understanding today of butterfly requirements, improvement in the 
management of the forest could be made, but, as is so often the case 
today, Government indifference and lack of understanding will first 
need to be overcome. 

This issue also contains two further articles on entomology. An 
account of the Scarce blue-tailed dragonfly Ischnura pumilio and, by 
Martin Warren, an identification guide to our skipper butterflies with all 
the species illustrated in colour. Un previous issues of the journal I 
have noticed similar treatment of the blues.) Quite apart from its normal 
entomological content which keeps one right up-to-date with migrants 
arriving, times of appearance and notes on recent research, I have, over 
the past couple of years, found much of interest in this well-illustrated 
journal and can heartily recommend it. 

Brian O.C. Gardiner (225) 

Journal article review 

The butterflies of the Canary Islands: a survey on their distribution, 
biology and ecology by Martin Wiemers. A4, pp 63-118 © coloured) in 
Linneana Belgica Vol. XV Nos. 2 & 3 1995 (Journal price FB950 from 
45, Leuvensestraat, B-1800 Vilvoorde, Belgium). 

With so many of us now visiting these and other Atlantic islands here at 
last is a really comprehensive and well-researched account of the 32 
butterfly species to be found in this group of islands. The geography, 
climate, vegetation and early history of lepidopterology in the islands is 
first of all discussed at length and this is followed by a clearly laid out 
account of all the species which includes many previously unpublished 

280 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society tS] 

The text is illustrated with diagrams of the vegetation zones and 
maps of the distribution of the species on the various islands making 
up this macaronesian archipelago. These clearly indicate how, as 
elsewhere, species have declined, or perhaps I should say “not been 
recorded” on some of the islands since 1974, so any visitors to any of 
the islands, particularly the least visited such as El Hierro or 
Fuerteventura would do well to look out for and record all they see. 

Just how well researched this account is can be seen both from the 
extensive list of over seven pages of references and the contents of the 
text where recent and/or researched information is given. For instance 
(correcting my own 1979 published remarks!) the long-debated 
question of the chicken or the egg, that is as to whether Pieris 
cheiranthi (perhaps as the nominate P. brassicae) or its previously 
recorded South American foodplant, Tropaeolum majus arrived on the 
islands first has now been settled by Allcard & Valletta’s discovery in 
1982 of eggs being laid and larvae feeding on the native endemic 
Brassicaceae, Cvambe strigosa, which grows on wet rocks inside the 
laurel forests. Favouring such a habitat no wonder P. cheiranthi avoids 
the cultivated cabbages! 

The three pages of colour illustrate 32 subjects ranging from localities 
to early stages and adult butterflies. The majority of the adults are not 
shown but all are of course to be found illustrated in Higgins & Riley, A 
field guide to the butterflies of Britain and Europe and similar books. 
Over a dozen are our familiar British species. 

Although published in a Belgian journal this paper is in excellent 
English and deserves to be consulted by all who intend the visit the 
Canary Islands. It would be extremely useful if it were to be reprinted 
as a separate publication and I am sure it will remain the definitive 
account of the butterflies of the Canary Islands for many years to come 

and may we now look forward to someone doing the same 
account for the moths (and _ other 
Orders?) of these islands? 

Brian O.C. Gardiner (225) 

ed Volume 55 ¢ December 1996 281 

Observations on the increase of recorded species of Lepidoptera 
in the Pendle Hill area 

by Edward Sutcliffe 

359 Wheatley Lane Road, Fence, Burnley. 

In December 1939 Alan Brindle published his Lepidoptera of the Pendle 
Hill area, in which he states “the following list of lepidoptera is a 
complete catalogue of all the material which has been collected in the 
district around Pendle Hill for many years past”. 

This account, together with addenda and corrigenda in 1940, 1948 
and 1950 by the same author, is the last significant record for this area. 

Pendle Hill, rising to 1,831 feet above sea level, is situated in the 
north-east corner of Lancashire. The area included in Brindle’s work 
extends to Gisburn and Bolton-by-Bowland in the north, Whalley in the 
west, Burnley and Worsthorne in the south and Elslack and Emmott 
Moor in the east. It will be noted that part of the area covered is within 
the county of Yorkshire. It encompasses the urban areas of Colne, 
Nelson, Burnley and Clitheroe formerly extensively involved in the 
spinning of cotton and associated trades but now, with the demise of 
the former industry, diversified into engineering and other forms of 
commerce. The rural areas are mainly given over to dairy farming in the 
lower regions and sheep farming on the uplands. Geologically the 
carboniferous coal measures outcrop to the south, millstone grit forms 
the bulk of the higher region and the carboniferous limestone series 
outcrops to the north in the Ribblesdale Valley. 

The 1938 list and amendments include 15 species of butterfly: Large 
white Pieris brassicae, Small white P. rapdae, Green-veined white P. napi, 
Clouded yellow Colias croceus, Green hairstreak Callophrys rubi, Small 
copper Lycaena phlaeas, Common blue Polyommatus icarus, Monarch 
Danaus plexippus, Peacock Inachis io, Red admiral Vanessa atalanta, 
Painted lady Cynthia cardui, Small tortoiseshell Aglais urticae, Meadow 
brown Maniola jurtina, Wall brown Lasiommata megera, and Small 
heath Coenonympha pamphilus. The Meadow brown, which is now 
widespread and abundant throughout the area, is described as a rare 
visitor, indeed only two individuals were recorded between 1935 and 
1940. The Common blue is also described as rare, again this is now 
widespread and common, c.100 being observed at a single site in 1995. 

Since 1950 a further eight species of butterfly have been recorded in 
the area and it would be perhaps opportune to examine these in some 
detail at this point. 

282 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society ad 

Orange tip Anthocharis cardamines — This butterfly is now 
widespread and very common throughout the area. It was first 
recorded in the Burnley area in the mid-1970s (Spencer). The 
favourite host plant in north-east Lancashire appears to be garlic 
mustard Alliaria petiolata. 

Large skipper Ochlodes venata — First reported in the Burnley area in 
1984 and again in 1985 and from the Nelson area in 1991 (Stone & 
Sutcliffe). There are now many well-established colonies distributed 
throughout the area. 

Small skipper 7Thymelicus sylvestris — First reported in the Burnley 
area in two distinct colonies in 1992 (Spencer), since which time 
other colonies have been identified. One of the original colonies 
had an estimated population of 1000+ on the 23rd July 1995 
(Spencer). It is interesting to note that the distribution maps in 
books by Emmet and Heath in 1989 and Thomas 1991 both show 
this species absent from north-east Lancashire. 

Comma Polygonia c-album — A single specimen reported from 
Huntroyde, near Burnley, 1950, one photographed in Burnley in 
1991 (Spencer), also in that year there were a number of recordings 
in the Blackburn area. First definite sightings in the Colne and 
Nelson areas occurred in 1994 (Stone & Sutcliffe). In 1995 there was 
a remarkable increase in the number of sightings of this species 
with over 20 individuals being reported and several multiple 
sightings. Again the species is well outside the range on the 
distribution maps provided by Emmett and Heath (1989) and 
Thomas (1991). 

Holly blue Celastrina argiolus — Although it is well documented that 
this species is erratic in its population fluctuations, partially resulting 
from a see-saw effect caused by its relationship with the host 
specific ichneumon Listrodomus nycthemerus, nevertheless there are 
indications that its numbers are increasing in north-east Lancashire. 
In 1991 several sightings in the same area of Nelson were recorded. 
In 1992 they were again recorded in the same area of Nelson plus 
two sightings in different areas of Burnley, one in Higherford and 
one in Clitheroe. There were further reports of a number of 
sightings in 1994 but disappointingly no records for this species in 


a Volume 55 * December 1996 283 

White-letter hairstreak Strymonidia w-album — Photographed in the 
Burnley area in 1984 with two further sightings at Padiham, near 
Burnley. Small colonies also occurred in the Blackburn area during 
the same period, although the present status is not known. 

Camberwell beauty Nymphalis antiopa — Several sightings of this 
impressive migrant were reported in the Burnley and Nelson areas 
during 1995. The heatwave prompted an influx of this species into 
many areas it would not normally reach. 

White admiral Ladoga camilla — A single specimen presented itself 
in the garden of one of the recorders for Nelson Naturalists’ Society 
on 2nd August 1995. This was so far out of its normal range that it 
would be easy to dismiss it as a released specimen. However, an 
influx of the species into Lincolnshire and recordings in the 
Yorkshire area, notably at Wakefield, in mid-July, would cast some 
doubt on this hypothesis. Especially when it is considered that a 
moderate easterly wind during the first few days in August also 
coincided with the arrival of large numbers of Peacock, and a 
Camberwell beauty on the same day as the sightings of the White 

The last period of expansion for the White admiral was 1930-1942 
when it got as far north as Lincolnshire. However, there is evidence 
of further recent expansion in both east and west England. Evidence 
also suggests some correlation with warm Junes and the spread has 
also been attributed to the decline of woodland management — the 
particular shade conditions required by the White admiral are absent 
from well-managed, coppiced woodland, whereas neglected woods 
provide ideal conditions. 

Brimstone Gonepteryx rhamni — This wandering species has now 
been sighted on several occasions in the Pendle area, although we 
have no evidence of breeding in the area. 

The increase in species and also in population levels since the 
Second World War, and particularly during the last 20 years, is 
significant and encouraging. They cannot be explained away by an 
upsurge in interest in entomology in the area. Indeed the reverse would 
seem to apply. Between the turn of the century and the last war many 
active entomologists were in the area recording and collecting 

284 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society oe 

Lepidoptera — Albert Wright, Charlie Baldwin, William Clutton and Alan 
Brindle. Many of their collections can still be seen in various Lancashire 
museums, and the lists and records they produced are far more 
impressive than anything produced in the last 50 years. Also active in 
the area were Rennie and Gordon Woods, keen lepidopterists and 
photographers, whose works went to illustrate several books, including 
some of L.H. Newmans. 

Nor can any improvement in the butterfly diversity of this area be a 
result of habitat improvement. Like most areas the encroachment of 
urban and industrial development into the rural areas has continued 
relentlessly throughout the years. Modern farming has developed apace 
destroying old hay meadows, woodland habitat and waste lands with 
their rich variety of flora. 

I have examined carefully the meteorological records for the area 
over the last 40 years. There are, of course, yearly variations in the 
temperature and rainfall records, but these appear to be random 
fluctuations and there is no consistent increase or decrease in any of 
the records which would indicate a reason for the improvement we 
have noted. 

The only meaningful improvement which could enhance the 
development of lepidoptera is the cleaner air which has resulted from 
the introduction of The Clean Air Act in the late 1950s, and 
subsequent works carried out. The scores of chimneys which once 
belched out their black smoke from Blake’s satanic mills are no more, 
sadly a result of economic decline as much as any act of Parliament. 
Also the domestic effluent from thousands of household chimneys in 
this densely-populated area has ceased to befoul the air around us. 
Where, once-of-a-day, the industrialised valleys viewed from the 
summit of Pendle Hill were lost in a haze of murk, the air is now 
clear. The sulphur dioxide, carbon particles and other contaminates 
which once besmirched every flower, leaf and twig, are now largely 

It has been said that there is no evidence of susceptibility in 
butterflies to sulphur dioxide or other pollutants (Heath ef al., 1984). 
However, the odd distribution of Ringlets Aphantopus hyperantus — 
which misses out large areas in north-west England, the Midlands and 
areas around London — has been noted to be similar to the distribution 
of lichens affected by sulphur dioxide (Ferry ef., 1973; Heath ef al., 
1984). Perhaps, after all, this is a major factor in the improved butterfly 
fauna; if so, long may it continue. Which will be our next new species 

ad Volume 55 

December 1996 285 

— Gatekeeper Pyronia tithonus? Speckled wood Pararge aegaria? 

Ringlet A. hyperantus? 

In addition the following species of moths have been recorded which 
were not included in the list drawn up by Brindle in 1939-1950. 

Ypsolopha sequella 

Agonopteryx applana 
Esperia sulphurella 

Agapeta hamana 


Acleris latifasciana 
Cacoecimorpha pronubana 
Acleris emargana 

Eudonia delunella 
Scoparia subfusca 
Hypsopygia costalis 

Narrow-bordered five spot burnet 
Zygaena lonicerae latomarginata 

Oak hook-tip Drepana binaria 

Buff arches Habrosyne pyritoides 

Juniper carpet Thera juniperata juniperata 
Latticed heath 
Semiothisa clathrata clathrata 
Small autumnal Epirrita filigrammaria 
Rivulet Perizoma affinitata 
V pug Chloroclystis v-ata 
Phoenix Eulithis prunata 
Green pug Chloroclystis rectangulata 

Sallow kitten Furcula furcula 

Svensson’s copper underwing 
Amphipyra berbera svenssoni 
Double lobed Apamea ophiogramma 
Heart and dart 
Agrotis exclamationis exclamationis 
Minor shoulder knot Brachylomia viminalis 
Red line quaker Agrochola lota 
Flame Axylia putris 
Slender brindle Apamea scolopacina 
Least yellow underwing 
Noctua interjecta caliginosa 
Olive Ipimorpha subtusa 

The reasons for these moths not being previously recorded in north- 

east Lancashire are not as obvious as those I have suggested for the 
increase in butterfly species. It is probable that the use of light traps 
(several have been used in the area and operated throughout the last 
seven years) has resulted in identification of species which have been 
im the area, but unrecorded, for many years. Some species, 7e. 
Svensson’s copper underwing, Double lobed, Oak hook-tip, Least 
yellow underwing and the Olive, are shown on the Emmett and Heath 
distribution maps to be unrecorded in the area, and in theory it is 

286 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 2 

possible that these species, and indeed some of the others, are recent 
immigrants as a result of the cleaner atmosphere. Perhaps the most 
interesting of the new moths recorded is the Small autumnal which was 
not included in Alan Creaser’s check list of Macrolepidoptera of 
Lancashire and Cheshire 1981, although it had been recorded in VC 64 
in the adjacent county of Yorkshire. Eleven specimens of this moorland 
species were taken in the light trap of Stanley Stone at Trawden, near 
Colne, in early September 1991. 


Creaser, A. (1981). Macrolepidoptera of Lancashire and Cheshire. L.C.E.S. Liverpool. 

Emmett, A.M. & Heath, J. (1989). Butterflies and Moths of Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland. Harley Books, Colchester. 

Ferry, B., Baddeley, M. & Hawksworth, D. Air pollution and lichens. Athlone Press, 

Heath, J., Pollard, E. & Thomas, J. Atlas of Butterflies in Britain and Ireland. Viking 
Penguin, Harmondsworth. 

Spencer, K.G. Reports on the status and distribution of butterflies in the Burnley area. 

Stone, S. & Sutcliffe, E. Entomology records, Nelson Naturalists. 19090-1995. 

Sutton, S. & Beaumont, H.E. (1989). Butterflies and Moths of Yorkshire. Y.N.U. Doncaster. 

Thomas, J. & Lewington, R. (1991). Butterflies of Britain and Ireland. Dorling Kindersley, 

Uncommon Syrphid found in Conwy, Wales 
by M.O. Hughes (3612) 

‘Elvira’, 1 Woodside Avenue, Kinmel Bay, Conwy, LL18 5ND, Wales. 

In the afternoon of 21st June 1996 I found a male Brachypalpoides 
lenta at Castell Cawr, near Abergele, Conwy, Wales. This is an area of 
mixed coniferous/deciduous woodland and the insect was flying low 
down beside a path. In fact it alighted on my right shoe twice before I 
secured it! This may be a new record for Wales, my only other record 
being a female taken in Delemere Forest, Cheshire on 14th June 1984. 
However, whilst attending a field study seminar at Juniper Hall in 1980 
I distinctly remember one of the other attendees netting a singleton in 
the Dorking, Surrey area and that it was only the second record for 

These are my only records for this species in 34 years of recording 

ae Volume 55 ¢ December 1996 287 

Unusual foodplant: The Painted lady (Cynthia cardui) 
by Alan Cronin 

1 Chrisdory Road, Mile Oak, Portside, Sussex BN41 2WO. 

Don McNamara 

6 Fulham Close, Hillingdon, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB10 OSU. 

On 25th, 26th and 27th July 1996 we visited the Oxfordshire areas of 
Cothill, Dry Sandford, Besselsleigh and skirted the edge of Tubney 
Wood. The landscape could be described as gently undulating, with 
many low-lying wet areas — streams and drainage ditches, ponds and 
marshes around between deciduous woodland and farms. In the woods 
there were some conifers. However, the crop-fields were decidedly dry 
and seemed in urgent need of a good soaking. 

The farming is mainly arable: ley-grass, linseed, maize, lucerne, 
oilseed, barley and wheat were seen although, at Cothill, free-range 
pigs were an interesting feature. Cattle, horses and sheep and various 
poultry were also much in evidence. 

Apart from the usual pierids, vanessidi, satyrs and skippers, there was 
an abundance of Painted ladys (Cynthia cardui) and, in a large field of 
lucerne, a dozen or so Clouded yellows (Colias crocea). We obtained 
two females which hopefully would lay eggs. 

Much time was devoted to searching the nettles and thistles around 
the edges of the crop-fields for larvae of the Red admiral (Vanessa 
atalanta) and Painted lady (C. cardui). 

At Cothill, in a dampish area which contained many plants of 
comfrey (Symphytum officinale), one healthy Painted lady larva was 
found, the give-away “purse” being easy to spot. This is not the first 
time that we have found it on this plant — which is not mentioned in 
P.B.M. Allan’s vade mecum. 

The field of lucerne, between Besselsleigh and Cothill, was sprinkled 
with many species of “weeds” and in several purses of spun-up leaves 
on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) we found larvae of the Painted lady, 
at various stages of growth. However, all the larvae were dead. One 
three-quarters-grown individual had its head and two front legs missing, 
some were limp as if recently vacated by a parasite, others were 
healthy-looking and plump — but definitely dead. Empty purses 
contained frass — and the plants were searched for evidence of removal 
to other quarters, only to find in other purses dead larvae. In some 

288 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 36 

vacated places, which may, however, indicate successful 
metamorphosis, earwigs had moved in. 

Around the margins of the fields were nettles and thistles and 
healthier plants of mugwort abounded — only the thistles were used by 
the Painted lady and nettles by the Red admiral. (Although we suspect 
that some of the tiny larvae on nettle were Painted ladys — time and 
growth will tell.) 3 

In P.B.M. Allan’s book, Larval Foodplants, the diet of the Painted lady 
larva is described as mainly thistles, but also includes stinging nettle 
(Urtica dioica, lesser burdock (Arctium minus), vipers bugloss 
(Echium vulgare), common mallow (Malva sylvestris) and common 
cudweed (Filago germanica), although it does state “. . . and has been 
found on other plants.” 

Two questions are posed by this: one — is this a normal foodplant or 
one upon which “desperate” females have deposited eggs? It seems that 
a vigorous and energetic flier like this insect would have no trouble in 
finding thistles, an abundance of which can be found in this area. 
Two — what killed the larvae? It may have been a variety of causes, 
even poison* from the plant or by chemicals put down on the crops, 
predation or parasitation. The farm manager said that only a 
biodegradable weed-killer was used early in the year to “burn-off 
unwanted weeds so should not affect the caterpillars later on in the 
season. In any case both Red admiral and Painted lady larvae were 
found on the small outcrops of nettles and thistles amongst the lucerne 
— and all of these seemed healthy. 

The species of thistles encountered on the visit were: creeping thistle 
(Cirsium arvense), marsh thistle (C. palustre) or welted thistle (Carduus 
danthoides) and spear thistle (C. vulgare). Painted lady larvae were only 
found on creeping and spear thistles (apart from the comfrey nettle and 

The area is a treasure trove of flora and fauna — moths, too many to 
list here, were abundant, so were rabbits — birdlife was amply 
represented, coots and woodpeckers, amongst others. And three grass 
snakes CNatrix natrix), were an extra bonus. 

We would like to thank Cyril and Jenny Barrett of Cothill for letting 
us Camp On their farm and for sharing our enthusiasm. 

“It may be of interest that all larvae taken at Cothill turned out to be Painted ladys (not 
some being Red admirals) and whilst in captivity, successfully ate the mugwort and “went 
through” without trouble. However, the imagines were smaller than those reared on 

2 Volume 55 * December 1996 289 

Note: In E.B. Ford’s book, Moths, (and in other literature) Cothill is referred to as being in 
Berkshire. We checked with the reference book, Post Office Addresses, and it is listed as 
being in Oxfordshire (Cothill, Abingdon, Oxon OX13... ). Presumably there has been a 
boundary revision. 

Allan, P.B.M. (1979). Larval Foodplants. Watkins and Doncaster. 
Schaur & Thomas (1982). A Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of Britain and Europe. Collins. 

Observations on the Painted lady in Arabia 
by John E. Cooper (2343) 

c/o National Avian Research Centre, PO Box 45553, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. 

The Painted lady butterfly (Vanessa [Cynthia] cardui) is considered to 
be the most widely distributed butterfly in the world, being found on 
virtually every continent (Gay, Kehimkar and Punetha, 1992). Despite 
its wide prevalence, relatively little is known about many aspects of the 
species' biology, in particular its migration. In this short note, I should 
like to report some observations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) 
during March 1990. 

On 16th March, my wife and I were travelling from the small town of 
Hatta to the Emirate of Fujairah and stopped near Masafi. It was a 
warm, sunny day and there was a gentle breeze from the north-west. A 
number of species of butterfly were to be seen, mainly small numbers 
of Pierids, Plain tigers (Danaus chrysippus), Blue pansies (Precis 
orithya) and Painted ladys. While most of these were not going in any 
obvious direction, I soon noticed that the Painted ladys were flying 
south and at a fairly regular rate. Over the next twenty minutes, I 
calculated that one Painted lady per second passed within a few metres 
of me, flying southwards. Further along 
the road, less than two kilometres away, 
this same trend was noticed, but no 
specific observations were made. Three to 
four kilometres from Masafi, only an 
occasional Painted lady was seen and 
there was no evidence of directional 
movement I inferred from these 
observations that what I had seen earlier far X Xe 
was a migration. We 7 


290 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 2 

In their book Butterflies of Oman, the Larsens (1980) discuss 
migration of Vanessa cardui and describe it as “irregular in timing, 
intensity and direction”. They go on to recount a record from Oman 
and stress the need for more data to be collated. This note is 
intended to add to the store of information on the migration of this 

The next observation of some interest was on Friday, 22nd March, 
1996 and occurred near the border town of Mezyad, adjacent to the 
UAE border with Oman. A few hundred metres from the limestone 
mountain called Jebel Hafeet, I observed substantial numbers of Painted 
ladys feeding on the flowers of Rhazya stricta (Family Apocynaceae). 
Over a five minute period, I noted that a small number (more than five 
but fewer than ten) of these butterflies appeared to be inco-ordinated, 
rather like nymphalids that have been feeding on over-ripe fruit in the 
autumn in Europe. Rhazya is a highly poisonous plant, avoided by 
livestock, and one wonders whether the behaviour of these butterflies 
might have been related to ingestion of a toxic substance. It was also 
interesting to note that two Painted lady butterflies, both feeding on 
one plant, had malformed wings — an appearance similar to that seen 
when the wings of captive Lepidoptera do not expand properly 
following emergence. 

One final point concerning the Painted lady is nothing to do with 
Arabia. Why has the generic name of the butterfly been changed from 
Vanessa to Cynthia? No doubt the taxonomists have good reasons for 
such a revision, but it has created difficulties within the Cooper family. 
Our daughter, born in Kenya in 1971, was named Vanessa for a number 
of reasons, not least of all because she had been born in Africa and 
then migrated to England. It is hardly fair to ask her to change her 
name to Cynthia at this late stage, but the clear link with the Painted 
lady butterfly has now gone! 

Gay, T., Kehimkar, I.D. and Punetha, J.C. (1992). Common Butterflies of India. Oxford 
University Press, Bombay. 
Larsen, T., & Larsen, K. (1980). Butterflies of Oman. John Bartholomew and Son, 

Published 20th December 1996 by the Amateur Entomogists’ Society 
(Registered Charity No. 267430), from PO Box 8774, London SW7 5ZG. 

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of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society 


j.B. Garrett. Some observations on the behaviour of the Horrei — Vespa crabro ....... 
R. Parker. Pieris : 

j. Hay. The Gold Bug 

S. Eden. Unwelcon 

R. ees The 
J. Jones. Holida 
S. Eden. A New 
E. Sutcliffe. Ob bse 
Pendle Hill area 

A. Cronin & D. McNamara. Unusual foodplant: The 

Short Communications 
M.O. Hughes. inieresting Ne 

J. Hatto. a arrival of a strange monsier ....... et SE Re eR 

SAAR math se IRF Im Mort h-awect Soamercei 
Pik Pa wR PTGS BELLE G42 : me CS 5 


LE. Cooper. I invertebrate Collection, National Avian Research Cenire, UAE 

L. Plester. In search of the 4fold n@ 2. ee eee 

Be Re es See Re SSS EY gS ee 
A. Cees Bel ng’ wD advaniage*’ ihe Purple hairsieak A‘UCTOUSIA Quercus 
QNhcanrssenc Ginns . \ om 7QQE an 2 onmrmnan mm: Ao A475 
USUI VEUAATS ULES jury US st § 77D U a & A Eee 

I. Danby. A Spanish phenomenon — answers please -__.............------------------------s----- 
N. Robinson. A Mining bee, Andrena humilis, evicting two earwigs from its nest-hole 
G. Ellis. Snail-dwelling wasp. ................ ca lean os ig 
D. Jenkins. Large influx of migrants in southem England -....................-.......-- =e 

F. McCann. G acre ERMC OMINOUS an 

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